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Chapter 11 Eating for WellnessA Wellness Way of Life Ninth Edition Robbins/Powers/Burgess © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Chapter 11 Objectives After reading this chapter, you will be able to:Explain the purpose of the government published Dietary Guidelines. List the six major nutrients and describe their main function in the body. Identify the percentages of calories recommended in the diet for carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Identify the health benefits of fiber and list good food sources of fiber. Differentiate between complex and simple carbohydrates. Identify the correct descriptions of cholesterol, saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, and transfats. Calculate fat grams allowances for specific daily calorie intakes. Describe the role phytochemicals and antioxidants play in nutritional health, and identify foods high in these compounds. Identify four preventive factors relating to osteoporosis. Describe the USDA’s My Pyramid Food Guide System. Give 10 specific examples of small changes that can be incorporated in to daily food selections and preparations that could make a significant change in your nutritional wellness. Look at the food label and identify the largest ingredient; calculate the percentage of calories that come from fat, carbohydrate, and protein; identify the sources of fat (including saturated fat); and identify the sources of complex and simple carbohydrates. Identify three ways to eat nutritiously in a fast-food restaurant. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Shortfalls in Eating HabitsPoor diet is said to contribute to four of the top ten leading causes of death in our country. There are five shortfalls in our eating habits: Too few fruits and vegetables Too little fiber Too much saturated fat Too many refined sugars Too much food overall © Bananastock/Punchstock © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Nutrition Basics Six major nutrients: carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water These nutrients fulfill three main functions in the body: Provide energy, build and repair tissues, regulate body processes. Humans should eat a variety of foods Food is associated with every dimension of wellness © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Carbohydrates Main source of energy – stored as glycogen.45-65% of calories. 4 calories per gram. Focus on complex (starches) versus simple (sugar) carbs. Complex carbs (potatoes, rice, whole grains, bean vegetables, etc.) should make up 35–55% of daily calories. Simple carbs (soft drinks, cakes, cookies, ice cream, candy, etc.) should make up less than 10% of daily calories. Avoid adding extra fat or sugar to carbohydrates. Fiber is necessary for a healthy diet (lowers bad cholesterol, keeps you regular, may protect against cancers, nutrient dense). © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, IncCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. A Fiber Profile © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Glycemic Index (GI) A scale that measures the extent to which food affects blood glucose levels. Foods that quickly raise blood glucose are high GI (usually simple sugars). Low GI foods can help reduce the chance of Type 2 diabetes. Comprehensive list of glycemic index in food © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Protein Builds and repairs tissues, maintains chemical balance, and regulates formation of hormones, antibodies, and enzymes. Not an efficient form of energy. 10-35% of daily calories. 4 calories per gram. Avoid excessive protein – linked to kidney disease and several cancers. Complete proteins have all amino acids and are usually found in animal sources versus incomplete proteins that do not have all amino acids. People who do not eat animal products must combine foods appropriately to assure proper function of proteins. Avoid high fat proteins and adding extra fat to proteins! © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Fats Provide stored energy and fat-soluble vitamins, needed for growth and healthy skin and hormone regulation. 20-30% of calories (no more than 10% saturated). 9 calories per gram. Fat burned in the absence of carbs produces ketone bodies. Build up of poisonous ketone is ketosis – kidney stress, fatigue, nerve damage. Fish oils – omega 3 fatty acids can inhibit atherosclerosis in coronary arteries and can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Recommended to eat fish twice a week or get from plant sources. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Fats Saturated fats have primarily animal origin and have a strong link to heart disease and stroke. Polyunsaturated fats come mostly from plant foods and are a healthier fat to consume. Monounsaturated fats also come from plants and can decrease total cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol (the good cholesterol). Transfats (the result of hydrogenation of unsaturated fats) are more harmful than saturated fats, e.g., margarine, crackers, cookies, doughnuts, pies, French fries, chips, cake, candy, etc. Cholesterol is a waxy substance found in animal tissue and manufactured in the liver. A diet high in cholesterol has been linked to heart disease. Consume no more than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol. Remember, plants do not have cholesterol. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Figuring Food PercentagesNumber of grams multiplied by calories per gram divided by total calories. 10 grams of fat, 200 total calories 10 grams x 9 calories per gram = 90 90/200 total calories = 45% of calories from fat Grams of fat per day based on desired percentage 20% of calories from fat and 2000 calories 2000 total calories X .2 = 400 calories from fat 400/9 calories per gram = 44.4 grams of fat per day © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Vitamins Vitamins are necessary for metabolic function.A,D,E, and K are fat soluble and B and C are water soluble. Best place to get vitamins is from food. A complex vitamin tablet (plus calcium and iron for women) is acceptable. Anyone with irregular diet patterns, on weight-reduction regimens, pregnant or lactating women, strict vegetarians, and elderly people should consider other nutritional supplements (ask healthcare provider) © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Minerals Critical to enzyme function in the body. Macro (needed in large doses) and trace minerals (much smaller amounts needed). Calcium Most abundant mineral. Inadequate amounts contribute to osteopenia or osteoporosis. Iron Inadequate iron can be a problem especially among women, teenagers and athletes. Contribute to anemia (low iron). Avoid too much iron – heart disease. Sodium High levels can have an effect on blood pressure and bone density. Limit intake to 1,500 mg per day. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Water Most important nutrient. Involved in every function of the body.2/3 of your body weight. Dehydration can result in fatigue, stress, headaches, constipation, and hunger. Drink an adequate amount of plain water. Are you drinking enough water? If so, your urine is a clear color. Stay hydrated during exercise! Check out Chapter 7 for more information on water consumption. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Phytochemicals and AntioxidantsPhytochemicals are plant chemicals present in fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and seeds. Associated with prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Antioxidants are compounds that neutralize free radical chemical reactions that contribute to atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer, cataracts, heart disease, stroke and other degenerative diseases. Antioxidants (phytochemicals, carotenoids, vitamins C and E) suppress cell deterioration and decrease the aging process. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Balanced Diet Eat a variety of foods – concentrate on fruits and veggies (at least 5 to 9 servings a day), whole grains, and lean proteins. Eat nutrient-dense foods. Eat appropriate amount of calories – do not starve yourself! Limit sugar, alcohol, and fatty foods and increase fruit and vegetable intake. Buy healthy foods – at home and in restaurants. Select food with high nutritional density. Enjoy food but don’t use it to feel good. © Royalty-Free/Corbis © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
USDA’s MyPyramid U.S. Department of Agriculture developed MyPyramid to replace the old food guide pyramid. Multicolored strips run from the bottom of the pyramid up to its apex that represent the spectrum of food choices with width of each strip approximating the quantity of food each of us should consume from each group. By showing a person climbing the steps at the side of the new pyramid, physical activity is emphasized. MyPyramid is 12 different pyramids. Visit to enter your personal data and view your own customized pyramid. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Tips for Nutritional WellnessUse fresh, unprocessed foods. Remove the skin from poultry. Eat low-fat dairy products. Eat fish twice a week. Use small amounts of meat in meals and/or eat a meatless meal. Steam, bake, broil or roast foods. Select oils made with unsaturated fats. Use nonstick vegetable oils spray or small amount of olive oil for sautéing. Use deli luncheon meats such as shaved chicken breast and turkey instead of bologna, salami, or hot dogs. Use applesauce in place of oil when baking. Use plain low-fat yogurt as a substitute for sour cream. Use lettuce leaves as “wraps” rather then breads. Substitute ground turkey for ground beef. Eliminate half the yolks when making scrambled eggs or when baking. Two egg whites equal one egg in a recipe. Decrease by half the margarine or butter called for in recipes. Use breads and cereals that list whole wheat as the first ingredient. Substitute fruit for syrup. Top foods with vegetables instead of meats, e.g., in pizza, potatoes, burritos. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Reading Labels Check serving size Watch for hidden sugarsCheck fat content Avoid coconut and palm oils which are more saturated than beef fat. Select whole wheat bread – all whole wheat bread is brown but not all brown bread is whole wheat Check sodium, and other vitamins Figure percentages Balance for the whole day – not the meal or the individual food Pay attention – your nutrition is your responsibility! © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, IncCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. How to Read a Food Label © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Eating Out Americans spend more money in restaurants than in grocery stores. Many fast-food and sit down restaurants have healthy food selections, but you must choose them! Choose baked over fried. Avoid high fat condiments, such as mayonnaise, sour cream, gravy, salad dressing, etc. Choose low fat condiments, such as ketchup, non-fat sour cream and salad dressing, etc. Ask for condiments on the side so you can use sparingly. Avoid mayo-based salads and fatty extras on salads (cheese, seeds, etc.) Choose baked potatoes, salads, vegetables or soups as a meal. Watch portion sizes – no need to super size. Take home leftovers or split a meal with a friend. Avoid or limit your portion of high fat, sometimes “free,” additions such as chips, high fat rolls, and other appetizers. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Special Nutritional ConsiderationsVegetarian diet – can be very healthy but careful planning and food selection are important to avoid nutritional deficiencies. Pregnancy – good nutritional habits (and folic acid intake) before and during pregnancy can improve infant weight and reduce mortality. Aging – although energy needs tend to drop – nutritional needs don’t. Make calories count by eating nutritionally dense foods. Sports and Fitness – key to performance is a balanced diet with a wide variety of healthy foods and plenty of fluids. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Rx for Action Eat a whole-grain cereal for breakfast and top it with fruit. Substitute skim milk, water, or 100 percent fruit juice for a sweetened soft drink. Make sure your dinner plate has two different-colored vegetables on it. Try an all-veggie pizza, burrito, wrap, or sandwich. Choose fruit for dessert or for a snack. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
What Do You Think? Do you follow the nine Dietary Guidelines? If not, what are you missing? What is the most challenging part of your diet? Do you eat enough fruits and vegetables? How many fat grams do you need in a day? Can you read a food label? What are specific small changes you could make in your diet to improve your eating habits? What are three ways to eat nutritiously in a fast food restaurant? © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Questions? © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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