2 Objectives: 49-1 Explain why a medical assistant needs to understand the role of diet in health Describe how the body uses food Explain the role of calories in the diet Identify the seven basic food components and explain the major functions of each List the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Nutrition and Special Diets
3 Objectives (cont.) 49-6 Explain how the Food Guide Pyramid can be used to plan a nutritious, well-balanced diet Describe a test used to assess body fat Identify types of patients who require special diets and the modifications required for each group Identify specific modified diets that may be ordered to treat or prevent certain conditions. Nutrition and Special Diets
4 Objectives (cont.) 49-10Describe the warning signs, symptoms, and treatment of eating disorders Describe techniques the medical assistant can use to effectively educate different types of patients about nutritional requirements. Nutrition and Special Diets
5 Introduction Nutrition is a five part process: Intake Digestion Absorption Metabolism Elimination You will gain the knowledge needed to recognize the signs of illness related to diet. Nutrition is the process of how the body takes in and utilizes food and other sources of nutrients.
6 Role of Diet in Health You need to know what effect food has on health. You will work closely with the rest of the medical team to ensure patients understand the role of diet and how they adhere to prescribed diets.
7 Daily Energy Requirements The human body requires the nutrients in food for three purposes. To provide energy To build, repair, and maintain body tissues To regulate body processes You will need to understand the relationship of food to good health and how the body uses food.
8 Metabolism Sum of all the cellular processes that build, maintain, and supply energy to living tissue. Anabolism Anabolism – substances such as nutrients are changed into more complex substances and used to build body tissue. Catabolism Catabolism – complex substances are broken down into simpler substances and converted to energy.
9 Role of Calories The amount of energy a food produces in the body is measured in kilocalories. A calorie – amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 0 C. Foods differ in number of calories Calories – used to measure the energy the body uses during all activities and metabolic processes.
11 Proteins: Essential nutrient for building and repairing cells and tissues. When ill: Helps maintain the bodys water balance. Assists with antibody production and disease resistance. Helps maintain body heat. Seven Basic Food Components (cont.)
12 Carbohydrates: Provide two-thirds of a persons daily energy needs. Provides heat Help metabolize fats Reserves protein for uses other than supplying energy Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Healthy Carbohydrates
13 Fiber: Does not supply energy or heat to the body. Increases and softening the bulk of the stool, promotes defecation. Absorbing organic wastes and toxins. Decreases the rate of carbohydrate breakdown and absorption. Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Sources of Fiber
14 Lipids, dietary fats, and fat related substances: Each gram of fat contains 9 calories (twice as many as proteins and carbohydrates). Important components of cell membranes, nervous tissue, and some hormones. Essential for growth and metabolism. Stores energy in the form of body fat. Insulates and protects organs. Provides a feeling of fullness. Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Which of these are unsaturated fats?
15 Vitamins: Essential for normal body growth, maintenance, and resistance to infection. Helps the body use other nutrients and assists with various body processes. Seven Basic Food Components (cont.)
16 Minerals: Helps build and maintain body tissues and carry on life functions. Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) What important mineral is found in these foods?
17 Water: Contributes to 65% of the body weight. Essential to the bodys normal functioning. Help maintain the balance of fluids. Lubricates the bodys moving parts. Aids in digestion. Flushes out wastes. Regulates body temperature through perspiration. Seven Basic Food Components (cont.)
18 Dietary Guidelines Suggestions for the types and quantities of food people should eat each day. US Dept of Agriculture and US Dept of Health and Human Services.
19 Dietary Guidelines (cont.) Variety of foods Balance the food with physical activity Eat plenty of grains, vegetables, and fruits Keep food low in fat Moderate sugar intake Moderate salt and sodium Moderate alcoholic intake
20 Food Guide Pyramid Use the Food Guide Pyramid to explain nutritional guidelines to patients. Know how much of a food equals a serving. Provides a general guideline Does not provide exact information about what to eat. Nutrition varies from person to person Click for Pyramid
21 Food Guide Pyramid Fats, oils, and sweets Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts FruitVegetablesMilk, yogurt, and cheese Bread, cereal, rice, and pasta
22 American Cancer Society Guidelines Eat more high fiber foods Eat plenty of dark green and deep yellow fruits and vegetables. Eat plenty of broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts, kohlrabi, and cauliflower. Be moderate in salt-cured, smoked, and nitrite- cured foods. Cut down on total fat intake. Avoid obesity. Be moderate in use of alcohol.
23 Assessing Body Fat Taken on triceps, elbow, and midway between the shoulder. Optimal percentage of body fat differs between men and women. Aging usually changes the ratio a bit because of muscle tissue being replaced by fat. Skin fold test- measures thickness of fold of skin with a caliper.
24 Apply Your Knowledge What are three functions of water?
25 Answer Apply Your Knowledge - Answer Helps to maintain the balance of fluids Lubricates the bodys moving parts Aids in digestion What are three functions of water?
26 Modified Diets Adjustments in diet may involve: Restricting certain foods Emphasizing particular foods Changing daily caloric intake Changing the amount of specific nutrient Changing the texture of foods Altering the number of daily meals
27 Specific Nutritional Needs Patients with: Allergies Anemia Cancer Diabetes Hypertension Heart disease Patients with: Lactose sensitivity Patients who are: Pregnant Overweight Children
28 Specified Modified Diets Used to treat or prevent certain conditions. Specific modified diets include changes for: Texture Nutrient level Frequency Timing of meals Exclusions
29 Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa – starve themselves Bulimia – binge and purge Get help if signs appear. Extremely harmful eating behaviors that lead to health problems:
30 Patient Education Teach patients about the role that nutrition plays in helping them to prevent specific medical conditions. Teach patients how to be wise consumers by reading food package labels. Be able to answer questions about diets and nutrition.
31 Your Role in Patient Education Remember the following factors when doing education about nutrition: Psychological and lifestyle factors Patients age and family circumstances Disease and disorders Patients psychological condition Remind patient to eat healthfully
32 Apply Your Knowledge A young female patient arrives at the clinic showing a 15 pound weight loss in the last two months. Her weight is 10 pounds under the average weight for her height. She states she feels great. What should you do?
33 Answer Apply Your Knowledge - Answer Document the weight loss and report it to the physician. She may be suffering from anorexia nervosa or bulimia, two types of eating disorders that require psychotherapy. A young female patient arrives at the clinic showing a 15 pound weight loss in the last two months. Her weight is 10 pounds under the average weight for her height. She states she feels great. What should you do?
34 Summary Medical Assistant You will play a major role in educating patients about special diets and helping them implement dietary changes. You need to know the basics of metabolism and the role of calories in the diet.