# 32.1 Population Growth A population is a group of individuals of the same species living together Critical properties of a population include Population.

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32.1 Population Growth A population is a group of individuals of the same species living together Critical properties of a population include Population size The number of individuals in a population Population density Population size per unit area Population dispersion Scatter of individuals within a population’s range Population growth How populations grow and the factors affecting growth

The Exponential Growth Model
Assumes a population is growing without limits at its maximal rate Rate is symbolized r and called the biotic potential Change over time Intrinsic rate of increase Growth rate = dN/dt = riN No. of individuals in a population The actual rate of population increase is Birthrate Deathrate Net immigration r = (b – d) + (i – e) Net emigration

Carrying Capacity No matter how fast populations grow, they eventually reach a limit This is imposed by shortages of important environmental factors Nutrients, water, space, light The carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals that an area can support It is symbolized by k

The Logistics Growth Model
As a population approaches its carrying capacity, the growth rate slows because of limiting resources The logistic growth equation accounts for this Fig. 32.2 dN/dt = rN K – N K ( ) Growth rate begins to slow as N approaches K It reaches 0 when N = K

The Logistics Growth Model
A graphical plot of N versus t (time) gives an S-shaped sigmoid growth curve Fig. 32.3 History of a fur seal population on St. Paul Island, Alaska

32.2 The Influence of Population Density
Density-independent effects Effects that are independent of population size but still regulate growth Most are aspects of the external environment Weather Droughts, storms, floods Physical disruptions Fire, road construction

32.2 The Influence of Population Density
Density-dependent effects Effects that are dependent on population size and act to regulate growth Reproductive success decreases as population size increases Song sparrow Fig. 32.4 These effects have an increasing effect as population size increases

32.2 The Influence of Population Density
Maximizing population productivity The goal of harvesting organisms for commercial purposes is to maximize net productivity The point of maximal sustainable yield lies partly up the sigmoid curve Fig. 32.5

Life history = The complete life cycle of an animal Life histories are diverse, with different organisms having different adaptations to their environments r-selected adaptations Populations favor the exponential growth model Have a high rate of increase K-selected adaptations Populations experience competitive logistic growth Favor reproduction near carrying capacity

Most natural populations exhibit a combination of the r/k adaptations

32.4 Population Demography
Greek demos, “people” Demography is the statistical study of populations Greek graphos, “measurement” It helps predict how population sizes will change in the future Growth rate sensitive to Age structure Sex ratio

Age structure Sex ratio
Cohort = A group of individuals of the same age Has a characteristic Birth rate or fecundity Number of offspring born in a standard time Death rate or mortality Number of individuals that die in that period The relative number of individuals in each cohort defines a population’s age structure Sex ratio The proportion of males and females in a population The number of births is usually directly related to the number of females

Survivorship curves Provide a way to express the age distribution characteristics of populations Survivorship is the percentage of an original population that survives to a given age Fig. 32.7 Type I Mortality rises in postreproductive years Type II Mortality constant throughout life Type III Mortality low after establishment

32.5 Communities All organisms that live together in an area are called a community The different species compete and cooperate with each other to make the community stable A community is often identified by the presence of its dominant species The distribution of the other organisms may differ a good deal However, the ranges of all organisms overlap

32.6 The Niche and Competition
A niche is the particular biological role of an organism in a community It is a pattern of living Competition is the struggle of two organisms to use the same resource Interspecific competition occurs between individuals of different species Intraspecific competition occurs between individuals of a single species

Instead, they occupy their realized (actual) niche
Because of competition, organisms may not be able to occupy their fundamental (theoretical) niche Instead, they occupy their realized (actual) niche Fig Competition among two species of barnacles limits niche use

Competitive Exclusion
In the 1930s, G.F. Gause studied interspecific competition among three species of Paramecium P. aurelia; P. caudatum; P. bursaria All three grew well alone in culture tubes Fig

However, P. caudatum declined to extinction when grown with P. aurelia
Fig However, P. caudatum declined to extinction when grown with P. aurelia The two shared the same realized niche and the latter was better! Gause formulated the principle of competitive exclusion No two species with the same niche can coexist But is one competitor always eliminated? No, as we shall soon see!

P. caudatum and P. bursaria were able to coexist
Fig P. caudatum and P. bursaria were able to coexist The two have different realized niches and thus avoid competition Gause’s principle of competitive exclusion can be restated No two species can occupy the same niche indefinitely When niches overlap, two outcomes are possible Competitive exclusion or resource partitioning

Resource Partitioning
Persistent competition is rare in natural communities Either one species drives the other to extinction Or natural selection reduces the competition between them Fig Five species of warblers subdivided a niche to avoid direct competition with one another

Resource Partitioning
Sympatric species occupy same geographical area Avoid competition by partitioning resources Allopatric species do not live in the same geographical area and thus are not in competition Sympatric species tend to exhibit greater differences than allopatric species do Character displacement facilitates habitat partitioning and thus reduces competition

Resource Partitioning
Fig Character displacement in stickleback fish Feeds on both resources Feeds on plankton Feeds on larger prey

32.7 Coevolution and Symbiosis
Coevolution is a term that describes the long-term evolutionary adjustments of species to one another Symbiosis is the condition in which two (or more) kinds of organisms live together in close associations Major kinds include Mutualism – Both participating species benefit Parasitism – One species benefits while the other is harmed Commensalism – One species benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed

Mutualism Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
Fig Ants and Aphids Aphids provide the ants with food in the form of continuously excreted “honeydew” Ants transport the aphids and protect them from predators

Mutualism Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
Beltian body Fig Ants and Acacias Acacias provide the ants with food in the form of Beltian bodies Ants provide the acacias with organic nutrients and protect it from herbivores and shading from other plants

Dodder is a chlorophyll-less parasitic plant
Parasitism Symbiotic relationship that is a form of predation The predator (parasite) is much smaller than the prey The prey does not necessarily die External parasites Ectoparasites feed on the exterior surface of an organism Fig a Parasitoids are insects that lay eggs on living hosts Wasps Dodder is a chlorophyll-less parasitic plant

Internal parasites Brood parasitism
Fig Sarcocystis Endoparasites live within the bodies of vertebrates and invertebrates Marked by much more extreme specialization than external parasites Cuckoo Meadow pipit Brood parasitism Birds lay their eggs in the nests of other species Foster parent Brood parasite Brood parasites reduce the reproductive success of the foster parent hosts

Commensalism Symbiotic relationship that benefits one species and neither harms nor benefits the other Clownfishes and Sea anemones Fig Clownfishes gain protection by remaining among the anemone’s tentacles They also glean scraps from the anemone’s food

Cattle egrets and African cape buffalo
Fig Cattle egrets and African cape buffalo Egrets eat insects off of the buffalo Note: No clear distinction between commensalism and mutualism Difficult to determine if second partner benefits at all Indeed, the relationship maybe even parasitic

32.8 Predator-Prey Interactions
Predation is the consuming of one organism by another, usually of a similar or larger size Fig Under simple laboratory conditions, the predator often exterminates its prey It then becomes extinct itself having run out of food!

32.8 Predator-Prey Interactions
In nature, predator and prey populations often exhibit cyclic oscillations The North American snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) follows a “10-year cycle” Two factors involved 1. Food plants Willow and birch twigs 2. Predators Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) Fig a

32.8 Predator-Prey Interactions
Fig b

32.8 Predator-Prey Interactions
Predator-prey interactions are essential in the maintenance of species-diverse communities Predators greatly reduce competitive exclusion by reducing the individuals of competing species For example, sea stars prevent bivalves from dominating intertidal habitats Other organisms can share their habitat Keystone species are species that play key roles in their communities

32.9 Plant and Animal Defenses
Plants have evolved many mechanisms to defend themselves from herbivores Morphological (structural) defenses Thorns, spines and prickles Chemical defenses Secondary chemical compounds Found in most algae as well Mustard oils Found in the mustard family (Brassicaceae)

The Evolutionary Response of Herbivores
Mustard oils protected plants from herbivores at first At some point, however, certain insects evolved the ability to break down mustard oil Fig Adult Green caterpillar These insects were able to use a new resource without competing with other herbivores for it Cabbage butterfly caterpillars

I’m not eating this again!
Animal Defenses Some animals receive an added benefit from eating plants rich in secondary chemical compounds Caterpillars of monarch butterflies concentrate and store these compounds They then pass them to the adult and even to eggs of next generation Birds that eat the butterflies regurgitate them Fig Blue jay I’m not eating this again!

Aposematic coloration
Defensive coloration Cryptic coloration Color that blends with surrounding Aposematic coloration Showy color advertising poisonous nature Fig Dendrobatid frog Fig Inchworm caterpillar Camouflage! Warning! Chemical defenses Stings – Bees and wasps Toxic alkaloids – Dendrobatid frogs

Mimicry Many non-poisonous species have evolved to resemble poisonous ones with aposematic coloration Two types of mimicry have been identified Batesian mimicry After Henry Bates, a 19th century British naturalist Müllerian mimicry After Fritz Müller, a 19th century German biologist

Batesian Mimicry A harmless unprotected species (mimic) resembles a poisonous model that exhibits aposematic coloration Monarch butterfly Fig If the mimics are relatively scarce, they will be avoided by predators Viceroy butterfly

Müllerian Mimicry Two or more unrelated but protected (toxic) species come to resemble one another Yellow jacket Fig Masarid wasp Thus a group defense is achieved Sand wasp Anthidiine bee

Self Mimicry Involves adaptations where one animal body part comes to resemble another This type of mimicry is used by both predator and prey Example “Eye-spots” found in many butterflies, moths and fish

32.11 Ecological Succession
Succession is the orderly progression of changes in community composition that occur over time Secondary succession Occurs in areas where an existing community has been disturbed Primary succession Occurs on bare lifeless substrates, like rocks The first plants to appear from a pioneering community The climax community comes at the end

Why Succession Happens
Three dynamic critical concepts 1. Tolerance First to come are weedy r-selected species that are tolerant of the harsh abiotic conditions 2. Facilitation Habitat changes are introduced that favor other, less weedy species 3. Inhibition Habitat changes may inhibit the growth of the species that caused them

Why Succession Happens
As ecosystems mature, more K-selected species replace r-selected ones Species richness and total biomass increase However, net productivity decreases Thus, agricultural systems are maintained in early successional stages to keep net productivity high

Biodiversity Biologically diverse ecosystems are in general more stable than simple ones Species richness refers to the number of species in an ecosystem It is the quantity usually measured by biologists to characterize an ecosystem’s biodiversity Two factors are important in promoting biodiversity Ecosystem size Latitude

Ecosystem Size Larger ecosystems contain more diverse habitats and therefore have greater number of species A reduction in an ecosystem size, will reduce the number of species it can support Faunal collapse (extinction) may occur in extreme cases

Latitude Fig The number of species in the tropics is far more than that in the arctic region Two principal reasons 1. Length of growing season 2. Climatic stability

Island Biodiversity In 1967, Robert MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson proposed the equilibrium model The species richness on islands is a dynamic equilibrium between colonization and extinction Two important factors Island size Larger islands have more species than smaller ones Distance from mainland Distant islands have less species than those near the mainland

Small distant islands have fewer bird species
Fig The equilibrium model of island biogeography Equilibrium Small distant islands have fewer bird species Shifting equilibrium

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