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Part Three Tests of Controls and Tests of Details 9-1 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia.

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Presentation on theme: "Part Three Tests of Controls and Tests of Details 9-1 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part Three Tests of Controls and Tests of Details 9-1 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

2 Chapter 9 Tests of controls 9-2 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

3 Learning objective 1: Tests of controls When control risk is assessed at less than high, it is necessary to gather evidence that controls are working. This evidence is gathered via a test of controls. – If control risk is assessed at high, the auditor will not undertake test of controls. – Auditor selects most efficient and effective combination of tests of controls, and substantive tests of transactions, balances and disclosures. 9-3 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

4 Assessing control risk To assess control risk as high, auditor must expect not to rely on evidence from the internal control system and that substantive procedures alone will provide sufficient appropriate evidence. Areas where substantive procedures alone may not provide sufficient appropriate evidence include routine recording of significant classes of transactions, such as revenue or purchases. These systems are often highly automated with little or no manual intervention. 9-4 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

5 Planning the scope of tests of controls Nature: refers to type of tests, tests of controls or substantive testing. Also refers to type of evidence- gathering procedures (e.g. inspection, observation). Timing: to aid ability to meet deadlines and scheduling of staff, tests of controls sometimes scheduled before year-end. Testing then extended (rolled forward) until year-end. Extent: the more the auditor relies on controls, the greater the extent of tests of controls. For tests of controls related to documents, extent determined by reference to sampling theory. Controls related to accounting routines (e.g. bank reconciliations) usually tested by re-performing a small number. 9-5 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

6 Learning objective 2: Existence, effectiveness and continuity of controls For internal controls to provide audit evidence about risk of material misstatements at the assertion level, the auditor must collect audit evidence about the existence, effectiveness and continuity of controls. Evidence of existence of controls is usually gained when auditor is assessing control risk. Tests of controls are aimed at establishing their effectiveness and continuity. 9-6 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

7 Aspects of internal control 9-7 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

8 Learning objective 3: Sufficiency and appropriateness ASA/ISA requires the auditor to consider the sufficiency (quantity) and appropriateness (quality) of audit evidence. Dependent on the level of control risk the tests must support. The lower the planned assessed level of control risk, the greater the amount of testing that is required. Auditor should also consider: – Type and source of evidence – Interrelationship of evidence. 9-8 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

9 Effect of documentation of controls: audit trail Method used by auditor is dependent on whether a documentary audit trail (discussed chapter 8) exists. Where no audit trail exists, greater emphasis is placed on: – Observation – Inquiry of the control. If audit trail does exist: – Inspect documentation associated with the transaction for evidence of the control. 9-9 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

10 Relationship between tests of controls and assertions Auditor is required to assess risk of material misstatement at the assertion level for classes of transactions, account balances and disclosures. When auditors assessment of material misstatement at assertion level includes an expectation that controls are operating effectively, the auditor should perform tests of controls to obtain evidence that the controls were operating effectively during the audit Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

11 Assertions and testing control elements For first two elements of IC (control environment and entitys risk assessment process), controls relate less directly to financial report assertions. For remaining three elements of IC (information system, control activities and monitoring of controls), controls are built around major flows of transactions and events and related accounts (e.g. sales, receivables and cash receipts). For these elements it is possible to link many controls to assertions (e.g. occurrence control related to occurrence of sales transactions is an authorisation of the terms of the sale) Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

12 Learning objective 4: Revenues, receivables and receipts (sales cycle) Sales cycle involves all those transactions and events that are initiated when an entity makes a sale. It is commonly characterised by a high volume of routine transactions. Risks of material misstatement are commonly related to high-volume clerical processing rather than complex accounting problems Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

13 Key functions in typical revenue, receivables and cash receipts cycle Sales/Accounts Receivable – Order entry and order approval by credit department – Shipping – Invoicing – Accounting: sales journal, accounts receivable master file. Accounts receivable/Cash receipts – Mail opening – Accounting: accounts receivable master file, cash receipts journal Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

14 Typical credit sales flowchart 9-14 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

15 Typical cash collection flowchart 9-15 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

16 Sales cycle: routine and non-routine transactions Routine transactions: Usually well controlled, and well suited to tests of controls (such as sales and cash collections). Non-routine transactions: Such as the return of goods or the estimates of the doubtful debts provisions: internal control systems not usually as well developed, and therefore less likely to test controls and more likely to undertake substantive tests of transactions Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

17 Primary control-related features The primary control-related features of a sales accounting system are: – Segregation of duties – separation of the departments or functions is usually an integral part of the plan of organisation. – Control over sources documents and inputs – the source documents created during processing, such as shipping documents, invoices and credit notes, should be printed on pre-numbered forms. – Checks, approvals and reconciliations – additional overlays for control purposes Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

18 Control objectives for sales system Controls are in place to ensure that: – Occurrence all sales recorded are bona fide transactions for merchandise actually shipped to customers. – Completeness all sales shipped are invoiced and recorded in accounting records. – Accuracy invoices have been recorded correctly as to amount and summarised correctly. – Cut-off invoices have been recorded in correct period. – Classification sales classified in accordance with written policies Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

19 Example of linking objectives to control policies and tests of controls for sales (Ref. Table 9.4) 9-19 Special control objectives Common control policies and procedures Tests of controls Occurrence all sales recorded are bona fide transactions for merchandise actually shipped to customers. Policy of authorisation of credit and terms Evidence of quantities shipped reconciled to quantities invoiced Monthly statements mailed to customers and queries followed up Select sample of sales transactions from sales journal (daily activity report), check for authorisation and trace to shipping document file Inspect reconciliation of shipments to invoices Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

20 Control objectives for cash receipt system Controls are in place to ensure: – Occurrence recorded cash receipts are for collection of receivables resulting from sales to customers of the entity. – Completeness all cash receipts are recorded and deposited. – Accuracy cash receipts have been recorded correctly as to amount. – Cut-off cash receipts have been recorded in correct period. – Classification cash receipts are classified in accordance with company policy Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

21 Example of linking control objectives to control policies to tests of controls: cash receipts (Ref. Table 9.5) 9-21 Special control objectives Common control policies and procedures Test of controls Occurrence recorded cash receipts are for collection of receivables resulting from sales to customers of the entity. Cash receipts matched to specific sales invoices in posting to accounts receivable master file. Select a sample of entries in cash receipts journal and review evidence that they were matched to specific sales invoices. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

22 Types of potential misstatements Generally result of: – Clerical mistakes – Employee fraud – Misapplied accounting principles, especially around some revenue recognition issues Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

23 Learning objective 5: Expenditures, payables and disbursements Expenditure cycle: all transactions and events initiated when an entity acquires assets or services used for cash or credit. This cycle often separated into a number of sub- cycles, reflecting the various types of services and assets that can be acquired, including: – Payroll – Property, plant and equipment – Inventory – Income taxes – Selling and administrative expenses – Miscellaneous expenses paid from petty cash Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

24 Key functions within the inventory sub-cycle Purchasing from approved suppliers Receiving Accounts payable, including recording the purchase and the account payable Payments department, including recording the payment and reducing the account payable Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

25 Typical purchases and cash payments flowchart 9-25 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

26 Functions, documents, inputs and accounting systems A type of expenditures accounting system is called a voucher system. – A voucher system is designed to improve control over disbursements by establishing a sequential pre-numbered record of suppliers invoices and to improve efficiency by eliminating inessential record keeping and facilitating timing of payments. The documents that form the voucher package are the purchase order, receiving report and suppliers invoice. Once these three documents are received and reviewed, the voucher can be processed for payment Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

27 Primary control-related features The primary control-related features of the expenditures cycle are concerned with: – Segregation of duties – especially between the handling and recording of assets, such as handling of inventory and the recording of inventory and cash payments. – Control over source documents – the source documents used in accounts payable processing should be pre- numbered, (including vouchers) and these sequences should be accounted for. – Checks, approvals and reconciliations – includes comparing source documents, such as purchase order, receiving report and sales invoice; and the periodic reconciliation of physical holdings of assets to accounting records, such as stocktake Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

28 Control objectives for purchases of inventory Controls are in place to ensure: – Occurrence all recorded purchases are bona fide transactions in that they relate to goods or services authorised or received. – Completeness all purchases for the period of inventory received are recorded. – Accuracy purchases of inventory are recorded correctly as to amount and summarised correctly. – Cut-off purchase invoices have been recorded in correct period. – Classification purchases are classified in accordance with classification policies Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

29 Example of linking control objectives, controls and test of controls: purchases 9-29 Special control objectives Common controlsTests of controls Occurrence all recorded purchases are bona fide transactions in that they relate to goods or services authorised or received. Approval of purchase order Goods received are counted, inspected and compared to purchase order before acceptance Comparison of purchase order, receiving report and suppliers invoice and recomputation of suppliers invoice before recording liability Examine evidence of approved purchase and service orders Select a sample of order entries in purchases journal, trace back to vouchers and inspect supporting documentation including receiving report, ensuring agreement of details and indication of approval From Table 9.6 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

30 Control objectives in a cash disbursements system Controls are in place to ensure: – Occurrence recorded cash disbursements are for goods or services authorised and received. – Completeness all cash disbursements are recorded. – Accuracy cash disbursements are recorded correctly as to amount. – Cut-off cash disbursements recorded in correct period. – Classification cash disbursements are recorded correctly as to account Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

31 Example of linking control objectives, controls and test of controls cash disbursements (Ref: Table 9.7) 9-31 Special control objectives Common control policies and procedures Tests of controls Occurrence recorded cash disbursements are for goods or services authorised and received. Cheques printed or prepared only when receipt of goods or services and approval are documented (e.g. supporting documents compared, recomputed and voucher approved) Cheques signed only after viewing supporting documentation and prior approval Supporting documentation cancelled and reference to cheque number Select a sample of cash disbursement transactions from cash payments journal and inspect supporting documentation for indication of checking, review and approval Observe and inquire about cheque preparation and signing and protection of unissued cheques For the sample of cash disbursement transactions inspect supporting documents for cancellation, cheque number and endorsement Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

32 Potential fraud in expenditure cycle As expenditure cycle involves disbursements of cash there is a greater risk of fraud or irregularity, including: – Classic disbursements fraud – Kickbacks – Illegal acts – Unauthorised executive perks – Kiting Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

33 Learning objective 6: Selling and administrative expenses Processing and related control policies and procedures for selling and administrative expenses are similar to those for purchases of inventory. Auditor will normally obtain comfort from cash disbursement testing for inventory purchases and perform minimal testing in this area. Analytical procedures (e.g. comparing various expenditure balances with budgets and prior periods) widely used as a key type of testing Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

34 Petty cash disbursements Petty cash disbursements are usually immaterial in amount and therefore few, if any, audit procedures are applied to this area. Where the area is significant, emphasis is on ensuring appropriate procedures are in place to safeguard cash Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

35 Payroll The payroll function is usually audited in either of two ways (or best combination): 1. Focusing on analytical procedures (disaggregated and strong relationships in this area, e.g. comparing fortnightly payrolls). 2. Tests of transactions over the payroll area with a key control being appropriate segregation of duties in the hiring, approval of time worked, payroll preparation and payroll distribution functions Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

36 Payroll (cont.) If tests of controls are necessary, the following audit procedures may be undertaken: – Authorisation by supervisors of time worked – Check signed time cards/sheets – Check use of approved pay rates (personnel department) – Check for reasonableness, compared with awards Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

37 Interest, rent, lease and insurance payments Auditor usually takes a more substantive approach, which includes checking terms and conditions of contracts (these transactions usually involve contractual agreements). Auditor interested in the key control of authorisation of the contract. Accounting treatment of leases is complex, and auditor may check controls that ensure leases are properly accounted for in accordance with accounting standards Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

38 Learning objective 7: Testing controls in client computer programs Separate techniques have to be developed for testing programmed controls (discussed in chapter 8). These are: – Test data – Integrated test facility – Processing client data – Reviewing program code or results of job processing Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

39 Processing of test data 9-39 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

40 Integrated test facility 9-40 Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

41 Processing client data Controlled processing: auditor establishes control over processing of clients data. Controlled reprocessing: auditor reprocesses client data. Parallel processing: simultaneous processing of clients data through client and auditor programs Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

42 Review clients program code or the results of job processing Program code review involves the auditor reviewing the clients program documentation and the source code. – The auditor goes over the relevant code and considers whether the processing steps and control activities are properly coded and logically correct. Review of job (batch) accounting data involves the auditor reviewing the printed log produced as jobs (batches of transactions) are processed, and considers any excessive processing time, error conditions or abnormal halts which may indicate problems Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett

43 Advanced computer-assisted audit techniques (CAATs) Systems control audit review file (SCARF) – Audit modules embedded in programs to monitor transaction activity. Snapshot – Transactions are tagged and then identified at certain points during processing to see how program is treating them. Audit hooks – Points in program that allow auditor to insert commands for special processing Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Auditing and Assurance Services in Australia 4e by Grant Gay and Roger Simnett Slides prepared by Roger Simnett


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