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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Pure Monopoly Chapter 10.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Pure Monopoly Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Pure Monopoly Chapter 10

2 Chapter Objectives Characteristics of pure monopoly Profit-maximizing output and price Economic effects of monopoly Charging different prices in different markets 10-2

3 Characteristics of Monopoly Single seller No close substitutes Price maker Blocked entry Nonprice competition 10-3

4 Examples of Monopoly Regulated or natural monopolies –electricity Near monopolies –Western Union –Frisbee –De Beers Geographic monopolies –Professional sport teams Dual objectives of study 10-4

5 Barriers to Entry Economies of scale Legal barriers to entry –Patents –Licenses Ownership or control of essential resources Pricing and other strategic barriers to entry 10-5

6 Monopoly Demand Assumptions: –Monopoly status is secure –No government regulation –Single-price monopolist Face down-sloping demand –Entire market demand 10-6

7 $ Price and Marginal Revenue Marginal revenue is less than price D A monopolist is selling 3 units at $142 To sell 4, price must be lowered to $132 All customers must pay the same price TR increases $132 minus $30 (3x$10) Gain = $132 Loss = $

8 $ D A monopolist is selling 3 units at $142 To sell 4, price must be lowered to $132 All customers must pay the same price TR increases $132 minus $30 (3x$10) $102 becomes a point on the MR curve Try other prices to determine other MR points Gain = $132 Loss = $30 The Constructed Marginal Revenue Curve Must Always Be Less Than the Price MR Price and Marginal Revenue Marginal revenue is less than price 10-8

9 Down-Sloping Demand Marginal revenue < price –To increase sales, must lower price Firm is a price maker –Choose P,Q combination Operate in the elastic region –Marginal revenue > 0 –Total-revenue test (recall) 10-9

10 Profit Maximization Output-price determination –Marginal revenue marginal cost rule –Same cost definitions No supply curve 10-10

11 Monopoly Revenue and Costs (1) Quantity Of Output (2) Price (Average Revenue) (3) Total Revenue (1) X (2) (4) Marginal Revenue (5) Average Total Cost (6) Total Cost (1) X (5) (7) Marginal Cost (8) Profit (+) or Loss (-) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Revenue Data Cost Data ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Can you See Profit Maximization? 10-11

12 $ $ Price Total Revenue Monopoly Revenue and Costs ElasticInelastic Demand and Marginal-Revenue Curves Total-Revenue Curve D MR TR 10-12

13 Profit Maximization 0 $ Price, Costs, and Revenue Quantity D MR ATC MC MR=MC P m =$122 A=$94 Economic Profit 10-13

14 Misconceptions Not the highest price Total, not unit, profit Possibility of losses 10-14

15 Loss Minimization 0 Price, Costs, and Revenue Quantity D MR ATC MC MR=MC Loss AVC PmPm QmQm V A 10-15

16 Economic Effects Purely Competitive Market Pure Monopoly D D S=MC MC P=MC= Minimum ATC MR PcPc QcQc PcPc PmPm QcQc QmQm Pure competition is efficient Monopoly is inefficient a b c 10-16

17 Pure competition is efficient –Productive efficiency –Allocative efficiency –CS+PS maximized Monopoly is inefficient –Charge P>MC –Deadweight loss Income transfer Economic Effects 10-17

18 Cost Complications Economies of scale –Simultaneous consumption –Network effects X-inefficiency –Lowest ATC not achieved Rent seeking behavior Technological advance –More likely with monopoly? 10-18

19 Policy Options Use antitrust laws –Divide the firm Natural monopoly –Regulate price Ignore –Unstable in long run 10-19

20 Price Discrimination Three forms –Charge each customer max willingness to pay –Charge one price for first unit and a lower price for subsequent units –Charge different customers different prices 10-20

21 Conditions –Monopoly power –Market segregation –No resale Examples –Airfares –Electric utilities –Theaters & golf courses Price Discrimination 10-21

22 Regulated Monopoly Natural monopolies Rate regulation Socially optimum price P = MC Fair return price P = ATC 10-22

23 0 Price and Costs (Dollars) Quantity Dilemma of Regulation Monopoly Price Fair-Return Price Socially Optimal Price PrPr D r f b a PfPf PmPm QmQm QfQf QrQr MR MC ATC Regulated Monopoly 10-23

24 De Beers Diamonds 66 years of monopoly pricing –Independent producers went along Mid-2000 abandoned monopoly –New discoveries –Independent producers withdrew –Political considerations New strategy –The diamond supplier of choice 10-24

25 Key Terms pure monopoly barriers to entry simultaneous consumption network effects X-inefficiency rent-seeking behavior price discrimination socially optimal price fair-return price 10-25

26 Next Chapter Preview… Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly 10-26


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