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Introduction to Motor Development

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Motor Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Motor Development
Chapter 1

2 Learning Objectives • Define human development and human motor development • Explain why the study of human motor development is important • Describe the four domains of human development and explain how they interact • Explain the concepts of development, maturation, and growth, and describe the elements of developmental change • Define common terms in the study of human motor development • Define the terms gross and fine movement, and explain how they are important in human motor development • Describe the process–product controversy and how it relates to human motor development • Define various terms for age periods throughout the lifespan • Define various stages of human development • List the periods and describe the history of the field of motor development • Explain the phrase interdisciplinary approach to motor development

3 compartmentalized; there is a complex system of
Human behavior is not compartmentalized; there is a complex system of constant, reciprocal exchanges among an individual’s cognitive, affective, motor, and physical being

4 What is Motor Development?
Human Motor development is. . . Process through which we pass during the course of our life Change that occurs in our ability to move A field of study

5 Various Definitions “changes in motor behavior which reflect the interaction of the maturing organism and its environment” (Notes from Scholarly Directions Committee, 1974) “changes in movement competencies from infancy to adulthood and involves many aspects of human behavior, both as they affect movement development and as movement development affects them” (Keogh, 1977)

6 Various Definitions “the change in motor behavior across the lifespan” (Clark & Whitehall, 1989) “the sequential, continuous age-related process whereby an individual progresses from simple, unorganized, and unskilled movement to the achievement of highly organized, complex motor skills and finally to the adjustment of skills that accompanies aging” (Haywood & Getchell, 2005)

7 Working Definition for this text
“Motor development is the study of changes in human motor behavior over the lifespan, the processes that underlie these changes, and the factors that affect them.” (Payne & Isaacs, 2007)

8 Why is the study of motor development important?
Understand present motor behavior What is happening and why it is happening Understand what this behavior was like in the past and why Understand what the behavior will be like in the future and why

9 Why is the study of motor development important? Because……
Human development is multifaceted. As movement changes, so do the intellectual, social, and emotional domains Understanding the process of motor development allows us to diagnose cases of abnormal development and to provide intervention and remediation Developmentally appropriate activities can be selected for an optimal teaching/learning environment Ask CPS Questions 1-2 to check students’ comprehension

10 Domains of Human Development
The four domains are useful for categorizing the study of human and motor development Domains are not discrete

11 Domains Cognitive domain Affective domain Motor domain Physical domain
Concerns human intellectual development Affective domain Concerned with the social and emotional aspects of human development Motor domain Development of human movement and factors that affect that development Physical domain All types of physical/bodily change

12 A Definition of the term Human Development
“…changes that all human beings face across their lifespan. Such changes result from increasing age as well as one’s experiences in life, one’s genetic potential, and the interactions of all three factors at any given time. Therefore, development is an interactional process that leads to changes in behavior over the lifespan.” (Motor Development Task Force, 1995)

13 Elements of Developmental Change
Six components of developmental change Qualitative Sequential Cumulative Directional Multifactorial Individual

14 Elements of Developmental Change
Qualitative Not “just more of something” Sequential Certain motor patterns precede others Cumulative Behaviors are additive Directional Development has an ultimate goal Multifactorial No single factor directs change Individual Rate of change varies for all people Ask CPS Questions 3-6 to check students’ comprehension

15 Definitions of Development, Maturation, and Growth
Development includes both growth and maturation Development is a term referring to the progressions and regressions that occur throughout the lifespan Growth is the structural aspect of development Maturation deals with the functional changes in human development.

16 Maturation and Growth Growth is quantitative – increase in size
Maturation is qualitative – functions of organs and tissues Growth and maturation are interrelated As the body grows, functions improve As we age, growth slows, but maturation continues throughout the lifespan Ask CPS Questions 7-8 to check students’ comprehension

17 Terms Developmental directions Cephalocaudal Proximodistal
From head to tail Can be applied developmentally through the study of walking Proximodistal From those points close to the body’s center to those points close to the periphery Prenatal growth and acquisition of motor skill

18 Terms Differentiation Integration
Progression from gross, immature movement to precise, well-controlled, intentional movement Integration Motor systems are able to function together as ability progresses

19 Ask CPS Questions 9-11 to check students’ comprehension
How does the child in this picture demonstrate the concept of integration?

20 Terms Gross movement Fine movement
Movement controlled by the large muscles or muscle groups Legs Fine movement Movement controlled by the small muscles or muscle groups Hands Ask CPS Question 12 to check students’ comprehension

21 Two controversial views on measurement in
Terms Two controversial views on measurement in motor development Process Approach Emphasizes the movement without consideration for the outcome How a child catches a ball Product Approach Emphasizes the outcome of a movement How much control did the child have while catching the ball?

22 Terms Age periods throughout the lifespan
Accepted age periods are helpful in discussions concerning development throughout the lifespan The term “stages” is often substituted for the term “age periods”

23 More on Age Periods (Stages)
Significant Events Prenatal -Embryonic -Fetal Conception to birth Very important period Embryo Fetus - at eight weeks post-gestation Organogenesis Infancy -Neonatal -Toddlerhood Birth to year 1 0-22 days after birth Walking alone Early Childhood Ages 4-7 yr Middle Childhood Ages 7-9 yr Late Childhood Lasts 3 years Adolescence Landmark period Puberty Girls - 11 yr Boys - 13 yr

24 More on Age Periods (Stages)
Significant Events Early Adulthood Begins when adolescence reaches maximum height Girls –age 20 yr Boys – age 22 yr Lasts until age 40 yr Middle Adulthood Ages yrs Late Adulthood Age 60 until death Ask CPS Question 13 to check students’ comprehension

25 Stages of Development Stages of development
Phase, time, levels, periods Provides manageable portions of behavior Controversy over whether the stages of development actually exist Does life proceed smoothly and continuously? Is life discontinuous with abrupt behavior changes?

26 Periods in the History of Motor Development
Precursor Period ( ) Descriptive observation of human movement Maturational Period ( ) Biological processes shape human development Bayle’s scale of motor development

27 Periods in the History of Motor Development
Normative/Descriptive Period ( ) Dormant period ( ) Norm referenced standards for motor performance measurement (1960’s) Kephart’s Slow Learner in the Classroom Kephart maintained that certain movement activities enhanced academic performance Not supported by research, still influences professional practice today Biomechanical analysis Process-Oriented Period (1970-present) Describe the process, not just the change in movement Dynamical systems theory Psychologist return to the study of motor behavior via processing information Ask CPS Question 14 to check students’ comprehension

28 Interdisciplinary Approach in the Study of Motor Development
Today, there is interaction among the 3 subareas of motor behavior (motor learning, motor control, motor development), with biomechanics and exercise physiology Working together, experts are able to discern more accurately subtle movement changes and differences Ask CPS Question 15 to check students’ comprehension

29 Research Designs Cross-sectional Longitudinal Time-lag
Comparison of two or more persons or groups at one point in time Longitudinal A study over a long period of time Time-lag Different cohorts are compared at different times Sequential-Cohort Integrates the cross-sectional, longitudinal, and time-lag designs within one study

30 Research Designs ~ Pros
Cross-sectional Administratively efficient Quickly completed Age differences can be observed Longitudinal Change can be observed across ages Sequential-Cohort Accounts for generational (cohort) effect

31 Research Designs - Cons
Cross-sectional Cannot observe change Cannot determine accurate age of groups Age and cohort are confounded Longitudinal Administratively inefficient Age and time of measurements are confounded Subjects may be influenced by repeated testing Subjects may drop out Sequential-Cohort Costly Difficult to analyze statistically

32 Research Ask CPS Question 16 to check students’ comprehension

33 The End

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