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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 21 Booth, Wallace, and Fitzgerald PowerPoint Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 21 Booth, Wallace, and Fitzgerald PowerPoint Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 21 Booth, Wallace, and Fitzgerald PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany PowerPoint ® Presentation to Accompany Chapter 2

3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 22 Blood Circulation, Function, and Composition

4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 23 Learning Outcomes Describe circulation and the purpose of the vascular system. Discuss three types of circulation. List and describe the three layers of blood vessels. Identify and describe the structures and functions of the different types of blood vessels. Upon Completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 24 Learning Outcomes (contd) Locate and name the veins most commonly used for phlebotomy procedures. List the functions of blood. Identify the major components of blood. Describe the major functions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 25 List the different types of white blood cells and give the function of each. Differentiate between serum and plasma. Define hemostasis and describe the basic coagulation process. Describe how ABO and Rh blood types are determined. Learning Outcomes (contd)

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 26 The human vascular system consists of approximately 70,000 miles of blood vessels; this could reach from New York to San Francisco about 24 times!! New York San Francisco Blood vessels, along with the heart, are responsible for the circulation of blood throughout the body.

8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 27 Circulation and the Vascular System Septum divides the heart into a right and left side Has four chambers: Right and left atrium Right and left ventricle Valves allow blood to pass from the atria to the ventricles The pulmonary artery and aorta carry blood away from the heart

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 28 Provides blood supply to the heart Receives oxygenated blood from the aorta into the coronary arteries Coronary veins carry deoxygenated blood to the right atrium Coronary Circulation Click picture for larger view.

10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 29 Coronary Circulation Click to return to previous slide.

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 210 Pulmonary circulation occurs when blood that has been used by the cells of the body is returned to the heart and transported to the lungs for gas exchange. O 2 2 CO Exchange of gases

12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 211 This network of blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood picks up essential nutrients from the digestive tract to deliver to all other cells of the body. Systemic circulation also removes waste products from the body cells. Venous BloodArterial Blood Has a larger concentration of carbon dioxide Pumped by the heart to the lungs Has a larger concentration of oxygen than carbon dioxide Pumped by the heart to the body cells Digestive system

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 212 Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs capillaries O 2 and CO 2 exchange between capillary beds and body tissues. Blood rich in oxygen Blood low in oxygen Blood moves from the vena cava to the right atrium and ventricle for pulmonary circulation. Blood then moves to the left atrium and ventricle and into the aorta for systemic circulation. Pulmonary Circulation Systemic Circulation

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 213 Vena Cava Aorta Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins Arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood toward the heart. The capillaries are exchange vessels located between the arterial and venous systems.

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 214 Apply Your Knowledge Identify the four chambers of the heart. ANSWER: Right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle BRAVO!

16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 215 Apply Your Knowledge What is the purpose of pulmonary circulation? ANSWER: To exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide Good Job!

17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 216 Arteries and veins are comprised of three layers of tissue: Tunica intima Innermost, smooth layer Tunica media Middle, thickest layer Tunica adventitia Outer covering Capillaries comprise only one layer of tissue.

18 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 217 Transport blood away from the heart Carry blood under high pressure Are elastic, muscular, and thick-walled Dilate and constrict, which creates a pulse Appear bright red due to high oxygen levels

19 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 218 Are the smallest blood vessels Provide a link from arterioles to venules All gas exchange occurs at this level Walls are very thin to allow for gas and nutrient exchange

20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 219 Carry deoxygenated blood to the heart Contain one-way valves Store about 65% to 70% of the bodys total blood volume Blood appears darker in color Blood flows in a slow manner

21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 220 At a venipuncture site, a vein will feel bouncy and resilient, while an artery will feel firm and pulsate. In case of an accidental puncturing of an artery, withdraw the needle and apply firm pressure for at least 5 minutes. Instruct the patient to remain still and notify a nurse to assist in hematoma prevention. Artery or Vein?

22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 221 After properly selecting a vein, the phlebotomist must use proper technique and avoid probing around at the site. Accidental puncturing of a nerve could result in a temporary loss of function and constitutes an act of negligence. Selecting a Vein

23 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 222 The most commonly used veins for venipuncture are located in the antecubital fossa. 1st Choice Median cubital vein 2nd Choice Cephalic vein 3rd Choice Basilic vein Which vein is BEST for venipuncture?

24 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 223 Dorsal venous arch Metacarpal plexus Hand Veins When the antecubital veins are not accessible, the hand veins may be used for venipuncture. NOTE: Hand veins are smaller and less anchored. This can be very painful for the patient.

25 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 224 Apply Your Knowledge What are the three layers of tissue that comprise the artery and vein? ANSWER: Tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia Great!

26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 225 Apply Your Knowledge Which type of vessel is the smallest, forming the link between arterioles and venules? ANSWER: Capillaries Bravo!

27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 226 Apply Your Knowledge Which site is the best for performing venipuncture? ANSWER: Median cubital vein GREAT!

28 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 227 LiquidSolid Plasma, which is a straw- colored fluid comprised mostly of water Cellular components, including: -red blood cells -white blood cells -platelets Blood, when allowed to stand, will separate into two components:

29 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 228 Originate in the bone marrow Resemble the shape of a doughnut without a hole (biconcave) Average lifespan is 120 days Normal value = approximately 4.5 to 5 million per cubic millimeter of blood Contains an iron-rich protein molecule called hemoglobin Responsible for carrying oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from every body cell

30 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 229 Normal Hemoglobin Levels Male = 14–18 grams/100 mL of blood Female = 12 – 16 grams/100 mL of blood An abnormally low hemoglobin level and/or decrease in the number of red blood cells is called anemia. Symptoms of Anemia Weakness Headache Pale skin color Difficulty breathing Im just so tired!

31 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 230 Also known as white blood cells Primarily responsible for destroying foreign substances such as pathogens Appear round and white because they lack hemoglobin Normal adult has 5,000 to 10,000 white blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood Types of White Blood Cells GranulocytesAgranulocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Monocytes Lymphocytes

32 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 231 Granulocytes Neutrophils Most numerous of all the WBCs Main warriors against infection (phagocytosis) Eosinophils Present in a very small quantity Ingest and destroy foreign proteins Secrete chemicals to destroy parasites Increase during allergic reactions and parasitic infections Basophils Least common granulocyte Assist with the inflammatory process Release histamine and heparin

33 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 232 Agranulocytes Monocytes Largest in size of all the white blood cells Primary function is phagocytosis Survive for several months Effective against chronic infections Lymphocytes Assist with the immune system Produce antibodies that destroy pathogens Aid in controlling allergic reactions Quantities of each type of WBC can be determined with a blood test known as a differential.

34 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 233 Also known as platelets Smallest of all the cellular components Normal adult has 150,000 to 450,000 per cubic millimeter of blood Average lifespan is 9 to 12 days Prevent blood loss following an injury

35 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 234 Composition of Plasma Water Nutrients Hormones Electrolytes Proteins Waste Protective substances Serum is the liquid portion of clotted blood. Centrifugation is a procedure that separates blood into liquid and cellular components.

36 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 235 Immunocompromised Patients Require extra measures to be taken in order to prevent infection Standard Precautions, hand hygiene and PPE must be used to protect the patient from exposure to harmful organisms Immunocompromised Patients

37 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 236 Apply Your Knowledge What are the two types of white blood cells? ANSWER: Granulocytes and agranulocytes Good Job!

38 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 237 Apply Your Knowledge What is the primary function of thrombocytes or platelets? ANSWER: To prevent blood loss following an injury GREAT!

39 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 238 Following an injury, four events are available to stop the bleeding: Vessels decrease in size to stop bleeding in small vessels Inner torn layer of the vessels releases chemical signals that call platelets to the site of injury Requires the presence of certain clotting factors to form fibrin Blood Vessel Spasm 1 Platelet Plug Formation 2 Blood Clotting 3 Fibrinolysis 4 Begins the repair process

40 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 239 I. Blood vessel spasmII. Platelet plug Formation III. Blood clottingIV. Fibrinolysis

41 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 240 Patients on anticoagulants or those lacking natural clotting ability require close monitoring following venipuncture. Apply manual pressure for a minimum of 3 to 5 minutes to ensure that bleeding has stopped. Lack of Clotting Factors

42 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 241 Apply Your Knowledge Identify the four events necessary to stop blood flow to an injured site. ANSWER: Blood vessel spasm, platelet plug formation, blood clotting, fibrinolysis GOOD JOB!

43 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 242 The blood group system recognizes four blood types: Type A, B, AB, and O They are distinguished from each other in part by their antigens and antibodies. Specific antibodies are found in the serum based on the type of antigen on the surface of the RBC.

44 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 243 Compatibility Chart Blood TypeCan Accept FromCan Donate To A B AB O A, O B, O A, B, AB, O O A, AB B, AB AB O, A, AB, B

45 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 244 The Rh Factor Rh-PositiveRh-Negative Contains the Rh antigenNo Rh antigen Will make antibodies if given Rh-positive blood Agglutination can occur if given Rh- positive blood Clinically, it is very important for a female to know her Rh type if she becomes pregnant.

46 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 245 For all type and cross-match orders, additional identification is usually required. This may include a signature and identification number as well as initialing the tube and requisition form. Always follow your facilitys policy Type and Cross-Match Blood Specimens

47 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 246 Mary is type O and she requires a blood transfusion. Which of the following people can she receive blood from? John (type AB) Harry (type B) Kala (type O) Answer: Kala type O BRAVO!

48 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 247 Chapter 2 Summary The vascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels providing for circulation of blood. Coronary circulation provides blood to the heart, while systemic circulation provides blood to the body. Blood vessel layers include the tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. Arteries, except the pulmonary artery, carry blood to the body. Veins, except the pulmonary vein, carries blood back to the heart.

49 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 248 Chapter 2 Summary (contd) The three veins most commonly used for phlebotomy are located in the antecubital fossa. Blood is responsible for transporting oxygen, fluids, hormones, and antibodies and for eliminating waste materials. The major components of blood include the formed elements and plasma. RBCs transport oxygen and carbon dioxide; WBCs destroy foreign invaders.

50 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 249 Chapter 2 Summary (contd) WBCs include granulocytes and agranulocytes. Plasma is the liquid portion of unclotted blood. Serum is the liquid portion of clotted blood. Hemostasis includes four stages: blood vessel spasm, platelet plug formation, blood clotting, and fibrinolysis. ABO and Rh types are determined by the antigen found on the RBCs.

51 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Chapter 250 END OF CHAPTER 2 Logic is the anatomy of thought. --John Locke


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