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© 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.Chapter 2 The Technical Core: Learning and Teaching W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Levels of Organizational StructureTalcott Parsons: Three levels of structure in organizations Technical Managerial Institutional Technical Core: system of organizational activity where the “product” of the organization is produced. In schools, the teaching-learning process, as the technical core, shapes many administrative decisions. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Learning Defined Learning: experience produces a stable change in someone’s knowledge or behavior. Change must occur because of experience, whether or not the learning is intentional or unintentional No one best explanation of learning, but three general theories: Behavioral theories: stress observable changes in behaviors, skills, and habits Cognitive theories: stress internal mental activities such as thinking, remembering, creating, and problem solving Constructivist theories: stress how individuals make meaning of events and activities. Learning = construction of knowledge W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Behavioral Perspective on LearningBehaviorists not concerned primarily with mental or internal processes, but rather with changes in behavior brought about by experience. B.F. Skinner and his followers emphasize antecedents and consequences as mechanisms for changing behavior. Environmental influences (antecedents and consequences) shape all behavior, in the “A-B-C” pattern: Antecedent-behavior-consequence: antecedent precedes behavior, which is followed by a consequence Consequences of behavior become antecedents for next ABC sequence Change behavior by changing antecedents, consequences, or both W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Consequences Early behavioral work focused on consequences more than antecedents. Kind of consequence and timing of consequence will strengthen or weaken individual’s propensity for a certain behavior. Two kinds of consequences: Reinforcement and Punishment Reinforcement strengthens or increases frequency of behavior. Punishment weakens or suppresses behavior. Be careful not to confuse punishment with negative reinforcement: no matter how you reinforce, if you’re reinforcing you’re strengthening behavior. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Reinforcement Reinforcer: consequence that strengthens behavior that it follows. One individual’s reinforcer might not be a reinforcer for someone else: responses are highly individualized Some psychologists say reinforcers satisfy needs; others argue they reduce tensions or stimulate particular parts of the brain. Strength of reinforcement depends upon individual’s perception of the event, and the meaning it holds. Two main types of reinforcement: positive and negative W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Positive and Negative ReinforcementPositive reinforcement: occurs when a behavior produces a new stimulus or motivating force When a consequence strengthens a behavior by adding a stimulus, the behavior has been positively reinforced Negative reinforcement: occurs when a behavior removes or eliminates a stimulus If behavior results in elimination of a negative stimulus, it’s more likely to be repeated: the behavior has been negatively reinforced Both types of reinforcement strengthen behavior: positive through adding stimuli; negative by subtracting stimuli W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Punishment If reinforcement strengthens behavior, punishment suppresses it: behavior followed by punishment is less likely to be repeated As with reinforcers, punishments are somewhat individualized: what punishes one individual might not be perceived as punishment by another Two main types of punishment: 1. Direct Punishment (Type I) Direct punishment: appearance of stimulus following behavior suppresses or weakens behavior. 2. Removal Punishment (Type II) Removal punishment: stimulus is removed following behavior in order to weaken or suppress it. Both types suppress behavior--Direct punishment by adding something to stop it, and removal punishment by withholding something W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Antecedents Antecedents precede behaviorHelp individuals distinguish between behaviors that lead to positive consequences and behaviors that lead to negative consequences: individual learns to “read the antecedent.” Not always the case that people are conscious of reading the antecedent, but cues and prompts can be deliberately used to influence behavior. Cueing: providing an antecedent just prior to a particular behavior. Furnishes information about which behaviors will be punished and which reinforced. Allows teachers, parents to reinforce behavior without resorting to punishment. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Prompting Prompting: providing an additional cue after the first cueTwo principles for using cues and prompts effectively: Make sure environmental stimulus you want as a cue occurs right before your prompt Fade the prompt as soon as possible Example: checklist when students work in pairs on peer tutoring Gradually remove the support of the checklist, which serves as a prompt, when students internalize procedures Monitor progress, reinforce good work, correct mistakes W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Teaching ApplicationsGuiding principles for teaching contexts: Clear, systematic praise for genuine accomplishments Link success to effort and ability—in order to build confidence Make sure reinforcers are things students value Give plenty of reinforcement when introducing new material Set clear and specific goals so you know what to reinforce Offer a variety of reinforcers and allow students to choose Structure situation around negative reinforcement rather than punishment Use cues to help establish new behavior Specific approaches that utilize behavioral principles: the Good Behavior Game, Positive Behavior Support (PBS) based on a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA), learning objectives, and direct instruction Most useful when learning new behaviors or explicit information, and when learning is sequential or factual W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Positive Behavior Support based on a Functional Behavioral AssessmentFBA What are students getting out of the negative behavior? 1. Receive attention from others—teachers, parent, or peers. 2. Escape from some unpleasant situation—an academic or social demand. 3. Get a desired item or activity. 4. Meet sensory needs, such as stimulation from rocking or flapping arms for some children with autism. PBS What positive behaviors could lead to the same results and what will support the student in learning the new positive behaviors? W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Learning Objectives Instructional objective: clear and unambiguous description of teacher’s educational aims for students Robert Mager: objectives should describe what students will be doing to demonstrate their achievement, how teacher will know when students have succeeded Three parts to good objectives: 1. Intended student behavior: what must student do? 2. Conditions under which behavior occurs: how will behavior be recognized or tested? 3. Criteria for acceptable performance: how well has student done? Objectives useful under certain specific conditions: More successful in promoting learning with loosely structured activities Useful when significance of information is unclear from learning materials and activities themselves, i.e., objectives help focus students’ attention on learning goals W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Direct Instruction A.K.A., “explicit teaching” or “active teaching”Best applied to teaching of basic skills: science facts, mathematical computations, vocabulary and grammar rules Taught step-by-step, assessed with standardized tests Barak Rosenshine: Six Teaching Functions of effective direct instruction 1. Review and check previous day’s work 2. Present new material 3. Provide guided practice 4. Give feedback and correctives based on student answers 5. Provide independent practice 6. Review weekly and monthly Other direct instruction approaches—Hunter; Good, Grouws, and Ebmeier—draw on similar elements of effective instruction W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Cognitive Perspectives on LearningCognitive theorists focus on thinking, learning, conceptualization, and problem solving Learning is an active mental process: we plan our responses, use systems to help us remember, and organize materials Puts the individual back in the learning process: what we bring to the learning situation has a huge influence on how and what we learn W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Categorizing KnowledgeKnowledge as both means and end: existing knowledge guides new learning—the “scaffold that supports the construction of all future learning” General knowledge vs. Domain-specific knowledge: General: applies to a variety of situations Domain-specific: relates to particular task or subject Also categorize knowledge by how it’s manifested Declarative knowledge: can be declared, usually in words Procedural knowledge: “knowing how” to do something—knowledge that is demonstrated Self-regulatory: “knowing when and why” to apply declarative and procedural knowledge W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Information-Processing ModelEarly views had the analogy between mind and computer: information stored in three storage systems Sensory memory: holding system that maintains stimuli so that perceptual analysis can occur Working memory: (short-term memory) holds 5-9 bits of info at a time for up to 20 seconds Long-term memory: stores huge amounts of info for long periods of time; may be coded verbally or visually or both Memory = reconstruction: leads to accurate, partly accurate, or inaccurate recall; accurate retrieval depends partly on how info was learned. A more recent view of memory and cognition is called cognitive science, which emphasizes the role of working memory, attention, sensory memory, and interactions of the elements of the system. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Sensory Memory Sensory memory = the initial system that briefly holds stimuli we perceive through our senses; other names for sensory memory are sensory buffer, iconic buffer (for images), and echoic memory for sounds. We attend to some stimuli and not to others—this attention is first step in learning. A challenge to teachers is to structure classroom environment to get and keep student attention at outset of lesson and keep them focused throughout the class. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Working Memory Working memory defined: where new information is held briefly and combined with knowledge from long-term memory. Resembles screen of computer—content is activated information, in-the- moment consciousness. Capacity = 5-9 separate new items at once or the amount of info we can rehearse in about 1.5 seconds Recent theories: two working memory systems—one for language-based information, one for nonverbal, spatial, visual information Duration of info in working memory is short: 5-20 seconds. Easily overwhelmed if cognitive load (especially extraneous load) is too great. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Retaining Info in Working MemoryUse it or lose it: if info in working memory is not activated, it fades Most people engage in specific strategies to keep it Rehearsal: 2 types Maintenance rehearsal — repeating information in your mind Elaborative rehearsal — associating the info with something you already know (info in long-term memory) Not only improves working memory, but also helps channel info from short- to long-term memory Chunking: group or “chunk” individual bits of information into meaningful units (size doesn’t matter, # of bits does) W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Long-Term Memory Long-term memory holds information that we move from working memory for indefinite storage Virtually unlimited, but not always easy to access specific information if much is stored over a long time 3 main kinds of long-term memory: 1. Episodic: associated with particular times and places—personal memories of events of your own life 2. Procedural: how to do things—may take a while, but once learned, such knowledge is remembered for a long time 3. Semantic: memory for meaning: general concepts, principles, and their associations 2 important ways of storing semantic memory Images: visual representations—”mind’s eye” Schemas: abstract structures, patterns, systems, scripts W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Storage and Retrieval How info is processed initially has impact on recall. More likely to remember new material if you integrate it with information already stored in long-term memory. 3 ways to facilitate this kind of integration: 1. Elaboration: add meaning to new info by connecting it to existing knowledge (apply schemas, for instance, or make analogies). Easier to recall because elaboration acts like rehearsal—keeps memory activated longer in working memory, which deepens its imprint in long-term memory. 2. Organization: structuring information helps you remember both general ideas and specific examples; structure helps map your way back to info when you need it. 3. Context: we learn physical and emotional aspects of context along with the information we process within that context; replicating context helps recall the information. Bottom line: the more completely information is processed when we first learn it, the better our chances of remembering it. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Metacognition Metacognition: individuals awareness of his/her own cognitive processes and how they work. Can intentionally use metacognitive understanding to regulate learning Planning: deciding how much time to give to a task, what strategies to use, how to begin, etc. Monitoring: awareness of how much, how well I’m learning Evaluation: judgments about outcomes of thinking and learning— effectiveness of strategies, time allocation, etc. Metacognitive skills begin to develop at ages 5 to 7, and generally improve throughout school. Superior metacognitive skills can compensate for lower levels of ability, and can be taught. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Teaching ApplicationsSome guiding principles for teaching: Use previous knowledge, connections to focus attention and aid encoding Help students organize material in meaningful chunks Provide review, repetition, and contextualization Exercise metacognitive skills Common techniques consistent with cognitive approaches: Underlining or highlighting Note-taking Visual aids Mnemonics W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Constructivist Perspectives on LearningAncestors: Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, Gestalt psychology Key assumption: people create and construct knowledge rather than internalize it from the external environment Several different approaches to constructivism: Psychological/Individual Piaget Radical Postmodern Social Vygotsky W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Psychological ConstructivismEmphasizes the individual’s reconstruction of external reality Build accurate representations of the outside world, often using processes consistent with cognitive perspectives (schemas, for example) Knowledge is acquired by transforming, organizing, and reorganizing previous knowledge Piaget typical of psychological constructivists Construction is a rational process generating increasingly complex reasoning—as in Piaget’s sequence of developmental stages W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Radical ConstructivismThe extreme of psychological constructivism: no basis for evaluating or interpreting any belief is any better or worse than any other Knowledge constructed largely by interpersonal interactions and constraints of culture and ideology NOT a mirror of external world, because of these interactions and limitations Consistent with post-modernism, post-modernist critiques of American education W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Social ConstructivismDraws on Vygotsky’s notion that learning is inherently social, embedded in cultural setting Social interaction, cultural tools, and activity shape individual development and learning All higher-order mental processes, such as reasoning and problem solving, are mediated by psychological tools, such as language, signs, and symbols. Knowledge, ideas, attitudes, and values develop through “appropriating” the ways of acting and thinking provided by the culture W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
How is Knowledge Constructed?The realities and truths of the external world direct knowledge construction Information Processing Internal processes such as organization, assimilation, and accommodation direct knowledge construction Piaget Both external and internal factors direct knowledge construction Vygotsky W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Situated Learning Draws on the Vygotskys notion that learning is inherently social, embedded in cultural setting Described as “enculturation,” or a norming process: individuals adopt the norms, behaviors, skills, beliefs, language, and attitudes of a community Learning prepares for participation in that community, whatever it may be Emphasizes that much of learning is situation-specific; therefore, students learn skills and knowledge in meaningful contexts with clear connections to “real-life” applications W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Teaching ApplicationsSome guiding principles for teaching: Employ multiple strategies, diverse contexts for learning Embed problems in “authentic tasks” that require students to apply what they are learning Create environment of thinking, problem-solving, dialogue, openness, and tolerance Keep students’ ideas and responses at the center of instruction Common techniques consistent with constructivism: Inquiry learning: teacher presents puzzling problem or question and students organize hypotheses, data collection and analysis Cognitive apprenticeships: students observe experts, receive coaching, practice to gain proficiency, reflect on progress, and explore new approaches to cognitive tasks Cooperative learning: working with others enhances learning by requiring students to elaborate, interpret, explain, argue, and coordinate information and procedures with others (jigsaw and scripted cooperation are two examples of such techniques W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Practical ImperativesEnsure that positive actions are recognized and rewarded: Reinforcement strengthens behavior. Accompany all punishment with rewards for correct behavior: Emphasize the positive. Understand the function of negative behavior: Help students reach their goals through positive actions instead. Match instruction to learning goals: Direct teaching is useful when students have limited knowledge, Help students focus attention on the big ideas: Learning is difficult when you don’t know what is important. Avoid overwhelming working memory: Extraneous cognitive load limits learning. Build knowledge in long-term memory by making many connections: Deeply processed and elaborated information is easier to remember. Teach memory and learning strategies directly: Without guidance some students will never master powerful strategies. Create situations in which students actively construct meaning: To invent is to understand. Position students at the center of learning: Build on the their knowledge and interests. Provide authentic problems as a launching pad for learning: Useful knowledge grows from solving real-life challenges. Build collaborative skills among students and faculty: Cooperation leads to respect and critical thinking. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
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