Presentation on theme: "Principles of Pharmacology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Principles of Pharmacology Chapter 50Principles of PharmacologyPowerPoint® presentation to accompany:Medical AssistingThird EditionBooth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson
2 Learning Outcomes 50.1 Describe the five categories of pharmacology. 50.2 Differentiate between chemical, generic, and trade names for drugs.50.3 Describe the major drug categories.50.4 List the main sources of drug information.
3 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 50.5 Contrast over-the-counter and prescription drugs.50.6 Compare the five schedules of controlled substances.50.7 Describe how to register a physician with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) for permission to administer, dispense, and prescribe controlled drugs.
4 Learning Outcomes (cont.) Describe how to telephone a medication refill.Describe how vaccines work in the immune system.50.10 Identify patient education topics related to the use of nonprescription and prescription drugs.
5 Introduction Pharmacology – science or study of drugs Medication errors can result in injury or deathMedical assistantKnowledge of the foundations of pharmacologyUnderstand role of drugs in ambulatory medical facilities
6 Medical Assistant’s Role in Pharmacology Prescription drugs – physician’s order required to dispense and administerOTC drugs – purchased by patient for self-treatmentYou shouldBe sure the physician is aware of all medications the patient is takingAsk patients about use of alcohol and recreational drugsProvide patient education
7 Medical Assistant’s Role in Pharmacology (cont.) Administration of drugsCheck state regulations scope of practiceUnderstand pharmacologic principlesTranslate prescriptionsAnswer basic patient questionsAdhere to legal requirementsKeep accurate records
8 Drugs and Pharmacology Drug – chemical compound used to prevent, diagnose, or treat diseasePharmacognosy – study of characteristics of natural drugs and their sourcesPharmacodynamics – study of what drugs do to the body
9 Drugs and Pharmacology (cont.) Pharmacokinetics – study of what the body does to drugsPharmacotherapeutics – study of how drugs are used to treat diseaseToxicology – study of poisons or poisonous effects of drugs
10 Drugs and Pharmacology (cont.) Prescribe – physician gives a patient a prescription to be filled by a pharmacistAdminister – give a drug by injection, mouth, or other route that introduces it into the bodyDispense – health-care professional distributes the drug, in a properly labeled container, to the patient for whom it is prescribed
11 Foxglove is used to make digitoxin Sources of DrugsNatural productsPlantsAnimalsMineralsBacteria and fungiChemical development of natural productsSynthesis of chemical makeup of a drugManipulation of genetic informationFoxglove is used to make digitoxin
12 Apply Your Knowledge Impressive! What is the role of the medical assistant in pharmacology?ANSWER: The medical assistant should be sure the physician is aware of all medications the patient is taking, including OTC medications; ask patients about use of alcohol and recreational drugs; and provide patient education. If the scope of practice permits, the medical assistant may also be responsible for administering some medications.Impressive!
13 Apply Your Knowledge Impressive! Matching: ANSWER: ___ Study of poisons A. Pharmacokinetics___ Study of what the body does to drugs B. Pharmacognosy___ Used to prevent, diagnose, or treat disease C. Toxicology___ Study of what drugs do to the body D. Pharmacotherapeutics___ Study of how drugs are used to treat disease E. Pharmacodynamics___ Study of characteristics of natural drug F. Drugs and their sourcesANSWER:CAFEDBImpressive!
14 PharmacodynamicsMechanism of action of a drug to produce a therapeutic effectInteraction between drug and target cells and body’s response to the interaction
15 Pharmacokinetics What the body does to a drug Absorption Distribution Conversion of a drug into a form the body can useAllows the drug to enter the blood and tissuesRate and extent of absorption depend onRoute of administrationCharacteristics of the drugDistributionTransportation of a drug from site of administration to site of action
16 Pharmacokinetics (cont.) MetabolismDrug molecules are transformed into metabolitesUsually in liver, some in kidneysAffected by age, genetic makeup, and characteristics of drugExcretionManner in which a drug is eliminated from the bodyMost via urine
17 Apply Your Knowledge Very Good! What is the difference between pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics?ANSWER: Pharmacodynamics is the way a drug affects the body to produce its effect. It is the interaction between the drug and cells and the body's response to the interaction. Pharmacokinetics is what the body does to the drug and includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the drug.Very Good!
18 Pharmacotherapeutics Clinical pharmacologyDrug namesGeneric – official nameInternational nonproprietary nameChemical nameTrade – brand or proprietary nameGeneric and trade names used most often
19 Pharmacotherapeutics (cont.) Drug categoriesAction on the bodyGeneral therapeutic effectBody system affectedIndication and labelingIndication – reason(s) for using a drugMust be approved by FDA to be part of labelingOff-label use
20 Pharmacotherapeutics (cont.) SafetyAdverse reaction to drugInteraction with another medicationBe alert to patient complaints after starting a new drugEfficacy – drug is working as expected
21 Pharmacotherapeutics (cont.) If a patient complains a drug is not workingThe patient may not understand how the drug worksDosage may need to be adjustedTherapeutic level may not have been reachedWrong drug may have been prescribedSome drugs work better for one patient than anotherSome forms of drugs work better
22 Pharmacotherapeutics: Kinds of Therapy Acute – improve a life-threatening or serious conditionEmpiric – given before test results are availableMaintenance – maintain healthPalliative – reduce severity of a condition or painProphylactic – prevent diseaseReplacement – provide chemicals a patient lacksSupportive – for a condition other than the primary diseaseSupplemental – avoid a deficiency
23 Toxicology Study of poisonous effects of drugs Patient education Adverse effectsDrug interactionsPatient educationInform physician of any adverse effectsDiscuss concerns with physician or pharmacist
24 Apply Your Knowledge Correct ! Mr. Anderson is complaining that the new medication does not seem to be working. What may be the reason for this?ANSWER: Mr. Anderson may not understand how the drug works. His dosage may need to be adjusted, or the therapeutic level may not have been reached. The wrong drug may have been prescribed for him, or this particular drug may not work for as well for him as for another patient. He may need the medication in a different form.Correct !
25 Apply Your Knowledge Correct ! Toxicology includes which of these? Poisons and poisonous effects of drugsExcretion of drugsAdverse effects of drugsDrug interactionsMetabolism of drugsANSWER:Correct !
26 Sources of Drug Information Sources must be up-to-datePDRInformation provided by pharmaceutical companiesInformation closely resembles package insertPublished annuallyDrug Evaluations – published annually by the AMA
27 Sources of Drug Information USP/NFOfficial source of drug standardsPublished about every 5 yearsAHFS – published by the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists
28 The FDA Regulatory Function New drugsClinical trialsSafetyEfficacyDrug manufacturingIdentityStrengthPurityQualityOTC drugsPrescription drugsPregnancy categoriesABCDX
29 The FDA Regulatory Function (cont.) Controlled substancesDrugs categorized as potentially dangerous and addictiveStrictly regulated by federal lawsComprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act (1970)Created the DEAStrengthened drug enforcement authoritySchedules – based on abuse potential
30 The FDA Regulatory Function (cont.) ScheduleAbuse PotentialExampleIHighHeroinIIMorphineIIILower than II (moderate dependence)ButabarbitalIVLower than III (limited dependence)DiazepamVLower than IV (very limited dependence)Antidiarrheals
31 The FDA Regulatory Function (cont.) Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act (1970)Controlled substance labelingDoctor registrationOrdering controlled substancesDrug securityRecord keepingDispensing recordsInventory recordsDisposal of drugs
32 The FDA Regulatory Function (cont.) Writing prescriptions – parts of a prescriptionSuperscriptionPatient informationInscriptionName of the drugAmount of drug per doseSubscription – directions to the pharmacistSignature – patient instructions
33 The FDA Regulatory Function (cont.) Prescription for a Single Medication
34 The FDA Regulatory Function (cont.) Prescription for Multiple Medications
35 The FDA Regulatory Function (cont.) Writing prescriptionsKeep prescription blanks secureTelephone prescriptionsOnly at request of the physicianFollow facility policyDocument carefully
36 Apply Your Knowledge Correct! Which of the following sources of drug information is most like the package insert?AHFS B. PDR C. USP/NF D. Drug EvaluationsANSWER:Correct!Match___ Contains the patient information A. Subscription___ Name of the drug and dosage B. Signature___ Instructions to the pharmacist C. Superscription___ Patient instructions D. InscriptionANSWER:CDAB
37 Vaccines Special preparations made from microorganisms Administered to produce reduced sensitivity to or increased immunity to an infectious diseaseBody creates antibodies in response to an antigen (vaccine)
38 Vaccines: Antibody Formation Antigen enters bodyWhite cells produce antibodiesAntibodies combine with antigens to neutralize themThis arrests or prevents reaction or diseaseVaccines stimulate antibody formation and reduce symptoms if patient is exposed to disease
39 Vaccines: Immunizations Schedule for immunizations for children up to age 16 yearsPre-exposure immunizationsPost-exposure immunizations – antiserum or antitoxin that contains antibodies
40 Vaccines: Immunizations (cont.) Medical assistant should be familiar withIndicationsContraindicationsDosagesAdministration routesPotential adverse effectsMethods of storing and handling
41 Apply Your Knowledge Very Good! Why are vaccines given to patients? ANSWER: Vaccines are administered to a person to produce reduced sensitivity to or increase immunity to an infectious disease.Very Good!
42 Patient Instruction on Medications Medical assistant role is importantOTC drugsShould not be used to avoid medical careMay not produce enough therapeutic benefitMay be dangerous in combination with other substances or drugsMay mask symptoms or aggravate a problem
43 Patient Instruction on Medications (cont.) Prescription drugsInform patient about special considerations and drug safety precautionsEncourage patient toMaintain a complete list of medicationsReport adverse reactionsPatient compliance
44 Patient Instruction on Medications (cont.) To prevent medication errors, be sure patient understands prescriptionHow and when to take the medicationAppropriate languageDemonstrate if necessaryReview warnings about the medication
45 Nice Job! Apply Your Knowledge Mrs. Del Rosario tells you she does not take any medication when you are taking her history. When you question her further, she says she takes an OTC pain medication occasionally and routinely take several herbal supplements. What should you tell her?ANSWER: You should tell her it is important to report all medications, including OTC drugs and herbal and other supplements, to the physician and that they may be dangerous in combination with other substances or drugs or may mask symptoms or aggravate a problem.Nice Job!
46 In Summary Pharmacology – study of drugs Drug classifications based on actionImmunizations provide immunity to specific diseasesMedical assistantInstruct patients aboutSpecific drugsRequired safety precautionsPromote patient compliance
47 End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 50It is easy to get a thousand prescriptions but hard to get one single remedy. ~Chinese Proverb