2The Circulatory System Objectives28-1 Spell, define, and correctly use the Key Terms in this chapter.28-2 Describe the structure of the heart and the function of each part.28-3 Trace the flow of blood through the heart.29-4 List the most common heart sounds and what events produce them.28-5 Explain how heart rate is controlled.
3The Circulatory System Objectives (cont.)28-6 List the different types of blood vessels and describe the functions of each.28-7 Define blood pressure and tell how it is controlled.28-8 Trace the flow of blood through the pulmonary and systemic circulation.28-9 List the major arteries and veins of the body and describe their locations.28-10 List and describe the components of blood.
4The Circulatory System Objectives (cont.)28-11 Give the functions of red blood cells, the different types of white blood cells, and platelets.28-12 List the substances normally found in plasma.28-13 Explain how bleeding is controlled.28-14 Explain the differences among type A blood, type B blood, type AB blood and type O blood.28-15 Explain the difference between Rh positive blood and Rh negative blood.
5The Circulatory System Objectives (cont.)28-16 Explain the importance of blood typing and tell which blood types are compatible.28-17 List the organs of the lymphatic system and give their locations and functions.28-18 Define lymph and tell how it is circulated in the body.28-19 Describe signs, symptoms, causes, and treatments of various diseases and disorders of the heart, blood vessels, blood and the lymphatic system.
6Introduction Circulation is the process of sending blood: To the lungs to pick up oxygenTo the digestive system to pick up nutrientsFor delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all organ systems of the bodyThe circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels.This system also circulates waste products to certain organ systems so these wastes can be removed from the blood.The lymphatic system is included because it also circulates fluids throughout the body.
7Structure of the Heart Heart is bordered: laterally by the lungsposteriorly by the vertebral columnanteriorly by the sternumInferiorly the heart rests on the diaphragm.A cone-shaped organ about the size of a loose fistWithin the mediastinum and extends from the level of the second rib to about the level of the sixth ribSlightly left of the midline of the body.
8Coverings and Walls of the Heart Heart CoveringsPericardium - covers the heart and large blood vesselsVisceral pericardium - innermost layerParietal pericardium - lays on top of the visceral pericardiumClick for Larger ViewHeart Walls:Epicardium - the outermost layerMyocardium - the middle layerEndocardium - the innermost layer
12Identify the Parts of the Heart The Heart – No LabelsA.L.B.M.C.N.D.E.O.P.F.Q.G.H.R.S.I.J.Click Next for AnswersK.Identify the Parts of the Heart
13The Heart – Answers Aortic arch Right pulmonary artery Superior vena cavaAscending aortaRight pulmonary veinsPulmonary semilunar valveRight AtriumRight ventricleTricuspid valveJ. Inferior vena cavaK. Descending aortaL. Left pulmonary arteryM. Pulmonary trunkN. Left pulmonary veinsO. Left atriumP. Aortic semilunar valveQ. Mitral (bicuspid) valveR. SeptumS. Left ventricle
14Heart ValvesTricuspid valve - prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium when the right ventricle contractsBicuspid valve - prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium when the left ventricle contractsPulmonary valve - prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricleAortic valve - prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle
15Path of Blood Through the Heart Oxygenated blood out to bodyDeoxygenated blood inOxygenated blood in lungsDeoxygenated blood out to lungsDeoxygenated blood in from bodyAtria ContractVentricles Contract
16Heart SoundsOne cardiac cycle - you can hear two heart sounds (lubb and dupp) when valves in the heart snap shutLubb – 1st sound - when the ventricles contract and the tricuspid and bicuspid valves snap shutDupp – 2nd sound - when the atria contract and the pulmonary and aortic valves snap shut.
17Apply Your KnowledgeYour 8-year-old patient has asked you why his heart makes two noises. What would you tell him?
18Apply Your Knowledge -Answer Your 8-year-old patient has asked you why his heart makes two noises. What would you tell him?Lubb – 1st sound - when the ventricles contract and the tricuspid and bicuspid valves snap shutDupp – 2nd sound - when the atria contract and the pulmonary and aortic valves snap shut
19Heart RateCardiac conduction system consists of a group of structures that send electrical impulses through the heart.When cardiac muscle receives an electrical impulse, it will contract.
20Blood Vessels Arteries and Arterioles strongest of the blood vessels carry blood away from the heart easily and are under high pressurehave thick wallsVeins and Venulesno pressure in veins - does not move very easilyvalves in veins prevent blood from flowing backwards
21Blood Vessels - Capillaries Branches of arterioles - the smallest type of blood vesselConnect arterioles to venules - only about one cell layer thickOxygen and nutrients can pass out of a capillary into a body cellCarbon dioxide and other waste products can pass out of a body cell into a capillary
22Blood PressureForce blood exerts on the inner walls of blood vessels - highest in arteries and lowest in veinsSystolic pressure - ventricles contract, blood pressure is greatest in the arteriesDiastolic pressure -the ventricles relax, blood pressure in arteries is at its lowestReported as the systolic number over the diastolic number.
23Control of Blood Pressure Blood pressure is controlled to a large extent by the amount of blood pumped out of the heartStarling's law of the heart -blood enters the left ventricle, the wall of the ventricle is stretched. The more the wall is stretched, the harder it will contract, and the more blood it will pump out.Baroreceptors also help regulate blood pressureLow BP causes the cardiac center of the brain to increase heart rate
25Major Blood Vessels Arterial System carry oxygen rich blood away from the heartpulmonary arteries carry oxygen poor bloodpaired - left and right artery of the same name
26Major Blood Vessels (cont.) Venous SystemVessels that carry blood toward the heartPulmonary veins –carry oxygen rich bloodLarge veins often have the same names as the arteries they run next toHepatic portal systemcollection of veins carrying blood to the liverClick for Larger View
28Apply Your KnowledgeYour patient wants to know what the bottom number of his blood pressure means. What would you say?
29Apply Your Knowledge -Answer Your patient wants to know what the bottom number of his blood pressure means. What would you say?Diastolic pressure is when the ventricles of the heart relax, blood pressure in arteries is at its lowest.
30Components of Blood Average-sized adult contains - 5 liters of blood A type of connective tissueRed blood cells (erythrocytes)White blood cells (leukocytesPlatelets-contains cell fragmentsPlasma - fluid part of blood (55% of blood)Average-sized adult contains - 5 liters of bloodHematocrit (45%) -percentage of blood cells in a sample of blood
31Red Blood Cells Transport oxygen throughout the body Are biconcave-shaped cells that are small enough to pass through capillariesHemoglobin is a pigment found on RBCsOxyhemoglobin carries oxygen and is bright red in colorDeoxyhemoglobin does not carry oxygen and is a darker red color
33White Blood Cells Granulocytes Agranulocytes Neutrophils – (55%) destroying bacteria, viruses, and toxins in the blood streamEosinophils – (3%) getting rid of parasitic infections such as worm infectionsBasophils –(1%) control inflammation and allergic reactionsAgranulocytesMonocytes – (8%) destroying bacteria, viruses, and toxins in bloodLymphocytes – (33%) immunity for the body
34Blood Platelets Fragments of cells that are found in the blood stream Thrombocytes are important in the clotting of blood130,000 to 360,000 platelets per cubic millimeter of blood
35Controlling Bleeding Hemostasis - the stoppage of bleeding Three processes of hemostasisBlood vessel spasmPlatelet plug formationBlood coagulation
37Blood Plasma Blood plasma is the liquid portion of blood. Consists of: Mostly waterMixture of proteinsAlbuminsGlobulinsFibrinogenNutrientsAmino acidsGlucoseNucleotidesLipidsGasesElectrolytesWaste products
38Apply Your KnowledgeDoes the pulmonary arteries carry high levels oxygen or low levels of oxygen in the blood?
39Apply Your Knowledge -Answer Does pulmonary arteries carry high levels oxygen or low levels of oxygen in the blood?Pulmonary arteries carry oxygen poor blood
40Blood that can be received ABO Blood GroupBlood TypeAntigen PresentAntibody PresentBlood that can be receivedABA & 0B & OABNoneA, B, AB, & OA & BO
41RH Blood GroupRh positive person has red blood cells that contain the Rh antigenRh negative red blood cells do not contain the Rh antigenRh positive blood is given to Rh negative person and antibodies formSecond time this occurs antibodies will bind to the donor cells and agglutination will occur
42Apply Your KnowledgeWhat type(s) of blood could a patient who has type B blood receive without complications?
43Apply Your Knowledge -Answer What type(s) of blood could a patient who has type B blood receive without complications?Type B & O
44The Lymphatic SystemA network of connecting vessels that collect fluids between cellsLymphatic vessels then return this fluid (called lymph) to the blood streamPicks up lipids from the digestive organs and transports them to the blood streamDefend our bodies against disease-causing agents called pathogens
45The Lymphatic System Lymph Nodes Thymus Spleen digest unwanted pathogens in the lymphstart an immune response against the pathogenThymusproduction of T lymphocytes & hormone called thymosinSpleenlargest lymphatic organspleen also removes worn out red blood cells from the circulation
46Lymph Fluid Tissue fluid that has entered a lymphatic capillary Pushed through the vessels by the squeezing action of skeletal musclesContain valves that prevent the backflow of lymphLymph Node
47Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System Anemia - a condition in which a person does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in blood to carry an adequate amount of oxygen to body cellsAneurysm - defined as a ballooning of an artery wall that results when the wall of the blood vessel becomes weak
48Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System (cont.) Carditis - an inflammation of the heartmost commonly referred to as endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis depending on the layer of the heart affectedCongestive heart failure - a slowly developing condition in which the heart weakens over time.
49Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System (cont.) Coronary artery disease – (atherosclerosis) characterized by narrowing of coronary arteriesHeart arrhythmias – abnormal heart rhythms in which the heart beats too quickly (tachycardia) or too slowly (bradycardia)Heart attack (myocardial infarction) – damage to cardiac muscle that is due to a lack of blood supply
50Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System (cont.) Hypertension (high blood pressure)defined as consistent resting blood pressure 140/90 mm Hg or higherLeukemiaa condition in which the bone marrow produces a large number of white blood cells that are not normalMurmurssimply defined as abnormal heart sounds
51Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System (cont.) Sickle cell anemia – a condition in which abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to change to a sickle (crescent) shapeThrombophlebitis – a condition in which a blood clot and inflammation develop in a veinVaricose veins – dilated veins and are usually seen in the legs
52Apply Your KnowledgeThe doctor has told your patient she has anemia. How would you explain this to the her?
53Apply Your Knowledge -Answer The doctor has told your patient she has anemia. How would you explain this to the her?Anemia is a condition in which a person does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in blood to carry an adequate amount of oxygen to body cells.
54Medical Assistant Summary Knowledge of the circulatory system will assist you in providing care for the patient with diseases and disorders of the circulatory system.You must have knowledge of this system especially when assisting the physician during his examination of the circulatory system.