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Infection Control Techniques

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Presentation on theme: "Infection Control Techniques"— Presentation transcript:

1 Infection Control Techniques
Chapter 20 Infection Control Techniques PowerPoint® presentation to accompany: Medical Assisting Third Edition Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson

2 Learning Outcomes 20.1 Describe the medical assistant’s role in infection control. 20.2 Describe methods of infection control. 20.3 Compare and contrast medical and surgical asepsis. 20.4 Describe how to perform aseptic hand washing. 20.5 Compare and contrast the procedures for sanitization, disinfection, and sterilization.

3 Learning Outcomes (cont.)
20.6 Describe measures used in sanitization. 20.7 List various methods used in disinfection and the advantages and disadvantages of each. 20.8 Discuss the goal of surgical asepsis. 20.9 Explain what an autoclave is and how it operates. 20.10 List the steps in the general autoclave procedures.

4 Learning Outcomes (cont.)
20.11 Explain how to wrap and label items for sterilization in an autoclave. 20.12 Describe how to complete the sterilization procedure using an autoclave. 20.13 Define the Blood-Borne Pathogens Standard and Universal Precautions as described in the rules and regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

5 Learning Outcomes (cont.)
20.14 Explain the role of Universal Precautions in the duties of a medical assistant. 20.15 List the procedures and legal requirements for disposing of hazardous waste. 20.16 Describe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requirements for reporting cases of infectious disease. 20.17 Discuss the need for specific guidelines for isolating patients in health-care settings.

6 Learning Outcomes (cont.)
20.18 Describe the appropriate use of personal protective equipment in various situations. 20.29 Explain the purpose of immunization. 20.20 Describe your role in educating patients about immunizations. 20.21 Explain how to educate patients in preventing disease transmission.

7 Introduction Patients coming to the office for treatment may be more susceptible to infections Immunizations and patient education are important methods of infection control You will be introduced to OSHA guidelines, the Blood-Borne Pathogen Standard, reporting guidelines, and isolation procedures.

8 MA’s Role in Infection Control
To control infectious diseases, the cycle of infection must be broken Apply principles of infection control in office setting

9 MA’s Role in Infection Control (cont.)
Follow correct sanitization, disinfection, and sterilization procedures Help patients understand basic disease prevention Educate patients about immunizations Administer immunizations

10 Correct! Apply Your Knowledge
What is your role as a medical assistant in control of infection in the medical office? ANSWER: To apply principles of infection control by following correct sanitization, disinfection, and sterilization procedures. Correct!

11 Infection Control Measures
Eliminate elements needed for disease to occur Knowledge of Medical asepsis Based on cleanliness As few microorganisms as possible Surgical asepsis Sterile environment No microorganisms

12 Medical Asepsis Keep office clean:
Reception area: sick vs. well patients Reception room clean, well lit, and ventilated Keep furniture in good repair Strict “no food or drink” policy Empty trash as necessary

13 Medical Asepsis (cont.)
During medical assistant procedures Prevent cross-contamination Hand washing Beginning of day After breaks Before and after each patient Before and after handling equipment or specimens After blowing your nose or coughing

14 Medical Asepsis (cont.)
Other precautions Avoid leaning against sinks, supplies, equipment Avoid touching your face and mouth Use tissues when you cough or sneeze, and always wash your hands afterward Avoid working directly with patients when you have a cold; wear gloves and mask if you must Stay home if you have a fever

15 Apply Your Knowledge Good Answer!
Describe the difference between medical and surgical asepsis. ANSWER: Medical asepsis is based on cleanliness and reducing the number of microorganisms as much as possible. Surgical asepsis is maintaining a sterile environment by eliminating all microorganisms. Good Answer!

16 Sanitization Scrubbing with a brush and detergent to remove blood, mucus, and other contaminants or media where pathogens can grow For cleaning items that touch only healthy, intact skin OR First step in disinfection and sterilization for other equipment

17 Sanitization (cont.) Collect items for sanitization Scrub items
Place in water and special detergent solution Use utility gloves Separate sharps from other equipment Scrub items Follow manufacturers’ guidelines Dry thoroughly Examine carefully

18 Sanitization (cont.) Rubber and plastic items Syringes and needles
Use disposable whenever possible Ultrasonic cleaning For delicate instruments and those with moving parts Sound waves generated through a cleaning solution to loosen contaminants

19 Nice Job! Apply Your Knowledge
What is sanitation, and what types of items is it adequate for cleaning? ANSWER: Sanitation is scrubbing with a brush and detergent to remove blood, mucus, and other contaminants or media where pathogens can grow. It is adequate for cleaning items that touch only healthy, intact skin. Nice Job!

20 Disinfection Adequate for instruments that do not penetrate skin or mucus membranes and surfaces not considered sterile OR Second step in infection control prior to sterilization Will not kill spores, certain viruses

21 Disinfection (cont.) Using disinfectants
Cleaning products applied to inanimate materials to reduce or eliminate infectious organisms Antiseptics are anti-infective cleaning agents used on human tissue Follow manufacturers’ guidelines

22 Disinfection (cont.) Factors impacting effectiveness of disinfectants
Number of times solution is used Wet items – surface moisture may dilute solution Traces of soap left from sanitization – alters chemical composition Evaporation

23 Disinfection (cont.) Choose the correct disinfectant
Germicidal soap products Alcohol Acid products Formaldehyde Glutaraldehyde – “cold disinfection” Bleach Iodine and iodine compounds

24 Disinfection (cont.) Handling disinfected supplies
Prevent contamination with other surfaces Use sterile transfer forceps Wear gloves Store in clean, moisture-free environment

25 Apply Your Knowledge Excellent!
What is the difference between a disinfectant and an antiseptic? ANTISEPTIC: Disinfectants are cleaning products applied to inanimate materials to reduce or eliminate infectious organisms. Antiseptics are anti-infective cleaning agents used on human tissue. Excellent!

26 Surgical Asepsis Goal is to keep the surgical environment completely free of all microorganisms Used for even minor operations and injections The more extensive the procedure, the greater the risk of infection

27 Sterilization Required for all instruments or supplies that
Penetrate the skin Contact normally sterile areas of the body Object is either sterile or not sterile If unsure of sterility, consider it not sterile Prior to sterilization Sanitize Disinfect

28 Sterilization: The Autoclave
Primary method of sterilization Pressurized steam Operates at lower temperatures than dry heat sterilization Moisture causes coagulation of proteins in microorganisms at lower temperatures Cell walls burst when cell cools, killing the microorganism

29 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.)
Wrap sanitized and disinfected items Special porous fabric, paper, or plastic Items should not touch Label Check water level – distilled water only Preheat, but do not overheat

30 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.)
Load, choose correct setting, run cycle Temperature 250° to 270° F Pressure 15 to 30 pounds Unload Store items properly Clean, dry location Shelf life based on packaging, but generally 30 days

31 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.)
Clean autoclave and area Quality control checks Sterilization indicators – confirm that items have been exposed to correct volume of steam at the correct temperature for the correct length of time Biological indicators – contain bacterial spores and confirm that sterilization occurs

32 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.)
Prevent incomplete sterilization Correct timing Adequate temperature Properly wrapped packs Adequate steam levels Timing Preset for load types Use sterilization indicators

33 Sterilization: The Autoclave (cont.)
Temperature Too high – steam too little moisture Too low – steam too much moisture Do not overcrowd autoclave Steam level If incorrect, items will not be sterile at end of cycle

34 Sterilization: Sterile Technique
Surgical scrub During surgical procedures Do not touch sterile items without sterile gloves or transfer forceps Aseptic technique Throughout surgical procedures Caring for surgical wounds

35 Sterilization: Surgical Asepsis
After procedures Sanitize, disinfect, and sterilize reusable items Disinfect surfaces Waste disposal Biohazard waste containers Leak-proof containers either color-coded red or labeled with biohazard symbol Biohazardous waste Biological agents that can spread disease to living things

36 Apply Your Knowledge What items need to be sterilized?
ANSWER: Sterilization is required for all instruments or supplies that penetrate the skin or come in contact with normally sterile areas of the body.

37 Right! Apply Your Knowledge
The physician is going to remove a small growth from your patient’s back. In order to prepare for this procedure, what steps would you take to prevent the spread of infection? ANSWER: Use medical asepsis while preparing the patient, and then use surgical asepsis during the procedure. Right!

38 OSHA Guidelines Blood-Borne Pathogen Standards
Protect health-care workers from health hazards on the job Also protect patients and others who come to medical facilities Dictate how to handle infectious or potentially infectious wastes Discarded Held for processing

39 OSHA Guidelines (cont.)
Blood-Borne Pathogen Standards Measures to prevent the spread of infection Provide a margin of safety by ensuring that medical facilities meet minimal standards for asepsis Requirements for training, keeping records, housekeeping, and personal protective gear

40 OSHA Guidelines (cont.)
Universal Precautions Prevent health-care workers from exposure to infections Assume that all blood and blood and body fluids are infected with blood-borne pathogens Standard Precautions Combination of Universal Precautions and Body Substance Isolation guidelines Used in hospitals to prevent transmission of disease

41 OSHA Guidelines (cont.)
Categories of tasks Tasks that expose a worker to blood, body fluids, or tissues and require specific protective measures Tasks that usually do not involve risk of exposure but require precautions in certain situations Tasks that have no risk of exposure, so no special protection is required

42 OSHA Guidelines (cont.)
Personal Protective Equipment Protective gear worn to protect against physical hazards Employers must provide PPE at no charge to the employee Disposable, sterile exam and utility gloves Masks and protective eyewear or face shields Protective clothing

43 OSHA Guidelines (cont.)
Postprocedure Cleanup Decontaminate all exposed surfaces Replace protective coverings on surfaces or equipment Decontaminate receptacles Pick up any broken glass with tongs Discard all potentially infectious waste materials

44 OSHA Guidelines (cont.)
Apply guidelines daily on the job Exposure incidents Contact with infectious substance Rules apply to all serious infections – HIV, HBV HBV vaccine Transmission to patients Nosocomial infection – an infection acquired by a patient in a health-care facility

45 Apply Your Knowledge Impressive!
OSHA divides medical tasks by level of risk. What are these risk categories? ANSWER: There are three categories of risk: Category 1: Expose a worker to blood, body fluids, or tissues and require specific protective measures Category 2: Usually do not involve risk of exposure, but precautions are required in certain situations Category 3: No risk of exposure, so no special protection is required Impressive!

46 Reporting Guidelines Certain diseases must be reported to state or county health department Information is forwarded to the CDC – control of the spread of infection

47 Reporting Guidelines (cont.)
National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (Table 20-2) Examples HIV/AIDS  Cholera Rubella  Hepatitis Legionellosis  Lyme disease Mumps  Smallpox Tetanus  Tuberculosis

48 Good Anwer! Apply Your Knowledge
How is the information on reportable diseases used by the CDC? ANSWER: The CDC uses the information reported to them to help control the spread of infection. Good Anwer!

49 Isolation Guidelines CDC guidelines
Types of precautions needed Patients requiring precautions Create an environment that protects against pathogens Standard Precautions

50 Isolation Guidelines (cont.)
PPE Select appropriate PPE for mode of transmission Gloves Masks, face shields, respirators Gowns Table 20-3

51 Nice! Apply Your Knowledge
Mrs. Findley brings her child with chickenpox into the medical office. What type of personal protective equipment should you use when caring for this child? ANSWER: Chickenpox requires airborne and contact precautions, so you should use gloves and a mask and goggles or a respirator. Nice!

52 Immunizations Immunization Reduces risk of infection spread
Administration of a vaccine or toxoid to protect susceptible individuals from infectious diseases Reduces risk of infection spread Decreases the susceptibility of the host

53 Immunizations: Recommendations
Immunization schedules for children Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices American Academy of Pediatrics American Academy of Family Physicians Immunization schedules for adults The National Coalition of Adult Immunization (NCAI)

54 Immunizations (cont.) When administering. you must explain
The need for immunization Side effects Soreness at site Low-grade fever General malaise

55 Immunizations (cont.) Concerns Pediatric patients Informed consent
Do not give if child has fever Informed consent Explain benefits and risks Contraindications Symptoms that render the use of a remedy or procedure inadvisable because of the risk

56 Immunizations (cont.) Immunization records Pregnant patients Elderly
National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1988 Instruct parents keep record as proof of immunization Pregnant patients Avoid live virus vaccines FDA categories A, B, C, D, and X Elderly More likely to develop side effects

57 Immunizations (cont.) Immunocompromised patients Health-care workers
May experience minimal to dangerous effects Adjust dosage or delay administration Must also consider immunization status of family and caregivers Health-care workers Hepatitis B vaccination offered by employer at no cost to employee

58 Apply Your Knowledge Great! What is an immunization?
ANSWER: An immunization is the administration of a vaccine or toxoid to protect susceptible individuals from infectious diseases. Great!

59 Preventing Disease Transmission
Patient education Health promotion Disease prevention Disease treatment Medical Assistant role in patient education Share responsibility Reinforce and explain instructions

60 Preventing Disease Transmission (cont.)
Educate patient on Nutrition and diet Exercise and weight control Prevention of STDs Smoking cessation Alcohol and drug abuse prevention and treatment Proper use of medications and prescribed treatments Stress-reduction techniques

61 Preventing Disease Transmission (cont.)
Goal of patient education Help patients take care of themselves Encourage patients to participate actively in their own health care

62 Bravo! Apply Your Knowledge
What three areas should patient education focus on? What is the medical assistant’s role in patient education? ANSWER: Patient education should focus on health promotion, disease prevention, and disease treatment. The medical assistant shares responsibility with the physician and other staff members and should reinforce and explain instructions given by others. Bravo!

63 In Summary Medical Assistant
Sanitization, disinfection, and sterilization break the cycle of infection by ridding instruments and equipment of pathogens. The medical assistant plays a vital role in reducing patient vulnerability by encouraging patients to maintain a correct immunization status and by being aware of special immunization concerns of certain patients.

64 End of Chapter 20 Soap and education are not as sudden as a massacre, but they are more deadly in the long run. ~ Mark Twain

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