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Chapter9Chapter9 PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook © Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004. All rights reserved. MotivationMotivation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter9Chapter9 PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook © Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004. All rights reserved. MotivationMotivation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter9Chapter9 PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook © Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004. All rights reserved. MotivationMotivation

2 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–2 Learning Objectives After studying the chapter, you should be able to:After studying the chapter, you should be able to: Explain what motivation is and why managers need to be concerned about it. Explain what motivation is and why managers need to be concerned about it. Describe from the perspectives of expectancy theory and equity theory what managers should do to have a highly motivated workforce. Describe from the perspectives of expectancy theory and equity theory what managers should do to have a highly motivated workforce. Explain how goals and needs motivate people and what kinds of goals are especially likely to result in high performance. Explain how goals and needs motivate people and what kinds of goals are especially likely to result in high performance.

3 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–3 Learning Objectives (contd) Identify the motivation lessons that managers can learn from operant conditioning theory and social learning theory. Identify the motivation lessons that managers can learn from operant conditioning theory and social learning theory. Explain why and how managers can use pay as a major motivation tool. Explain why and how managers can use pay as a major motivation tool.

4 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–4 The Nature of Motivation MotivationMotivation The psychological forces acting on an individual that determine: The psychological forces acting on an individual that determine: Directionpossible behaviors the individual could engage in.Directionpossible behaviors the individual could engage in. Efforthow hard the individual will work.Efforthow hard the individual will work. Persistencewhether the individual will keep trying or give up.Persistencewhether the individual will keep trying or give up. Explains why people behave the way they do in organizations. Explains why people behave the way they do in organizations.

5 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–5 The Nature of Motivation (contd) Intrinsically Motivated BehaviorIntrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed for its own sake. Behavior that is performed for its own sake. The source of the motivation that comes from actually engaging in the behavior.The source of the motivation that comes from actually engaging in the behavior. The sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itselfThe sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itself

6 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–6 The Nature of Motivation (contd) Extrinsically Motivated BehaviorExtrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. The source of the motivation is the consequences of the behavior and not the behavior itself.The source of the motivation is the consequences of the behavior and not the behavior itself.

7 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–7 Sources of Motivation Nature of the Organization Personal Characteristics Nature of the Job Individual Motivation

8 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–8 Outcomes and Inputs OutcomeOutcome Anything a person gets from a job or an organization: Anything a person gets from a job or an organization: Pay, job security, autonomy, accomplishment.Pay, job security, autonomy, accomplishment. InputInput Anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization: Anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization: Time, effort, skills, knowledge, work behaviors.Time, effort, skills, knowledge, work behaviors.

9 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–9 The Motivation Equation Figure 9.1

10 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–10 Expectancy Theory Motivation will be high when workers believe:Motivation will be high when workers believe: High levels of effort will lead to high performance. High levels of effort will lead to high performance. High performance will lead to the attainment of desired outcomes. High performance will lead to the attainment of desired outcomes. Major Factors of MotivationMajor Factors of Motivation Expectancythe belief that effort (input) will result in a certain level of performance. Expectancythe belief that effort (input) will result in a certain level of performance. Instrumentalitythe belief that performance results in the attainment of outcomes. Instrumentalitythe belief that performance results in the attainment of outcomes. Valencehow desirable each of the available outcomes from the job is to a person. Valencehow desirable each of the available outcomes from the job is to a person.

11 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–11 Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence Figure 9.2

12 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–12 Expectancy Theory in Practice Expectancy: Effort will result in a level of performance. Expectancy: Effort will result in a level of performance. Employees will work work hard if they believe they can attain high performanceorganizations must provide the resources that support performance.Employees will work work hard if they believe they can attain high performanceorganizations must provide the resources that support performance. Instrumentality: Performance leads to outcomes. Instrumentality: Performance leads to outcomes. Workers are only motivated if they think performance leads to an outcomemanagers must link performance to outcomes.Workers are only motivated if they think performance leads to an outcomemanagers must link performance to outcomes.

13 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–13 Expectancy Theory in Practice Valence: How desirable an outcome is to a person. Valence: How desirable an outcome is to a person. Workers have preferences for outcomes managers must determine which outcomes are valued.Workers have preferences for outcomes managers must determine which outcomes are valued.

14 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–14 Expectancy and Motivation Motivation is highest when expectancy, instrumentality, and valence levels are high.Motivation is highest when expectancy, instrumentality, and valence levels are high. If one of the values is low, motivation will be low: If one of the values is low, motivation will be low: Workers do not believe they can perform well.Workers do not believe they can perform well. Workers do not believe that performance and rewards are closely linked.Workers do not believe that performance and rewards are closely linked. Workers do not value the rewards offered for performance.Workers do not value the rewards offered for performance.

15 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–15 Expectancy Theory Figure 9.3

16 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–16 Need Theories NeedNeed A requirement for survival and well-being. A requirement for survival and well-being. Need TheoriesNeed Theories Theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs. Theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs. Basis premise is that people are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs. Basis premise is that people are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs. Managers must determine what needs a worker wants satisfied and ensure that a person receives the outcomes when performing well.Managers must determine what needs a worker wants satisfied and ensure that a person receives the outcomes when performing well.

17 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–17 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Table 9.1 Self-actualizationSelf-actualization Realize ones full potential full potential Realize ones full potential full potential Use abilities to the fullest Use abilities to the fullest EsteemEsteem Feel good about oneself Feel good about oneself Promotions and recognition and recognitionPromotions BelongingnessBelongingnessSocial interaction, love Social Interpersonal relations, parties Interpersonal SafetySafety Security, stability Job security, health insurance Job security, health insurance PhysiologicalPhysiological Food, water, shelter shelter Basic pay level to buy items Basic pay level to buy items NeedsDescriptionExamples Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs

18 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–18 Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory Focuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation and job satisfaction, and those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction.Focuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation and job satisfaction, and those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction. Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itselfautonomy, responsibility, interesting work. Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itselfautonomy, responsibility, interesting work. Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context of the workcomfortable work environment, pay, job security. Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context of the workcomfortable work environment, pay, job security. Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction.Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction.

19 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–19 McClellands Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power Need for AchievementNeed for Achievement A strong need to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence. A strong need to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence. Need for AffiliationNeed for Affiliation A concern for good interpersonal relations, being liked, and getting along. A concern for good interpersonal relations, being liked, and getting along. Need for PowerNeed for Power A desire to control or influence others. A desire to control or influence others.

20 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–20 Adams Equity Theory Focuses on peoples perceptions of the fairness (or lack of fairness) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs.Focuses on peoples perceptions of the fairness (or lack of fairness) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs. A relative outcome to input ratio comparison to oneself or to another person (referent) perceived as similar to oneself. A relative outcome to input ratio comparison to oneself or to another person (referent) perceived as similar to oneself. Equity exists when a person perceives that their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the referents ratio. Equity exists when a person perceives that their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the referents ratio. If the referent receives more outcomes, they should also give more inputs to achieve equity.If the referent receives more outcomes, they should also give more inputs to achieve equity.

21 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–21 Equity Theory Table 9.2 Condition Person ReferentExample EquityEquity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Worker contributes more inputs but also gets more outputs than referent Worker contributes more inputs but also gets more outputs than referent Underpayment Equity Underpayment Equity Outcomes < Outcomes Inputs Outcomes < Outcomes Inputs Worker contributes more inputs but also gets the same outputs as referent Worker contributes more inputs but also gets the same outputs as referent OverpaymentEquityOverpaymentEquity Outcomes > Outcomes Inputs Inputs Outcomes > Outcomes Inputs Inputs Worker contributes same inputs but also gets more outputs than referent Worker contributes same inputs but also gets more outputs than referent

22 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–22 Equity Theory (contd) Inequity exists when workers outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent.Inequity exists when workers outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent. Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the referent. Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the referent. Workers feel they are not getting the outcomes they should for their inputs.Workers feel they are not getting the outcomes they should for their inputs. Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the referent. Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the referent. Workers feel they are getting more outcomes than they should for their inputs.Workers feel they are getting more outcomes than they should for their inputs.

23 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–23 Equity Theory (contd) Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in workers causing them to attempt to restore equity.Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in workers causing them to attempt to restore equity. In underpayment, workers may reduce input levels to correct (rebalance) the ratio or seek a raise. In underpayment, workers may reduce input levels to correct (rebalance) the ratio or seek a raise. In overpayment, workers may change the referent person and readjust their ratio perception. In overpayment, workers may change the referent person and readjust their ratio perception. If inequity persists, workers will often choose leave the organization. If inequity persists, workers will often choose leave the organization.

24 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–24 Goal Setting Theory Focuses on identifying the types of goals that are effective in producing high levels of motivation and explaining why goals have these effects.Focuses on identifying the types of goals that are effective in producing high levels of motivation and explaining why goals have these effects. Considers how managers can ensure that workers focus their inputs (efforts) in the direction of high performance and the achievement of organizational goals.Considers how managers can ensure that workers focus their inputs (efforts) in the direction of high performance and the achievement of organizational goals.

25 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–25 Goal Setting Theory (contd) GoalGoal What a person is trying to accomplish. What a person is trying to accomplish. Characteristics of Motivating GoalsCharacteristics of Motivating Goals Specific and not vague in providing direction Specific and not vague in providing direction Difficult but not impossible to attain Difficult but not impossible to attain Accepted and committed to by workers Accepted and committed to by workers Feedback on goal attainment is important. Feedback on goal attainment is important. Goals point out what is important to the firm.Goals point out what is important to the firm. Workers should be encouraged to develop action plans to attain goals. Workers should be encouraged to develop action plans to attain goals.

26 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–26 Learning Theories Theories that focus on increasing motivation and performance by linking outcomes to performance and the attainment of goals.Theories that focus on increasing motivation and performance by linking outcomes to performance and the attainment of goals. LearningLearning A relatively permanent change in persons knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience. A relatively permanent change in persons knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience.

27 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–27 Operant Conditioning Theory Operant ConditioningOperant Conditioning People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences. People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences. Linking specific behaviors to the attainment of specific outcomes can motivate high performance and prevent behaviors that detract from organizational effectiveness. Linking specific behaviors to the attainment of specific outcomes can motivate high performance and prevent behaviors that detract from organizational effectiveness.

28 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–28 Operant Conditioning Tools Positive ReinforcementPositive Reinforcement Getting desired outcomes for performing needed work behaviors. Getting desired outcomes for performing needed work behaviors. Positive reinforcers: pay, praises, or promotions.Positive reinforcers: pay, praises, or promotions. Negative ReinforcementNegative Reinforcement Eliminating undesired outcomes once the desired behavior occurs. Eliminating undesired outcomes once the desired behavior occurs. Negative reinforcers: criticisms, pay cuts, suspension.Negative reinforcers: criticisms, pay cuts, suspension. Is not the same as punishment.Is not the same as punishment.

29 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–29 Operant Conditioning Tools (contd) ExtinctionExtinction Curtailing the performance of a dysfunctional behavior by eliminating whatever is reinforcing it. Curtailing the performance of a dysfunctional behavior by eliminating whatever is reinforcing it. Behavior is not rewarded and over time, the worker stops performing it.Behavior is not rewarded and over time, the worker stops performing it. PunishmentPunishment Administering an undesired/negative consequence to immediately stop a dysfunctional behavior. Administering an undesired/negative consequence to immediately stop a dysfunctional behavior. Manager administers an undesired consequence to worker (verbal reprimand, demotion, pay cut).Manager administers an undesired consequence to worker (verbal reprimand, demotion, pay cut).

30 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–30 Guidelines for Administering Punishment Downplay the emotional element involved in punishment.Downplay the emotional element involved in punishment. Punish the behavior, not the person. Punish the behavior, not the person. Punish behaviors as soon as possible after they occur.Punish behaviors as soon as possible after they occur. Swift punishment increases the connection between punishment and behavior. Swift punishment increases the connection between punishment and behavior. Avoid punishing someone in front of others.Avoid punishing someone in front of others. Punish the behavior, not the person. Punish the behavior, not the person. People learn for punishment of others. People learn for punishment of others.

31 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–31 Social Learning Theory A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by peoples thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other peoples behavior.A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by peoples thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other peoples behavior. Vicarious Learning (Observational Learning)Vicarious Learning (Observational Learning) When a learner is motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform and be rewarded. When a learner is motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform and be rewarded. People are motivated to imitate models who are highly competent, expert, receive attractive reinforcers, and are friendly or approachable.People are motivated to imitate models who are highly competent, expert, receive attractive reinforcers, and are friendly or approachable.

32 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–32 Social Learning Theory (contd) Conditions for Social LearningConditions for Social Learning The learner observes the model performing the behavior. The learner observes the model performing the behavior. The learner accurately perceives the models behavior. The learner accurately perceives the models behavior. The learner remembers the behavior. The learner remembers the behavior. The learner has the skills and abilities needed to perform the behavior. The learner has the skills and abilities needed to perform the behavior. The learner sees or knows that the model is positively reinforced for the behavior. The learner sees or knows that the model is positively reinforced for the behavior.

33 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–33 Social Learning Theory (contd) Self-ReinforcementSelf-Reinforcement Any desired or attractive outcome or award that a person can give himself or herself for good performance. Any desired or attractive outcome or award that a person can give himself or herself for good performance. The self-management of behaviorThe self-management of behavior Self-efficacySelf-efficacy A persons belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully. A persons belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully. Influences motivation both when managers provide reinforcement and when workers themselves provide it.Influences motivation both when managers provide reinforcement and when workers themselves provide it.

34 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–34 Pay and Motivation Pay as a MotivatorPay as a Motivator Expectancy Expectancy Pay is an instrumentality (and outcome)Pay is an instrumentality (and outcome) Expectancy must be high for motivation to be high.Expectancy must be high for motivation to be high. Need Theory Need Theory Pay is used to satisfy many needs.Pay is used to satisfy many needs. Equity Theory Equity Theory Pay is given in proportion to inputs.Pay is given in proportion to inputs.

35 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–35 Pay and Motivation Pay as a Motivator (contd)Pay as a Motivator (contd) Goal Setting Theory Goal Setting Theory Pay is linked to attainment of goals.Pay is linked to attainment of goals. Learning Theory Learning Theory The distribution of outcomes (pay) is contingent upon the performance of functional behaviors.The distribution of outcomes (pay) is contingent upon the performance of functional behaviors.

36 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–36 Merit Pay and Performance Merit Pay PlanMerit Pay Plan A compensation plan that bases pay on individual, group and/or organization performance. A compensation plan that bases pay on individual, group and/or organization performance. Individual plan: when individual performance (sales) can accurately measured.Individual plan: when individual performance (sales) can accurately measured. Group plan: when group that works closely together is measured and rewarded as a group.Group plan: when group that works closely together is measured and rewarded as a group. Organization plan: when group or individual outcomes are not easily measured.Organization plan: when group or individual outcomes are not easily measured.

37 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–37 Salary Increase or Bonus? Motivational Value of a Bonus Is Higher When:Motivational Value of a Bonus Is Higher When: Salary levels are unrelated to current performance. Salary levels are unrelated to current performance. Changes in other compensation items (cost of living, seniority) are not having a large effect in increasing compensation. Changes in other compensation items (cost of living, seniority) are not having a large effect in increasing compensation. Salaries rarely change and performance does. Salaries rarely change and performance does. Benefits of Using BonusesBenefits of Using Bonuses Do not become permanent part of compensation. Do not become permanent part of compensation. Are more directly tied to current performance. Are more directly tied to current performance. Provide more flexibility in distributing rewards. Provide more flexibility in distributing rewards.

38 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–38 Salary Increase or Bonus? (contd) Employee Stock OptionEmployee Stock Option A financial instrument that entitles the bearer to buy shares of an organizations stock at a certain price during a certain period of time or under certain conditions. A financial instrument that entitles the bearer to buy shares of an organizations stock at a certain price during a certain period of time or under certain conditions. Uses: Uses: To attract high-level managers.To attract high-level managers. To motivate employee performance through ownership in the firm.To motivate employee performance through ownership in the firm.

39 © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.9–39 Examples of Merit Pay Plans Piece-rate PayPiece-rate Pay Employees pay is based on the number of units that the employee produces. Employees pay is based on the number of units that the employee produces. Commission PayCommission Pay Employees pay is based on a percentage of sales that an employee makes personally. Employees pay is based on a percentage of sales that an employee makes personally. Organization-based Merit PlansOrganization-based Merit Plans Scanlon planfocuses on reduced expenses or cutting costs. Scanlon planfocuses on reduced expenses or cutting costs. Profit sharingemployees receive a share of an organizations profits. Profit sharingemployees receive a share of an organizations profits.


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