2Learning Objectives• Define human development and human motor development• Explain why the study of human motor development is important• Describe the four domains of human development and explain how they interact• Explain the concepts of development, maturation, and growth, and describe the elements of developmental change• Define common terms in the study of human motor development• Define the terms gross and fine movement, and explain how they are important in human motor development• Describe the process–product controversy and how it relates to human motor development• Define various terms for age periods throughout the lifespan• Define various stages of human development• List the periods and describe the history of the field of motor development• Explain the phrase interdisciplinary approach to motor development
3compartmentalized; there is a complex system of Human behavior is notcompartmentalized; thereis a complex system ofconstant, reciprocal exchangesamong an individual’s cognitive,affective, motor, and physicalbeing
4What is Motor Development? Human Motor development is. . .Process through which we pass during the course of our lifeChange that occurs in our ability to moveA field of study
5Various Definitions“changes in motor behavior which reflect the interaction of the maturing organism and its environment” (Notes from Scholarly Directions Committee, 1974)“changes in movement competencies from infancy to adulthood and involves many aspects of human behavior, both as they affect movement development and as movement development affects them” (Keogh, 1977)
6Various Definitions“the change in motor behavior across the lifespan” (Clark & Whitehall, 1989)“the sequential, continuous age-related process whereby an individual progresses from simple, unorganized, and unskilled movement to the achievement of highly organized, complex motor skills and finally to the adjustment of skills that accompanies aging” (Haywood & Getchell, 2005)
7Working Definition for this text “Motor development is the study of changes in human motor behavior over the lifespan, the processes that underlie these changes, and the factors that affect them.”(Payne & Isaacs, 2007)
8Why is the study of motor development important? Understand present motor behaviorWhat is happening and why it is happeningUnderstand what this behavior was like in the past and whyUnderstand what the behavior will be like in the future and why
9Why is the study of motor development important? Because…… Human development is multifaceted. As movement changes, so do the intellectual, social, and emotional domainsUnderstanding the process of motor development allows us to diagnose cases of abnormal development and to provide intervention and remediationDevelopmentally appropriate activities can be selected for an optimal teaching/learning environmentAsk CPS Questions 1-2 to check students’ comprehension
10Domains of Human Development The four domains are useful for categorizing the study of human and motor developmentDomains are not discrete
11Domains Cognitive domain Affective domain Motor domain Physical domain Concerns human intellectual developmentAffective domainConcerned with the social and emotional aspects of human developmentMotor domainDevelopment of human movement and factors that affect that developmentPhysical domainAll types of physical/bodily change
12A Definition of the term Human Development “…changes that all human beings face across their lifespan. Such changes result from increasing age as well as one’s experiences in life, one’s genetic potential, and the interactions of all three factors at any given time. Therefore, development is an interactional process that leads to changes in behavior over the lifespan.”(Motor Development Task Force, 1995)
13Elements of Developmental Change Six components of developmental changeQualitativeSequentialCumulativeDirectionalMultifactorialIndividual
14Elements of Developmental Change QualitativeNot “just more of something”SequentialCertain motor patterns precede othersCumulativeBehaviors are additiveDirectionalDevelopment has an ultimate goalMultifactorialNo single factor directs changeIndividualRate of change varies for all peopleAsk CPS Questions 3-6 to check students’ comprehension
15Definitions of Development, Maturation, and Growth Development includes both growth and maturationDevelopment is a term referring to the progressions and regressions that occur throughout the lifespanGrowth is the structural aspect of developmentMaturation deals with the functional changes in human development.
16Maturation and Growth Growth is quantitative – increase in size Maturation is qualitative – functions of organs and tissuesGrowth and maturation are interrelatedAs the body grows, functions improveAs we age, growth slows, but maturation continues throughout the lifespanAsk CPS Questions 7-8 to check students’ comprehension
17Terms Developmental directions Cephalocaudal Proximodistal From head to tailCan be applied developmentally through the study of walkingProximodistalFrom those points close to the body’s center to those points close to the peripheryPrenatal growth and acquisition of motor skill
18Terms Differentiation Integration Progression from gross, immature movement to precise, well-controlled, intentional movementIntegrationMotor systems are able to function together as ability progresses
19Ask CPS Questions 9-11 to check students’ comprehension How does the child in this picture demonstrate the concept of integration?
20Terms Gross movement Fine movement Movement controlled by the large muscles or muscle groupsLegsFine movementMovement controlled by the small muscles or muscle groupsHandsAsk CPS Question 12 to check students’ comprehension
21Two controversial views on measurement in TermsTwo controversial views on measurement inmotor developmentProcess ApproachEmphasizes the movement without consideration for the outcomeHow a child catches a ballProduct ApproachEmphasizes the outcome of a movementHow much control did the child have while catching the ball?
22Terms Age periods throughout the lifespan Accepted age periods are helpful in discussions concerning development throughout the lifespanThe term “stages” is often substituted for the term “age periods”
23More on Age Periods (Stages) Significant EventsPrenatal-Embryonic-FetalConception to birthVery important periodEmbryoFetus - at eight weeks post-gestationOrganogenesisInfancy-Neonatal-ToddlerhoodBirth to year 10-22 days after birthWalking aloneEarly ChildhoodAges 4-7 yrMiddle ChildhoodAges 7-9 yrLate ChildhoodLasts 3 yearsAdolescenceLandmark periodPubertyGirls - 11 yrBoys - 13 yr
24More on Age Periods (Stages) Significant EventsEarly AdulthoodBegins when adolescence reaches maximum heightGirls –age 20 yrBoys – age 22 yrLasts until age 40 yrMiddle AdulthoodAges yrsLate AdulthoodAge 60 until deathAsk CPS Question 13 to check students’ comprehension
25Stages of Development Stages of development Phase, time, levels, periodsProvides manageable portions of behaviorControversy over whether the stages of development actually existDoes life proceed smoothly and continuously?Is life discontinuous with abrupt behavior changes?
26Periods in the History of Motor Development Precursor Period ( )Descriptive observation of human movementMaturational Period ( )Biological processes shape human developmentBayle’s scale of motor development
27Periods in the History of Motor Development Normative/Descriptive Period ( )Dormant period ( )Norm referenced standards for motor performance measurement (1960’s)Kephart’s Slow Learner in the ClassroomKephart maintained that certain movement activities enhanced academic performanceNot supported by research, still influences professional practice todayBiomechanical analysisProcess-Oriented Period (1970-present)Describe the process, not just the change in movementDynamical systems theoryPsychologist return to the study of motor behavior via processing informationAsk CPS Question 14 to check students’ comprehension
28Interdisciplinary Approach in the Study of Motor Development Today, there is interaction among the 3 subareas of motor behavior (motor learning, motor control, motor development), with biomechanics and exercise physiologyWorking together, experts are able to discern more accurately subtle movement changes and differencesAsk CPS Question 15 to check students’ comprehension
29Research Designs Cross-sectional Longitudinal Time-lag Comparison of two or more persons or groups at one point in timeLongitudinalA study over a long period of timeTime-lagDifferent cohorts are compared at different timesSequential-CohortIntegrates the cross-sectional, longitudinal, and time-lag designs within one study
30Research Designs ~ Pros Cross-sectionalAdministratively efficientQuickly completedAge differences can be observedLongitudinalChange can be observed across agesSequential-CohortAccounts for generational (cohort) effect
31Research Designs - Cons Cross-sectionalCannot observe changeCannot determine accurate age of groupsAge and cohort are confoundedLongitudinalAdministratively inefficientAge and time of measurements are confoundedSubjects may be influenced by repeated testingSubjects may drop outSequential-CohortCostlyDifficult to analyze statistically
32ResearchAsk CPS Question 16 to check students’ comprehension