Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Sociological Perspective CHANGING SOCIETY part McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Sociological Perspective CHANGING SOCIETY part McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Sociological Perspective CHANGING SOCIETY part McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5

2 chapter McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER OUTLINE How Did Communities Originate? Urbanization Types of Communities Social Policy and Communities: Seeking Shelter WorldwideSocial Policy and Communities: Seeking Shelter Worldwide 20 COMMUNITIES AND URBANIZATION

3 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 How Did Communities Originate? Early Communities –Early communities were very dependent on the physical environment for their food supply. –Horticultural societies, where people cultivated food rather than merely gathering fruits and vegetables, led to dramatic changes in human social organization. –It was no longer necessary to move in search of food. –Stable communities helped establish food surpluses.

4 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 How Did Communities Originate? Preindustrial Cities –Preindustrial cities had only a few thousand people living within their borders. –Preindustrial cities were characterized by relatively closed class systems and limited mobility. –In preindustrial cities, status was based on ascribed characteristics, and education was limited to the elite.

5 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 How Did Communities Originate? Preindustrial Cities –Preindustrial cities remained small due to: reliance on animal power modest levels of surplus problems in transportation and storage of food hardships of migration to the city dangers of city life

6 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 How Did Communities Originate? Industrial and Postindustrial Cities –The industrial revolution, which began in the mid-eighteenth century, focused on using non-animal sources of power to perform tasks. –The factory system that developed during the industrial revolution led to a more refined division of labor than was seen in the preindustrial cities.

7 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 How Did Communities Originate? Industrial and Postindustrial Cities –In comparison to preindustrial cities, industrial cities have a more open class system and more mobility. –In the latter part of the 20th century, the postindustrial city emerges and is based on: global finance electronic flow of information decentralized production

8 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Urbanization (Click inside frame to start video) Different Races Mingle Where They Work and Shop, But Not So Much Where They Live

9 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Urbanization Functionalist View: Urban Ecology –Human Ecology Human ecology examines the interrelationships between people and their spatial settings and physical environments. –Urban Ecology Urban ecology focuses on relationships as they emerge in urban areas.

10 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Urbanization Functionalist View: Urban Ecology –Concentric-Zone Theory A theory describing land use in industrial cities, concentric-zone theory holds that the center, or nucleus, of a city is the most highly valued land and each succeeding zone surrounding the center contains other types of land which are valued differently. These zones illustrate or define the growth of the urban area over time.

11 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Urbanization Functionalist View: Urban Ecology –Multiple-nuclei theory All urban growth does not radiate out from a central district. A metropolitan area may have several centers of development reflecting an urban need or activity.

12 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Urbanization Figure 20.2: Comparison of Ecological Theories of Urban Growth Source: Harris and Ullmann 1945:13.

13 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Urbanization Conflict View: New Urban Sociology –New urban sociology This approach considers the interplay of local, national, and worldwide forces and their effects on local space. –World systems analysis This approach argues that certain industrialized nations hold a dominant position at the core of the global economic system.

14 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Urbanization Figure 20.1: Urbanization Around The World Source: Based on data in Haub 2003.

15 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Urbanization Source: Student Atlas of World Politics, 5th Edition by John L. Allen, 2002, McGraw-Hill Dushkin Urban Population as Percentage of Total 1999 Population

16 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Urbanization Conflict View: New Urban Sociology –Poorer developing countries are on the periphery of the global economy. –Peripheral countries tend to be exploited by core nations.

17 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Urbanization Table 20.3: Major Perspectives on Urbanization Theoretical perspective Functionalist Conflict Primary focus Relationship of urban areas Relationship of urban areas to their spatial setting and to global, national, and local physical environment forces Key source of change Technological innovations Economic competition and such as new methods of monopolization of power transportation Initiator of actions Individuals, neighborhoods, Real estate developers, communities banks and other financial institutions, multinational corporations Allied disciplines Geography, architecture Political science, economics Urban EcologyNew Urban Ecology

18 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Types of Communities Central Cities –Urban Dwellers Gans distinguishes five types of people found in our cities: –cosmopolites –unmarried and childless people –ethnic villagers –the deprived –the trapped

19 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Types of Communities Central Cities –Urban Dwellers Defended neighborhood refers to peoples definitions of their community boundaries. –Issues Facing Cities crime pollution schools inadequate transportation

20 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Types of Communities Table 20.2: The 10 Most Populous Megalopolises in the World, 1970 and 2015 (in millions) 1.Tokyo 16.5 1. Bombay (India) 28.2 2. New York 16.2 2.Tokyo 26.4 3. Shanghai (China) 11.2 3. Lagos (Nigeria) 23.2 4. Osaka (Japan) 9.4 4. Dhaka (Bangladesh) 23.0 5. Mexico City 9.1 5. São Paulo (Brazil) 20.4 6. London 8.6 6. Karachi (Pakistan) 19.8 7. Paris 8.5 7. Mexico City 19.2 8. Buenos Aires 8.4 8. Delhi (India) 17.8 9. Los Angeles 8.4 9. New York 17.4 10. Beijing 8.1 10. Jakarta (Indonesia) 17.3 19702015 (Projected) Source: United Nations, quoted in Brockerhoff 2000:10.

21 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Types of Communities 1900193019602000 RankPlace 1.New York City, NY 2.Chicago, IL Los Angeles, CA 3.Philadelphia, PA Los Angeles, CAChicago, IL 4.St. Louis, MODetroit, MIPhiladelphia, PAHouston, TX 5.Boston, MALos Angeles, CADetroit, MIPhiladelphia, PA 6.Baltimore, MDCleveland, OHBaltimore, MDPhoenix, AZ 7.Cleveland, OHSt. Louis, MOHouston, TXSan Diego, CA 8.Buffalo, NYBaltimore, MDCleveland, OHDallas, TX 9.San Francisco, CABoston, MAWashington, DCSan Antonio, TX 10.Cincinnati, OHPittsburgh, PASt. Louis, MODetroit, MI Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Statistical Abstract of the United States 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table 34 on p. 35. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/01statab/stat-ab01.html. U.S. Largest Cities: 1900 to 2000

22 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Types of Communities Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD Approach) –An approach in which leaders, policymakers and advocates first identify a communitys strengths and then seek to mobilize those assets. Helps communities recognize human resources they might otherwise overlook

23 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Types of Communities Suburbs –Suburb generally refers to any community near a large city. –Three social factors differentiate suburbs from cities: less dense than cities private space more exacting building codes

24 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Types of Communities Suburbs –Suburban Expansion Suburbanization has been the most dramatic population trend in the United States during the 20th century. –Diversity in the suburbs The suburbs contain a significant number of low-income people from all backgrounds.

25 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Types of Communities Rural Communities –One-fourth of the population lives in towns of 2,500 people or less that are not adjacent to a city. –Agriculture now only accounts for 9 percent of employment in non-urban counties.

26 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Types of Communities Table 20.1: Comparing Types of Cities Preindustrial Cities (through 18 th century) Industrial Cities (18 th through mid-20 th century) Postindustrial Cities (beginning late 20 th century) Closed class system pervasive influence of social class at birth Open class system mobility based on achieved characteristics Wealth based on ability to obtain and use information Economic realm controlled by guilds and a few families Relatively open competitionCorporate power dominates Beginnings of division of labor in the creation of goods Elaborate specialization in manufacturing of goods Sense of place fades, transnational networks emerge Pervasive influence of religion on social norms Influence of religion limited as society becomes more secularized Religion becomes more fragmented; greater openness to new religious faiths Continued… Source: Based on E. Phillips 1996:132-135; Sjoberg 1960:323-328.

27 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Types of Communities Table 20.1: Comparing Types of Cities Preindustrial Cities (through 18 th century) Industrial Cities (18 th through mid-20 th century) Postindustrial Cities (beginning late 20 th century) Little standardization of prices, weights, and measures Standardization enforced by custom and law Conflicting views of prevailing standards Population largely illiterate, communication by word of mouth Emergence of communication through posters, bulletins, and newspapers Emergence of extended electronic networks Schools limited to elites and designed to perpetuate their privileged status Formal schooling open to the masses and viewed as a means of advancing the social order Professional, scientific, and technical personnel become increasingly important Source: Based on E. Phillips 1996:132-135; Sjoberg 1960:323-328.

28 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Social Policy and Communities Seeking Shelter Worldwide –The Issue The issue of inadequate shelter manifests itself in many ways, for all housing problems can be considered relative. For many people worldwide, the housing problem consists of merely finding shelter of any kind that they can afford. What can be done to ensure adequate housing for those who cant afford it?

29 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Social Policy and Communities Seeking Shelter Worldwide –The Setting Homelessness is evident in both industrialized and developing countries. By 1998, in urban areas alone, 600 million people around the world were either homeless or inadequately housed.

30 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 Social Policy and Communities 15.5 36.0 17.3 15.6 12.8 5.6 3.0 3.1 3.3 34.3 52.1 25.9 Vacant Renter-occupied Owner-occupied Central cities Suburban Non- metropolitan Metropolitan (Total year-round, housing units = 112.3 million) Millions of units Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Population Profile of the United States: 2000. Figure 7-1. (Internet Release) accessed at http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/profile2000.html#cont. Total Year-Round Housing Units by Tenure and Metropolitan Status: 1999

31 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 31 Social Policy and Communities Seeking Shelter Worldwide –Sociological Insights Being homeless functions as a master status that largely defines a persons position in society. Homeless individuals are, in many important respects, outside of society. Changing economic and residential patterns account for much of the increase in homelessness. Homeless women often have additional problems that distinguish them from homeless men. Sociologists attribute homelessness in developing nations not only to income inequality but also to population growth.

32 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 32 Social Policy and Communities Seeking Shelter Worldwide –Policy Initiatives Policymakers have mostly been content to direct the homeless to large, overcrowded, unhealthy shelters. Anti-homeless public policies and the criminalization of the homeless is a growing trend. Affordable housing is increasingly difficult to find. Homeless people are not getting the shelter they need and they lack the political clout to corral the attention of policymakers.


Download ppt "McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 The Sociological Perspective CHANGING SOCIETY part McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google