2Nutrition and Special Diets Objectives:49-1 Explain why a medical assistant needs to understand the role of diet in health.49-2 Describe how the body uses food.49-3 Explain the role of calories in the diet.49-4 Identify the seven basic food components and explain the major functions of each.49-5 List the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
3Nutrition and Special Diets Objectives (cont.)49-6 Explain how the Food Guide Pyramid can be used to plan a nutritious, well-balanced diet.49-7 Describe a test used to assess body fat.49-8 Identify types of patients who require special diets and the modifications required for each group.49-9 Identify specific modified diets that may be ordered to treat or prevent certain conditions.
4Nutrition and Special Diets Objectives (cont.)49-10 Describe the warning signs, symptoms, and treatment of eating disorders.49-11 Describe techniques the medical assistant can use to effectively educate different types of patients about nutritional requirements.
5Introduction Nutrition is a five part process: IntakeDigestionAbsorptionMetabolismEliminationYou will gain the knowledge needed to recognize the signs of illness related to diet.Nutrition is the process of how the body takes in and utilizes food and other sources of nutrients.
6Role of Diet in HealthYou need to know what effect food has on health.You will work closely with the rest of the medical team to ensure patients understand the role of diet and how they adhere to prescribed diets.
7Daily Energy Requirements The human body requires the nutrients in food for three purposes.To provide energyTo build, repair, and maintain body tissuesTo regulate body processesYou will need to understand the relationship of food to good health and how the body uses food.
8MetabolismSum of all the cellular processes that build, maintain, and supply energy to living tissue.Anabolism – substances such as nutrients are changed into more complex substances and used to build body tissue.Catabolism – complex substances are broken down into simpler substances and converted to energy.
9Role of CaloriesThe amount of energy a food produces in the body is measured in kilocalories.A calorie – amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 10 C.Foods differ in number of caloriesCalories – used to measure the energy the body uses during all activities and metabolic processes.
11Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Proteins: Essential nutrient for building and repairing cells and tissues.When ill: Helps maintain the body’s water balance.Assists with antibody production and disease resistance.Helps maintain body heat.
12Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Carbohydrates:Provide two-thirds of a person’s daily energy needs.Provides heatHelp metabolize fatsReserves protein for uses other than supplying energyHealthy Carbohydrates
13Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Fiber:Does not supply energy or heat to the body.Increases and softening the bulk of the stool, promotes defecation.Absorbing organic wastes and toxins.Decreases the rate of carbohydrate breakdown and absorption.Sources of Fiber
14Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Lipids, dietary fats, and fat related substances:Each gram of fat contains 9 calories (twice as many as proteins and carbohydrates).Important components of cell membranes, nervous tissue, and some hormones.Essential for growth and metabolism.Stores energy in the form of body fat.Insulates and protects organs.Provides a feeling of fullness.Which of these are unsaturated fats?
15Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Vitamins:Essential for normal body growth, maintenance, and resistance to infection.Helps the body use other nutrients and assists with various body processes.
16Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Minerals:Helps build and maintain body tissues and carry on life functions.What important mineral is found in these foods?
17Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Water:Contributes to 65% of the body weight.Essential to the body’s normal functioning.Help maintain the balance of fluids.Lubricates the body’s moving parts.Aids in digestion.Flushes out wastes.Regulates body temperature through perspiration.
18Dietary GuidelinesSuggestions for the types and quantities of food people should eat each day.US Dept of Agriculture and US Dept of Health and Human Services.
19Dietary Guidelines (cont.) Variety of foodsBalance the food with physical activityEat plenty of grains, vegetables, and fruitsKeep food low in fatModerate sugar intakeModerate salt and sodiumModerate alcoholic intake
20Food Guide PyramidUse the Food Guide Pyramid to explain nutritional guidelines to patients.Know how much of a food equals a serving.Provides a general guidelineDoes not provide exact information aboutwhat to eat.Nutrition varies from person to personClick for Pyramid
21Food Guide Pyramid Milk, yogurt, and cheese Fats, oils, and sweets Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nutsVegetablesFruitBread, cereal, rice, and pasta
22American Cancer Society Guidelines Eat more high fiber foodsEat plenty of dark green and deep yellow fruits and vegetables.Eat plenty of broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts, kohlrabi, and cauliflower.Be moderate in salt-cured, smoked, and nitrite- cured foods.Cut down on total fat intake.Avoid obesity.Be moderate in use of alcohol.
23Assessing Body FatSkin fold test- measures thickness of fold of skin with a caliper.Taken on triceps, elbow, and midway between the shoulder.Optimal percentage of body fat differs between men and women.Aging usually changes the ratio a bit because of muscle tissue being replaced by fat.
24Apply Your KnowledgeWhat are three functions of water?
25Apply Your Knowledge -Answer What are three functions of water?Helps to maintain the balance of fluidsLubricates the body’s moving partsAids in digestion
26Modified Diets Adjustments in diet may involve: Restricting certain foodsEmphasizing particular foodsChanging daily caloric intakeChanging the amount of specific nutrientChanging the texture of foodsAltering the number of daily meals
27Specific Nutritional Needs Patients with:AllergiesAnemiaCancerDiabetesHypertensionHeart diseasePatients with:Lactose sensitivityPatients who are:PregnantOverweightChildren
28Specified Modified Diets Used to treat or prevent certain conditions.Specific modified diets include changes for:TextureNutrient levelFrequencyTiming of mealsExclusions
29Get help if signs appear. Eating DisordersExtremely harmful eating behaviors that lead to health problems:Anorexia nervosa – starve themselvesBulimia – binge and purgeGet help if signs appear.
30Patient EducationTeach patients about the role that nutrition plays in helping them to prevent specific medical conditions.Teach patients how to be wise consumers by reading food package labels.Be able to answer questions about diets and nutrition.
31Your Role in Patient Education Remember the following factors when doing education about nutrition:Psychological and lifestyle factorsPatient’s age and family circumstancesDisease and disordersPatient’s psychological conditionRemind patient to eat healthfully
32Apply Your KnowledgeA young female patient arrives at the clinic showing a 15 pound weight loss in the last two months. Her weight is 10 pounds under the average weight for her height. She states she “feels great.” What should you do?
33Apply Your Knowledge -Answer A young female patient arrives at the clinic showing a 15 pound weight loss in the last two months. Her weight is 10 pounds under the average weight for her height. She states she “feels great.” What should you do?Document the weight loss and report it to the physician. She may be suffering from anorexia nervosa or bulimia, two types of eating disorders that require psychotherapy.
34Medical Assistant Summary You will play a major role in educating patients about special diets and helping them implement dietary changes.You need to know the basics of metabolism and the role of calories in the diet.