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Chapter 3 Rational Consumer ChoiceSlide 1 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
FIGURE 3-1 Two Bundles of GoodsA bundle is a specific combination of goods. Bundle A has 5 units of shelter and 7 units of food. Bundle B has 3 units of shelter and 8 units of food. Slide 2 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
The Budget Constraint, or Opportunity SetFIGURE 3-2 The Budget Constraint, or Opportunity Set Line B describes the set of all bundles the consumer can purchase if all of income is spent at the given prices. Its slope is the negative of the price of shelter divided by the price of food. This slope is the opportunity cost of an additional unit of shelter—the number of units of food that must be sacrificed in order to purchase one additional unit of shelter at market prices. Slide 3 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
The Effect of a Rise in the Price of Shelter FIGURE 3-3 The Effect of a Rise in the Price of Shelter When shelter goes up in price, the vertical intercept of the budget constraint remains the same. The original budget constraint rotates inward about this intercept. Slide 4 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
The Effect of Cutting Income by Half FIGURE 3-4 The Effect of Cutting Income by Half Both horizontal and vertical intercepts fall by half. The new budget constraint has the same slope as the old but is closer to the origin. Slide 5 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
The Budget Constraint with the Composite GoodFIGURE 3-5 The Budget Constraint with the Composite Good The vertical axis measures the amount of money spent each month on all goods other than X. Slide 6 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
A Quantity Discount Gives Rise to a Nonlinear Budget ConstraintFIGURE 3-6 A Quantity Discount Gives Rise to a Nonlinear Budget Constraint Once electric power consumption reaches 1000 kWh/mo, the opportunity cost of additional power falls from $.10/kWh to $.05/kWh. Slide 7 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
Budget Constraints Following Theft of Gasoline, Loss of CashFIGURE 3-7 Budget Constraints Following Theft of Gasoline, Loss of Cash A theft of $20 worth of gasoline has exactly the same effect on the budget constraint as the loss of $20 in cash. The bundle chosen should therefore be the same, irrespective of the source of the loss. Slide 8 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
Generating Equally Preferred Bundles FIGURE 3-8 Generating Equally Preferred Bundles Z is preferred to A because it has more of each good than A has. For the same reason, A is preferred to W. It follows that on the line joining W and Z there must be a bundle B that is equally preferred to A. In similar fashion, we can find a bundle C that is equally preferred to B. Slide 9 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
FIGURE 3-9 An Indifference CurveAn indifference curve is a set of bundles that the consumer prefers equally. For two goods, any bundle, such as L, that lies above an indifference curve is preferred to any bundle on the indifference curve. Any bundle on the indifference curve, in turn, is preferred to any bundle, such as K, that lies below the indifference curve. Slide 10 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
Part of an Indifference Map FIGURE 3-10 Part of an Indifference Map The entire set of a consumer’s indifference curves is called the consumer’s indifference map. Bundles of goods on any indifference curve are less preferred than bundles on a higher indifference curve, and more preferred than bundles on a lower indifference curve. Slide 11 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
Why Two Indifference Curves Do Not CrossFIGURE 3-11 Why Two Indifference Curves Do Not Cross If indifference curves were to cross, they would have to violate at least one of the assumed properties of preference orderings. Slide 12 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
The Marginal Rate of Substitution FIGURE 3-12 The Marginal Rate of Substitution MRS at any point along an indifference curve is defined as the absolute value of the slope of the indifference curve at that point. It is the amount of food the consumer must be given to compensate for the loss of 1 unit of shelter. Slide 13 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
Diminishing Marginal Rate of SubstitutionFIGURE 3-13 Diminishing Marginal Rate of Substitution The more food the consumer has, the more she is willing to give up to obtain an additional unit of shelter. The marginal rates of substitution at bundles A, C, and D are 3, 1, and 1/4, respectively. Slide 14 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
People with Different Tastes FIGURE 3-14 People with Different Tastes Relatively speaking, Pete is a potato lover; Rick, a rice lover. This difference shows up in the fact that at any given bundle Pete’s marginal rate of substitution of potatoes for rice is smaller than Rick’s. Slide 15 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
The Best Affordable Bundle FIGURE 3-15 The Best Affordable Bundle The best the consumer can do is to choose the bundle on the budget constraint that lies on the highest attainable indifference curve. Here, that is bundle F, which lies at a tangency between the indifference curve and the budget constraint. Slide 16 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
FIGURE 3-16 A Corner SolutionWhen the MRS of food for shelter is always less than the slope of the budget constraint, the best the consumer can do is to spend all his income on food. Slide 17 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
Equilibrium with Perfect Substitutes FIGURE 3-17 Equilibrium with Perfect Substitutes Here, the MRS of Coke for Jolt is 2 at every point. Whenever the price ratio PJ/PC is less than 2, a corner solution results in which the consumer buys only Jolt. On the budget constraint B, the consumer does best to buy bundle A. Slide 18 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
Housing Subsidy vs. Cash Grant FIGURE 3-18 Housing Subsidy vs. Cash Grant For 3 families receiving subsidized housing at E, only Family 1 (with indifference curve I ) is equally well off with the subsidy or an equivalent cash grant. With a cash grant that raised the budget constraint to JK, Family 2 would choose bundle E2 and Family 3 would choose bundle E3. Both would be better off than at E. 1 E Slide 19 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
FIGURE 3-19 A Change in TastesThe black indifference curves IA and IB describe the consumer’s preferences in period t; the green indifference curves IA´ and IB´ describe her preferences in period t + 1. Her indifference curves reflect a shift towards a stronger preference for X in period t + 1. Slide 20 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
PROBLEM 17 Slide 21 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
ANSWER 3-1 Slide 22 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
ANSWER 3-2 Slide 23 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
ANSWER 3-3 Slide 24 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
ANSWER 3-4 Slide 25 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
ANSWER 3-5 Slide 26 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
ANSWER 3-7 Slide 27 Copyright © 2004 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
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