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© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Introduction to Motor Development Chapter 1.

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1 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Introduction to Motor Development Chapter 1

2 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives Define human development and human motor development Explain why the study of human motor development is important Describe the four domains of human development and explain how they interact Explain the concepts of development, maturation, and growth, and describe the elements of developmental change Define common terms in the study of human motor development Define the terms gross and fine movement, and explain how they are important in human motor development Describe the process–product controversy and how it relates to human motor development Define various terms for age periods throughout the lifespan Define various stages of human development List the periods and describe the history of the field of motor development Explain the phrase interdisciplinary approach to motor development

3 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Human behavior is not compartmentalized; there is a complex system of constant, reciprocal exchanges among an individuals cognitive, affective, motor, and physical being

4 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. What is Motor Development? Human Motor development is... –Process through which we pass during the course of our life Change that occurs in our ability to move –A field of study

5 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Various Definitions changes in motor behavior which reflect the interaction of the maturing organism and its environment (Notes from Scholarly Directions Committee, 1974) changes in movement competencies from infancy to adulthood and involves many aspects of human behavior, both as they affect movement development and as movement development affects them (Keogh, 1977)

6 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Various Definitions the change in motor behavior across the lifespan (Clark & Whitehall, 1989) the sequential, continuous age-related process whereby an individual progresses from simple, unorganized, and unskilled movement to the achievement of highly organized, complex motor skills and finally to the adjustment of skills that accompanies aging (Haywood & Getchell, 2005 )

7 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Working Definition for this text Motor development is the study of changes in human motor behavior over the lifespan, the processes that underlie these changes, and the factors that affect them. (Payne & Isaacs, 2007)

8 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Why is the study of motor development important? To –Understand present motor behavior What is happening and why it is happening –Understand what this behavior was like in the past and why –Understand what the behavior will be like in the future and why

9 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Why is the study of motor development important? Because…… Human development is multifaceted. As movement changes, so do the intellectual, social, and emotional domains Understanding the process of motor development allows us to diagnose cases of abnormal development and to provide intervention and remediation Developmentally appropriate activities can be selected for an optimal teaching/learning environment

10 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Domains of Human Development The four domains are useful for categorizing the study of human and motor development Domains are not discrete

11 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Domains Cognitive domain –Concerns human intellectual development Affective domain –Concerned with the social and emotional aspects of human development Motor domain –Development of human movement and factors that affect that development Physical domain –All types of physical/bodily change

12 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. A Definition of the term Human Development …changes that all human beings face across their lifespan. Such changes result from increasing age as well as ones experiences in life, ones genetic potential, and the interactions of all three factors at any given time. Therefore, development is an interactional process that leads to changes in behavior over the lifespan. (Motor Development Task Force, 1995)

13 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Elements of Developmental Change Six components of developmental change –Qualitative –Sequential –Cumulative –Directional –Multifactorial –Individual

14 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Elements of Developmental Change Qualitative Not just more of something Sequential Certain motor patterns precede others Cumulative Behaviors are additive Directional Development has an ultimate goal Multifactorial No single factor directs change Individual Rate of change varies for all people

15 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Definitions of Development, Maturation, and Growth Development is a term referring to the progressions and regressions that occur throughout the lifespan Growth is the structural aspect of development Maturation deals with the functional changes in human development. Development Growth Maturation Development includes both growth and maturation

16 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Maturation and Growth Growth is quantitative – increase in size Maturation is qualitative – functions of organs and tissues Growth and maturation are interrelated –As the body grows, functions improve As we age, growth slows, but maturation continues throughout the lifespan

17 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Terms Developmental directions –Cephalocaudal From head to tail Can be applied developmentally through the study of walking –Proximodistal From those points close to the bodys center to those points close to the periphery Prenatal growth and acquisition of motor skill

18 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Terms Differentiation –Progression from gross, immature movement to precise, well-controlled, intentional movement Integration –Motor systems are able to function together as ability progresses

19 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. How does the child in this picture demonstrate the concept of integration?

20 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Terms Gross movement –Movement controlled by the large muscles or muscle groups Legs Fine movement –Movement controlled by the small muscles or muscle groups Hands

21 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Terms Two controversial views on measurement in motor development Process Approach –Emphasizes the movement without consideration for the outcome How a child catches a ball Product Approach –Emphasizes the outcome of a movement How much control did the child have while catching the ball?

22 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Terms Age periods throughout the lifespan Accepted age periods are helpful in discussions concerning development throughout the lifespan The term stages is often substituted for the term age periods

23 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. More on Age Periods (Stages) PeriodSignificant Events Prenatal -Embryonic -Fetal Conception to birth Very important period Embryo Fetus - at eight weeks post-gestation Organogenesis Infancy -Neonatal -Toddlerhood Birth to year days after birth Walking alone Early ChildhoodAges 4-7 yr Middle ChildhoodAges 7-9 yr Late ChildhoodLasts 3 years AdolescenceLandmark period Puberty Girls - 11 yr Boys - 13 yr

24 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. More on Age Periods (Stages) PeriodSignificant Events Early Adulthood Begins when adolescence reaches maximum height Girls –age 20 yr Boys – age 22 yr Lasts until age 40 yr Middle AdulthoodAges yrs Late AdulthoodAge 60 until death

25 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Stages of Development Stages of development –Phase, time, levels, periods –Provides manageable portions of behavior Controversy over whether the stages of development actually exist –Does life proceed smoothly and continuously? –Is life discontinuous with abrupt behavior changes?

26 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Periods in the History of Motor Development Precursor Period ( ) –Descriptive observation of human movement Maturational Period ( ) –Biological processes shape human development –Bayles scale of motor development

27 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Periods in the History of Motor Development Normative/Descriptive Period ( ) –Dormant period ( ) –Norm referenced standards for motor performance measurement (1960s) –Kepharts Slow Learner in the Classroom Kephart maintained that certain movement activities enhanced academic performance Not supported by research, still influences professional practice today –Biomechanical analysis Process-Oriented Period (1970-present) –Describe the process, not just the change in movement –Dynamical systems theory –Psychologist return to the study of motor behavior via processing information

28 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Interdisciplinary Approach in the Study of Motor Development Today, there is interaction among the 3 subareas of motor behavior (motor learning, motor control, motor development), with biomechanics and exercise physiology Working together, experts are able to discern more accurately subtle movement changes and differences

29 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Research Designs Cross-sectional Comparison of two or more persons or groups at one point in time Longitudinal A study over a long period of time Time-lag Different cohorts are compared at different times Sequential- Cohort Integrates the cross-sectional, longitudinal, and time-lag designs within one study

30 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Research Designs ~ Pros Cross-sectional Administratively efficient Quickly completed Age differences can be observed Longitudinal Change can be observed across ages Sequential- Cohort Accounts for generational (cohort) effect

31 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Research Designs - Cons Cross- sectional Cannot observe change Cannot determine accurate age of groups Age and cohort are confounded Longitudinal Administratively inefficient Age and time of measurements are confounded Subjects may be influenced by repeated testing Subjects may drop out Sequential- Cohort Administratively inefficient Costly Subjects may drop out Difficult to analyze statistically

32 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Research

33 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


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