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The Living World Fourth Edition GEORGE B. JOHNSON Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "The Living World Fourth Edition GEORGE B. JOHNSON Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Living World Fourth Edition GEORGE B. JOHNSON Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display PowerPoint ® Lectures prepared by Johnny El-Rady 32 Populations and Communities

2 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.1 Population Growth A population is a group of individuals of the same species living together Critical properties of a population include Population size The number of individuals in a population Population density Population size per unit area Population dispersion Scatter of individuals within a populations range Population growth How populations grow and the factors affecting growth

3 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Assumes a population is growing without limits at its maximal rate Rate is symbolized r and called the biotic potential The Exponential Growth Model Growth rate = dN/dt = r i N No. of individuals in a population Intrinsic rate of increase Change over time The actual rate of population increase is r = (b – d) + (i – e) BirthrateDeathrateNet immigration Net emigration

4 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display No matter how fast populations grow, they eventually reach a limit This is imposed by shortages of important environmental factors Nutrients, water, space, light The carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals that an area can support It is symbolized by k Carrying Capacity

5 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display As a population approaches its carrying capacity, the growth rate slows because of limiting resources The Logistics Growth Model Growth rate begins to slow as N approaches K It reaches 0 when N = K Fig. 32.2 dN/dt = rN K – N K () The logistic growth equation accounts for this

6 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display A graphical plot of N versus t (time) gives an S-shaped sigmoid growth curve The Logistics Growth Model History of a fur seal population on St. Paul Island, Alaska Fig. 32.3

7 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.2 The Influence of Population Density Density-independent effects Effects that are independent of population size but still regulate growth Most are aspects of the external environment Weather Droughts, storms, floods Physical disruptions Fire, road construction

8 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Effects that are dependent on population size and act to regulate growth 32.2 The Influence of Population Density Density-dependent effects These effects have an increasing effect as population size increases Song sparrow Fig. 32.4 Reproductive success decreases as population size increases

9 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display The goal of harvesting organisms for commercial purposes is to maximize net productivity The point of maximal sustainable yield lies partly up the sigmoid curve 32.2 The Influence of Population Density Maximizing population productivity Fig. 32.5

10 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.3 Life History Adaptations Life history = The complete life cycle of an animal Life histories are diverse, with different organisms having different adaptations to their environments r-selected adaptations Populations favor the exponential growth model Have a high rate of increase K-selected adaptations Populations experience competitive logistic growth Favor reproduction near carrying capacity

11 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Most natural populations exhibit a combination of the r/k adaptations

12 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.4 Population Demography Demography is the statistical study of populations Greek demos, people Greek graphos, measurement It helps predict how population sizes will change in the future Growth rate sensitive to Age structure Sex ratio

13 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Age structure Cohort = A group of individuals of the same age Has a characteristic Birth rate or fecundity Number of offspring born in a standard time Death rate or mortality Number of individuals that die in that period The relative number of individuals in each cohort defines a populations age structure Sex ratio The proportion of males and females in a population The number of births is usually directly related to the number of females

14 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Survivorship curves Type I Mortality rises in postreproductive years Type II Mortality constant throughout life Type III Mortality low after establishment Fig. 32.7 Provide a way to express the age distribution characteristics of populations Survivorship is the percentage of an original population that survives to a given age

15 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.5 Communities All organisms that live together in an area are called a community The different species compete and cooperate with each other to make the community stable A community is often identified by the presence of its dominant species The distribution of the other organisms may differ a good deal However, the ranges of all organisms overlap

16 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.6 The Niche and Competition A niche is the particular biological role of an organism in a community It is a pattern of living Competition is the struggle of two organisms to use the same resource Interspecific competition occurs between individuals of different species Intraspecific competition occurs between individuals of a single species

17 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Because of competition, organisms may not be able to occupy their fundamental (theoretical) niche Instead, they occupy their realized (actual) niche Fig. 32.9 Competition among two species of barnacles limits niche use

18 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display In the 1930s, G.F. Gause studied interspecific competition among three species of Paramecium P. aurelia; P. caudatum; P. bursaria All three grew well alone in culture tubes Competitive Exclusion Fig. 32.10

19 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display However, P. caudatum declined to extinction when grown with P. aurelia Fig. 32.10 Gause formulated the principle of competitive exclusion No two species with the same niche can coexist But is one competitor always eliminated? No, as we shall soon see! The two shared the same realized niche and the latter was better!

20 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display P. caudatum and P. bursaria were able to coexist Gauses principle of competitive exclusion can be restated No two species can occupy the same niche indefinitely When niches overlap, two outcomes are possible Competitive exclusion or resource partitioning Fig. 32.10 The two have different realized niches and thus avoid competition

21 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Persistent competition is rare in natural communities Either one species drives the other to extinction Or natural selection reduces the competition between them Resource Partitioning Fig. 32.11 Five species of warblers subdivided a niche to avoid direct competition with one another

22 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Sympatric species occupy same geographical area Avoid competition by partitioning resources Allopatric species do not live in the same geographical area and thus are not in competition Sympatric species tend to exhibit greater differences than allopatric species do Character displacement facilitates habitat partitioning and thus reduces competition Resource Partitioning

23 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Fig. 32.12 Character displacement in stickleback fish Resource Partitioning Feeds on plankton Feeds on both resources Feeds on larger prey

24 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.7 Coevolution and Symbiosis Coevolution is a term that describes the long-term evolutionary adjustments of species to one another Symbiosis is the condition in which two (or more) kinds of organisms live together in close associations Major kinds include Mutualism – Both participating species benefit Parasitism – One species benefits while the other is harmed Commensalism – One species benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed

25 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit Mutualism Fig. 32.14 Ants and Aphids Ants transport the aphids and protect them from predators Aphids provide the ants with food in the form of continuously excreted honeydew

26 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Fig. 32.15 Ants and Acacias Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit Mutualism Acacias provide the ants with food in the form of Beltian bodies Beltian body Ants provide the acacias with organic nutrients and protect it from herbivores and shading from other plants

27 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Fig. 32.16a Symbiotic relationship that is a form of predation The predator (parasite) is much smaller than the prey The prey does not necessarily die Parasitism External parasites Ectoparasites feed on the exterior surface of an organism Dodder is a chlorophyll-less parasitic plant Parasitoids are insects that lay eggs on living hosts Wasps

28 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Cuckoo Meadow pipit Internal parasites Brood parasitism Birds lay their eggs in the nests of other species Brood parasite Foster parent Fig. 32.16 Sarcocystis Endoparasites live within the bodies of vertebrates and invertebrates Marked by much more extreme specialization than external parasites Brood parasites reduce the reproductive success of the foster parent hosts

29 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Symbiotic relationship that benefits one species and neither harms nor benefits the other Commensalism Clownfishes and Sea anemones Clownfishes gain protection by remaining among the anemones tentacles They also glean scraps from the anemones food Fig. 32.17

30 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Fig. 32.18 Cattle egrets and African cape buffalo Note: No clear distinction between commensalism and mutualism Difficult to determine if second partner benefits at all Indeed, the relationship maybe even parasitic Egrets eat insects off of the buffalo

31 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Fig. 32.20 32.8 Predator-Prey Interactions Predation is the consuming of one organism by another, usually of a similar or larger size Under simple laboratory conditions, the predator often exterminates its prey It then becomes extinct itself having run out of food!

32 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.8 Predator-Prey Interactions In nature, predator and prey populations often exhibit cyclic oscillations The North American snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) follows a 10-year cycle Two factors involved 1. Food plants Willow and birch twigs 2. Predators Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) Fig. 32.21a

33 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.8 Predator-Prey Interactions Fig. 32.21b

34 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.8 Predator-Prey Interactions Predator-prey interactions are essential in the maintenance of species-diverse communities Predators greatly reduce competitive exclusion by reducing the individuals of competing species For example, sea stars prevent bivalves from dominating intertidal habitats Other organisms can share their habitat Keystone species are species that play key roles in their communities

35 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.9 Plant and Animal Defenses Plants have evolved many mechanisms to defend themselves from herbivores Morphological (structural) defenses Thorns, spines and prickles Chemical defenses Secondary chemical compounds Found in most algae as well Mustard oils Found in the mustard family (Brassicaceae)

36 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Mustard oils protected plants from herbivores at first At some point, however, certain insects evolved the ability to break down mustard oil The Evolutionary Response of Herbivores These insects were able to use a new resource without competing with other herbivores for it Cabbage butterfly caterpillars Fig. 32.23 Adult Green caterpillar

37 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Some animals receive an added benefit from eating plants rich in secondary chemical compounds Caterpillars of monarch butterflies concentrate and store these compounds Animal Defenses They then pass them to the adult and even to eggs of next generation Birds that eat the butterflies regurgitate them Fig. 32.24 Blue jay Im not eating this again!

38 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Fig. 32.26 Dendrobatid frog Defensive coloration Cryptic coloration Color that blends with surrounding Aposematic coloration Showy color advertising poisonous nature Fig. 32.25 Inchworm caterpillar Camouflage! Warning! Chemical defenses Stings – Bees and wasps Toxic alkaloids – Dendrobatid frogs

39 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.10 Mimicry Many non-poisonous species have evolved to resemble poisonous ones with aposematic coloration Two types of mimicry have been identified Batesian mimicry After Henry Bates, a 19 th century British naturalist Müllerian mimicry After Fritz Müller, a 19 th century German biologist

40 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display A harmless unprotected species (mimic) resembles a poisonous model that exhibits aposematic coloration Batesian Mimicry If the mimics are relatively scarce, they will be avoided by predators Monarch butterfly Fig. 32.27 Viceroy butterfly

41 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Two or more unrelated but protected (toxic) species come to resemble one another Müllerian Mimicry Thus a group defense is achieved Yellow jacket Fig. 32.28 Masarid wasp Sand waspAnthidiine bee

42 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Involves adaptations where one animal body part comes to resemble another This type of mimicry is used by both predator and prey Example Eye-spots found in many butterflies, moths and fish Self Mimicry

43 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.11 Ecological Succession Succession is the orderly progression of changes in community composition that occur over time Secondary succession Occurs in areas where an existing community has been disturbed Primary succession Occurs on bare lifeless substrates, like rocks The first plants to appear from a pioneering community The climax community comes at the end

44 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Three dynamic critical concepts 1. Tolerance First to come are weedy r-selected species that are tolerant of the harsh abiotic conditions 2. Facilitation Habitat changes are introduced that favor other, less weedy species 3. Inhibition Habitat changes may inhibit the growth of the species that caused them Why Succession Happens

45 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display As ecosystems mature, more K-selected species replace r-selected ones Species richness and total biomass increase However, net productivity decreases Thus, agricultural systems are maintained in early successional stages to keep net productivity high Why Succession Happens

46 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display 32.12 Biodiversity Biologically diverse ecosystems are in general more stable than simple ones Species richness refers to the number of species in an ecosystem It is the quantity usually measured by biologists to characterize an ecosystems biodiversity Two factors are important in promoting biodiversity Ecosystem size Latitude

47 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Larger ecosystems contain more diverse habitats and therefore have greater number of species A reduction in an ecosystem size, will reduce the number of species it can support Faunal collapse (extinction) may occur in extreme cases Ecosystem Size

48 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display The number of species in the tropics is far more than that in the arctic region Latitude Fig. 32.32 Two principal reasons 1. Length of growing season 2. Climatic stability

49 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Island Biodiversity In 1967, Robert MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson proposed the equilibrium model The species richness on islands is a dynamic equilibrium between colonization and extinction Two important factors Island size Larger islands have more species than smaller ones Distance from mainland Distant islands have less species than those near the mainland

50 Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Fig. 32.33 The equilibrium model of island biogeography Equilibrium Shifting equilibrium Small distant islands have fewer bird species


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