2Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: Understand the basic requirements for controlling operating costs.Define quality from the perspective of an operations manager.List the eight common dimensions of design quality.Explain the concept of quality assurance.Explain the concept of total quality management (TQM).
3Learning Objectives (cont’d) After studying this chapter, you will be able to:Define the following terms: continuous improvement, kaizen, six sigma, lean manufacturing, and quality at the source.Describe the ISO 9000, ISO 14000, and the zero-defects approaches to quality.Identify and define the two major types of quality control.Recount the major reasons for carrying inventories.
4Learning Objectives (cont’d) After studying this chapter, you will be able to:Explain the concept of just-in-time (JIT) inventory.Describe the ABC classification system for managing inventories.Summarize the economic order quantity (EOQ) concept.Describe the basic purposes of material requirements planning (MRP).
5Effective Operating Systems Two aspects: design and controlEfficient operation includes:Monitoring the system processesAssurance of qualityManagement of inventoriesGood operations control can be a substitute for resources.Effective inventory control can reduce investment costs in inventories.
6Operating CostsSource: N. Gaither, Production and Operations Management (Fort Worth: Dryden Press, 1980).Figure 20.1
7Controlling Operations Cost Variable overhead expensesExpenses that change in proportion to the level of production or service.Fixed overheadExpenses that do not change appreciably with fluctuations in the level of production or service.
8Dimensions of Design Quality Source: Richard B. Chase, F. Robert Jacobs, and Nicholas J. Aquilano, Operations Management for Competitive Advantage, 11th ed. (Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin, 2006), p. 322.Figure 20.2
9Quality ManagementFor the operations manager, quality is determined in relation to the specifications or standards set in the design stages—the degree or grade of excellence specified.The quality of an organization’s goods and services can affect the organization in many ways.Loss of businessLiabilityCostsProductivityProductivity and quality are often closely related.
10Customer Response Programs Develop a new attitude toward customers.Reduce management layers so that managers are in contact with customers.Link quality and information systems to customer needs and problems.Train employees in customer responsiveness.Integrate customer responsiveness throughout the entire distribution channel.Use customer responsiveness as a marketing tool.
12Total Quality Management Essential steps:Find out what customers want.Design a product or service that will meet (or exceed) what customers want.Design a production process that facilitates doing the job right the first time.Keep track of results, and use those results to guide improvement in the system.Extend these concepts to suppliers and to distribution.
14Implementing TQM Demonstrate top-down commitment and involvement-push. Set tough improvement goals, not just stretch goals.Provide appropriate training, resources, and human resource backup.Determine critical measurement factors; benchmark and track progress.Spread success stories, especially those about favorable benchmarking; always share financial progress reports.Identify the costs of quality and routes to improvement; prove the case that quality costs decline with quality progress.
15Implementing TQM (cont’d) Rely on teamwork, involvement, and all-level leadership.Respect the “gurus,” but tailor every initiative for a good local fit.Allow time to see progress, analyze the system’s operation, reward contributions, and make needed adjustments.Finally, recognize that the key internal task is a culture change and the key external task is a new set of relationships with customers and suppliers.
16Barriers to Adopting TQM A lack of consistency of purpose on the part of management.An emphasis on short-term profits.An inability to modify personnel review systems.Mobility of management (job hopping).Lack of commitment to training and failure to instill leadership that is change oriented.Excessive costs.
17Quality Improvement Approaches Continuous improvementRefers to an ongoing effort to make improvements in every part of the organization relative to all of its products and services.Kaizen“Good change”; continuous and relentless improvement; views employees as most valuable asset.Quality at the sourcePhilosophy of making each employee responsible for the quality of his or her own work.
18Quality Improvement Approaches (cont’d) Lean manufacturingFocuses on identifying and eliminating waste and non-value-added activities.Six sigmaBoth a precise set of statistical tools and a rallying cry for continuous improvement, driven by “what does the customer want in the way of quality?”
19Quality Improvement Approaches (cont’d) lean six sigmaA combination of lean methods and six sigma; draws on the philosophies, principles, and tools of both approaches. Goal is growth and not just cost-cutting.ReengineeringSearching for and implementing radical change in business processes to achieve breakthroughs in costs, speed, productivity, and service.
20Lean Six Sigma Incorporates the Key Methods, Tools, and Techniques of Its Predecessors Figure 20.5
21Other Quality Standards ISO 9000A set of quality standards for international business.ISO 14000Addition to the ISO 9000 to control the impact of an organization’s activities and outputs on the environment.This certification requires compliance in four organizational areas:Implementation of an environmental management system.Assurance that procedures are in place to maintain compliance with laws and regulations.Commitment to continual improvement.Commitment to waste minimization and prevention of pollution.
22Other Quality Standards (cont’d) Zero defects programIncreasing quality by increasing everyone’s impact on quality.Characteristics of successful zero-defects programs:Extensive communication regarding the importance of quality.Organization-wide recognition for high-quality work.Quality problem identification by employees.Employee participation in goal setting.
23Malcolm Balridge National Quality Award Recognition of U.S. companies’ achievements in quality.Purpose of the award is to encourage efforts to improve quality and to recognize the quality achievements of U.S. companies.A maximum of two awards may be given annually in each of five categories:Manufacturing.Service.Small business (500 or less employees).Education.Health care.Bush signed legislation that expands the Baldrige Award to include nonprofit and government organizations.
24Types of Quality Control Product quality controlRelates to inputs or outputs of the system.Used to evaluate quality of a batch of existing products or services.Process controlRelates to equipment and processes used during the production process.Used to monitor quality while the product or service is being produced.Acceptance samplingStatistical method of predicting quality through inspection of a batch or large group of products.
25Acceptance Sampling Used for one of the following reasons: The potential losses or costs of passing defective items are not great relative to the cost of inspection; for example, it would not be appropriate to inspect every match produced by a match factory.Inspection of some items requires destruction of the product being tested, as is the case when testing flash bulbs.Sampling usually produces results more rapidly than does a census.
26Process Control ChartTime-based graphic display that shows whether a machine or a process is producing items that meet preestablished specifications.Mean charts (also called X-charts ) monitor the mean or average value of some characteristic (dimension, weight, etc.) of the items produced by a machine or process.Range charts (also called R-charts ) monitor the range of variability of some characteristic (dimension, weight, etc.) of the items produced by a machine or process.
28Inventory ControlInventories are generally classified into one of three categories, depending on their location within the operating system: (1) raw material, (2) in process, or (3) finished goods.Inventories add flexibility and allow the organization to:Purchase, produce, and ship in economic lot sizes rather than in small jobs.Produce on a smooth, continuous basis even if the demand for the finished product or raw material fluctuates.Prevent major problems when forecasts of demand are in error or when unforeseen slowdowns or stoppages in supply or production occur.
29Just-in-Time Inventory Control Source: N. Gaither, Production and Operations Management (Fort Worth: Dryden Press, 1992).Figure 20.7
30Tracking Inventory Bar-code technology Physical Inventory A computer program recognizes the information contained in the bar code and automatically adds or subtracts the item from inventory.Physical InventoryCounting the number of units of inventory a company holds in stock.
31Independent versus Dependent Demand Items Independent demand itemsFinished goods ready to be shipped out or sold.Dependent demand itemsSubassembly or component parts used to make a finished product; their demand is based on the number of finished products being produced.
32ABC Classification System Method of managing inventories based on their total value.ABC method can be computerized and categories can be monitored or changed with greater skill and accuracy.Computerizing the operation and control of the classification system brings power to the ordering cycles and stock control.
34Safety StocksInventory maintained to accommodate unexpected changes in demand and supply and allow for variations in delivery time.The cost of a stock-out of the item is often difficult to estimate.
35The Order QuantityThe optimal number of units to order, referred to as the economic order quantity (EOQ), is determined by the point at which ordering costs equal carrying costs, or where total cost (ordering costs plus carrying costs) is at a minimum.Ordering costsIncludes the cost of preparing the order, shipping costs, and setup costs etc.Carrying costsIncludes storage costs, insurance, taxes, obsolescence, and the opportunity costs of the money invested in the inventory.
36Potential Advantages of Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Source: From James B. Dilworth, Production and Operations Management 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, Reprinted with permission of the author.Figure 20.9