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Externalities from Autos

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1 Externalities from Autos
Chapter 10 Externalities from Autos McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Introduction Axiom 3: Externalities cause inefficiency
Solution: Internalize the externalities with pricing (taxes) Automobile externalities: congestion, environmental damage, collisions 10-2

3 10-3

4 10-4

5 10-5

6 Congestion Nationwide cost of congestion Modeling congestion
Typical commuter spent 47 hours per year in traffic Extra gasoline and diesel fuel = $5 billion Sum of time and fuel cost = $63 billion (5 times amount in 1982) Modeling congestion Commute distance = 10 miles Monetary Cost = $0.20 per mile Time cost = opportunity cost of $0.10 per mile 10-6

7 Column D: Increase in time per vehicle
Column C: Private trip cost = $2 monetary cost + $0.10 per minute • trip time Column B: Trip time increases with volume as drivers slow for safe distances Column D: Increase in time per vehicle Column E: Increase in total travel time = D • vehicles Column F: External trip cost = E • $0.10 Column G: Social trip cost = C + F 10-7

8 10-8

9 Benefits and Costs of the Congestion Tax
Benefits: Decrease in trip time from reduced volume; Reduction of other taxes Cost: Tax for drivers; Lost consumer surplus for former drivers 10-9

10 Congestion Taxes and Urban Growth
Will the imposition of a congestion tax cause the city to grow or shrink? Congestion tax improves efficiency of urban economy Consider two-city region with fixed population 10-10

11 10-11

12 10-12

13 Practicalities of Congestion Taxes
Estimates of Congestion Taxes San Francisco: $0.03 to $0.05 (off peak); $0.17 to $0.65 (peak) Minneapolis: average of $0.09; up to $0.21 on most congested routes Los Angeles: $0.15 average for peak Implementing the Congestion Tax Vehicle identification system (VIS) allows tracking and billing Singapore: $2 for central zone; Electronic pricing for variable charges Toronto: Fees on Express Toll Road depend on time of day 10-13

14 A Congestion Tax Reduces Traffic Volume by
1. Modal substitution: switch to carpool, transit 2. Time of travel: switch to off-peak travel 3. Travel route: switch to less congested route 4. Location choices: change residence or workplace, cutting travel distance 10-14

15 HOV and HOT Lanes HOV: high-occupancy vehicle lane for carpools and buses HOT: high occupancy or toll; pay to use HOV lanes California HOT lanes: Toll varies with traffic volume Responses Modal substitution: switch to transit, carpool Time of travel: Switch to off-peak travel Change routes Combine trips 10-15

16 Alternative to a Congestion Tax: Gasoline Tax
Encourages modal substitution (1) and location choices (4) Does not affect time of travel (2) or route (3) Gasoline tax applies to driving on uncongested road 10-16

17 Alternative to Congestion Tax: Transit Subsidy
Idea is to match underpricing of car travel with underpricing of mass transit Encourages modal substitution (1) Does not affect time of travel (2), route (3), location choice (4) Problems Inelastic demand for mass transit; zero price increases ridership by 1/3 Only a fraction of new riders are diverted auto drivers 10-17

18 Alternative to a Congestion Tax: Eliminate Parking Subsidy
Subsidies cut drive-alone cost and increase number of cars by 19% (Shoup) Eliminate subsidies shifts auto demand to left, decreasing volume Evidence of responsiveness Ottawa pricing decreased drivers by 23% LA pricing decreased solo drivers by 44% 10-18

19 Road Capacity Decision
How wide a road to build? Widen if Congestion Tax Revenue > Road Cost 10-19

20 10-20

21 Step 1: Two-Lane Road 10-21

22 Step 2: Four-Lane Road 10-22

23 10-23

24 Capacity Expansion and Latent Demand
Wider road has lower time cost and larger quantity demanded Figure 10-6: Double width decreases trip cost from $3.60 (k) to $3.00 (f) When capacity doubles, why not go from point k to point m? Law of demand: Increase in volume partly offsets cost savings from wider road 10-24

25 Who Pays for Roads? Use fees for autos and trucks: gas, oil, auto parts  Revenue from fees no longer cover cost of roads and highways Urban road users come closer to covering costs 10-25

26 Autos and Air Pollution
Pollution and Greenhouse Gases Pollutants: VOC, CO, NOx, SO2 generate smog and particulates Transport responsible for 2/3 of CO, 1/2 of VOC, 2/5 of NOx Poor air quality exacerbates respiratory problems & causes premature death Greenhouse gases from automobiles Internalizing pollution externalities Economic approach: Tax = marginal external cost Monitoring device allows direct charge for emissions One-time pollution tax depends on expected emissions, but not mileage 10-26

27 10-27

28 Greenhouse Gases and a Carbon Tax
Carbon tax: External cost per ton of carbon = $25 to $100 Carbon tax of $50 means gasoline tax = $0.13 per gallon Extend Figure 10-7: Shift supply curve upward by $0.13 10-28

29 Motor Vehicle Accidents
Cost of MV Accidents Annual cost in US: 3.1 million injuries, 40,000 deaths, $300 billion External cost of collisions = 4.4 cents per mile (vs. 10 cents per mile for fuel) Accidents and Congestion Parry: $5 billion per year lost from accident delays Quick response policies: cruising tow trucks, loop detectors, helicopters 10-29

30 Vehicle Safety Policies: Bikers Beware
Vehicle Safety Act of 1966: Mandated safety features Seat-belt and other safety laws didn’t have expected effect Small reduction in death rates Higher collision rates Increased injury and death rates for pedestrians and bicyclists 10-30

31 10-31

32 Accident Costs and VMT Tax
Impose per-mile tax = Marginal external cost from accidents Figure 10-9: Efficiency Gains from VMT Tax Perfectly Differentiated: Gain = 0.38 cents per mile driven = $9.4 billion per yea 10-32

33 10-33

34 Automobiles and Poverty
Recall spatial mismatch discussion from neighborhood chapter Access to a car Urban low-income families: 27% don’t own a car Blacks in central cities: 45% don’t have access to a car Importance of a car Switch from mass transit saves 19 minutes each day and expands search area Car owners are more likely to complete job training program and get a job 10-34

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