Presentation on theme: "Patient Interview and History"— Presentation transcript:
1Patient Interview and History 36Patient Interview and History
2Learning Outcomes (cont.) 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.36.2 Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.36.3 Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills
3Introduction The medical assistant Prepares the patient and the patient’s chartConducts a patient interviewRecords the necessary medical historyLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.The medical assistant is the first contact with the patient in the exam room.Conducting the patient interview and recording the necessary medical history are essential to the practitioner’s exam process.How you conduct yourself during the first few moments with the patient can make a major difference in the patient’s attitude.
4The Patient Interview and History First step in examination processEstablishes a relationshipExchange informationEstablish reason for appointmentRoutine check upIllness ~ chief complaintLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Well-conducted initial interview helps establish a beneficial relationship between you and the patient.Subsequent interviews with established patients may take less time.All patient interviews require good communication skills.Reason for the appointmentRoutine checkup – ask the patient about general health and lifestyle and about any changes in health status since the last visitMedical problemAsk about his or her symptomsDetermine the patient’s chief complaint which is a subjective statement made by the patient describing his or her most significant symptoms.
5The Patient Interview and History (cont.) Medical and health historyBasis for all treatment renderedInformation forResearchReportable diseasesInsurance claimsLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Refer to OCL for Recording a Chief ComplaintThe chart is a legal record of treatment provided. All information must be documented precisely and accurately!
6Patient Rights, Responsibilities, and Privacy Information is subject to legal and ethical considerationsThe Patient Care Partnership: Understanding Expectations, Rights, and ResponsibilitiesLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Most states have adopted a version of the American Hospital Association’s (AHA) Patient’s Bill of Rights, written in 1973 and revised in 1992.The AHA has now replaced this bill of rights with “The Patient Care Partnership: Understanding Expectations, Rights, and Responsibilities,”
7Patient Rights, Responsibilities, and Privacy (cont.) Some patient rightsConsiderate and respectful careKnow the identity of caregiversRefuse treatmentKnow the costs of careConfidentialityHave an advance directiveLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Additional patient rightsReceive complete and current information concerning diagnosis, treatment, and prognosisReceive information necessary to give informed consentHave an advance directiveObtain reasonable responses to requests for servicesObtain information about his or her health care, be allowed to review his or her medical record, and have any information explained or interpretedKnow whether treatment is experimentalExpect reasonable continuity of careBe informed of business relationships between hospital and others that may influence treatmentKnow which hospital policies and practices relate to patient care, treatment, and responsibilitiesBe informed of available resources for resolving disputes, grievances, conflictsExamine his or her bill and have it explained, and be informed of available payment methods
8Patient Rights, Responsibilities, and Privacy (cont.) Some patient responsibilities:Provide accurate informationParticipate in healthcare decisionsProvide a copy of their advance directiveFollow physician’s ordersProvide information for insurance claimsLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Medical assistants also should know that patients have certain responsibilities when they seek medical care. Patients are responsible for:Providing information about past illnesses, hospitalizations, medications, and other matters related to their health status. If an incorrect diagnosis is made because a patient fails to give the physician the proper information, the physician is not liable.Participating in decision making by asking for additional information about their health status or treatment when they do not fully understand information and instructions.Providing healthcare agencies with a copy of their written advance directive if they have one.Informing physicians and other caregivers if they anticipate problems in following a prescribed treatment,Following the physician’s orders for treatment. If a patient willfully or negligently fails to follow the physician’s instructions, that patient has little legal recourse.Providing healthcare agencies with necessary information for insurance claims and working with the healthcare facility to make arrangements to pay fees when necessary.
9Patient Rights, Responsibilities, and Privacy (cont.) HIPAAEnforcement began in 2003Individual health-care workers can be subject to fines up to $250,000 and 10 years in jail.Learning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.
10Patient Rights, Responsibilities, and Privacy (cont.) HIPAA requiresWritten notice of privacy practicesNo use or disclosure of protected information for purposes not in the privacy noticeWritten authorization to release informationPosting the privacy noticeLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.If the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is not followed, individual healthcare workers can be subject to fines up to $250,000 and 10 years in jail.The privacy standards of this act ensure the following:Healthcare facilities must provide patients with a written notice of their practices regarding the use and disclosure of all individually identifiable health information.Healthcare facilities may not use or disclose protected health information for any purpose that is not in the privacy notice.Patient consent is required when protected information is used or disclosed for purposes of treatment, payment, or health operations.Written authorization is required for other types of disclosures.Hospitals must make the privacy notice available either prior to, or at the time of, the delivery of care.A privacy notice must be posted in a clear and prominent location within the hospital facility.
11Communicating with Professionalism Communication skillsLanguage skills and body languageImpact your careerThink before you speak or reactLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Your overall professionalism and poise can be a direct result of your verbal communication skills.Use of improper language skills or sloppy body language, gives the patient the perception that you are not educated or intelligent.Communication skills will have a direct impact on your career.Think before you speak or react and you will learn to avoid communication pitfalls.
12Interviewing Skills Practice effective listening Be aware of nonverbal clues and body languageHave a broad knowledge baseSummarize to form a general pictureLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.
13Interviewing Skills Practice effective listening Listen for detailsGeneral view of situationActive listeningLook at patientPay attentionProvide feedback - restatementBe aware of nonverbal clues and body languageLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Listening attentivelyHear, think about, and respond to what the patient has said. This technique is called active listening.Active listener – looks at the patient, pays attention, and provides feedback.Restatement – repeat what the patient says, in your own words to help ensure that you have understood the meaning of the patient’s words.Being Aware of Nonverbal Clues and Body LanguageNonverbal communication often communicates more than words could ever say.Pay attention to the patient’s facial expression and how much the patient guards the area in question.
14Interviewing Skills (cont.) Have a broad knowledge baseSummarize to form a general pictureConsider the importance information obtainedRepeat back a summary of the informationLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Using a Broad Knowledge BaseYou must have a broad knowledge base to ask questions that will elicit the most meaningful information about the patient.Take every opportunity to expand your knowledge base.Summarizing to Form a General PictureThe interview provides both subjective and objective data.You must consider the relative importance of each piece of information so that you can summarize the data to formulate a general picture of the patient.Ensure that all important data are recorded.Repeating the summary may jog their memory.
15Interviewing Successfully Do research before the interviewReview medical recordNote issues that may impact healthBe sure appropriate reports are in the recordPlan interview – follow office policiesLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.One of the main goals of the patient interview is to give the patient an opportunity to fully explain the reason for the current office visit.These eight steps will help you conduct a successful interview.Doing Research Before the Patient InterviewReview the patient’s medical record for history, medications, and chronic problems.Make sure that all currently ordered diagnostic testing, laboratory work, and consultation results are in the chart.Planning the InterviewDevelop an interview plan by having a general idea of the questions you will ask.This helps you maintain your focus and ensures that you will obtain all the necessary information.Planning for the types of information that you need to collect will save time for the visit itself.
16Interviewing Successfully (cont.) Request the interviewMakes the patient feel more comfortableEmphasizes the importance of the processMake the patient feel at easeIcebreakersSit and appear relaxedLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Approaching the Patient and Requesting the InterviewAsk the patient for permission before conducting the interview.It also makes the patient feel more like a participant.Making the Patient Feel at EaseIcebreakers put the patient at ease and create a relaxed atmosphere.Sit with the patient and appear relaxed.This helps the patient relax and encourages a more open and comfortable interview.It also facilitates eye contactIf you are entering data into an electronic record, do NOT pay more attention to inputting information into the computer than looking at and speaking with your patient.
17Interviewing Successfully (cont.) Ensure privacy/no interruptionsPrivate area or close doorDevelop a rapport with the patientBe respectful with sensitive topicsWatch for nonverbal cuesWatch your own nonverbal cuesLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Conducting the Interview in Private Without InterruptionsShow the patient to a private room or area or close the door if the patient is already in a private room.Listen carefully to the patient’s responses – you may need ask questions other than those in your interview plan.Develop a rapport with the patientKeep atmosphere relaxedDo not rushMaintain eye contactUse patient’s name in conversationAvoid interruptions.Do not use “pet names” for your patients.Dealing with Sensitive Topics with RespectApproach these topics gently so that the patient does not feel threatenedKnow when to stop – watch for verbal and nonverbal cluesBe conscious of your own body language.
18Interviewing Successfully (cont.) Do not diagnose or give an opinionRefer questions to physicianRemember your scope of practiceFormulate a general pictureSummarize key pointsAsk if patient has questions or needs to add additional informationLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Avoiding Making a Diagnosis or Giving a Diagnostic OpinionIf the patient asks for your opinion about a diagnosis, explain that the physician should be asked about diagnoses.Never go beyond your scope of practice or job description.Formulating the General PictureSummarize the key points of the interview.Remain alert and organized but flexible.Refer to Procedure 36-1 Using Critical Thinking Skills During an Interview
19Interviewing Successfully (cont.) EffectiveCharacteristicAsking open-ended questionsRequires more than a yes-or-no answer; results in more relevant dataAsking hypothetical questionsEnables the determination of the patient’s knowledge and whether it is accurateMirroring / verbalizing the impliedMirroring – restatement of what the patient said in your own words. Verbalizing the implied – stating what you believe the patient is sayingFocusing on the patientShows the patient you are really listening to what he is sayingLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Refer to Table 36-1 Methods of Collecting Patient Data.
20Interviewing Successfully (cont.) EffectiveCharacteristicEncouraging the patient to take the leadMotivates the patient to discuss or describe the issue in his own wayEncouraging the patient to provide additional informationConveys sincere interest by continuing to explore topics in more detail when appropriate and provides clarification of an issueEncouraging the patient to evaluate situationProvides an idea of the patient’s point of view; allows for determination of patient’s knowledge and fears. Uses reflection to form a thought, idea, or opinionLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Refer to Table 36-1 Methods of Collecting Patient Data.Clarification – increased understanding of the problem.Reflection is when a thought, idea, or opinion is formed as a result of deeper thought, in this case stimulated by a question.
21Interviewing Successfully (cont.) IneffectiveCharacteristicAsking closed-ended questionsProvides little information; allows no explanation of answers; require yes-or-no answersAsking leading questionsSuggests a desired response; patient tends to agree without elaborationChallenging the patientPatient may feel you are disagreeing with him; he may become defensive; blocks communicationLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Refer to Table 36-1 Methods of Collecting Patient Data.
22Interviewing Successfully (cont.) IneffectiveCharacteristicProbingOnce patient has finished, probing may make him defensiveAgreeing/disagreeing with patientImplies that the patient is either “right” or “wrong”; block to communicationLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.Refer to Table 36-1 Methods of Collecting Patient Data.Refer to CONNECT to see a video about Using Critical Thinking Skills During an Interview .
23Apply Your KnowledgeCorrect!What are four skills you will need to conduct a successful interview?ANSWER:Effective listeningBeing aware of nonverbal cuesHaving a broad knowledge baseSummarizing to form a general pictureLearning Outcome: 36.1 Identify the skills necessary to conduct a patient interview.What type of question is the following: “How have you been managing your diabetes?”ANSWER: An open-ended question which will allow the patient to explain the situation more clearly.
24Your Role as an Observer Nonverbal communication may reveal more than patient’s wordsListen attentively and observe the patient closelyLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.Listening attentively and observing the patient closely may help you detect a problem that might otherwise go unnoted.
25Anxiety Common emotional response Mild anxiety – heightened focus Severe anxiety – difficulty focusingEither a heightened focus or a lack of focus can hinder the interview processLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.Some patients respond with anxiety to a specific fear, such as fear of pain.Others simply feel anxious when they are in an unfamiliar situation (white-coat syndrome).Anxiety varies from mild to severe.Mild anxiety – a heightened ability to observe and to make connections.Severe anxiety – difficulty focusing on details, feels panicky, and is virtually helpless.A heightened focus or a lack of focus in a patient can hinder your ability to get the information and cooperation you need.When patient is anxiousAllow the patient to describe feelings.Postpone talking about a subject until patient is calmer.Give support in nonverbal ways by trying to make the patient as comfortable as possible.
26Depression Classic symptoms Additional problems Profound sadness FatigueAdditional problemsDifficulty falling asleep or getting up in the morningLoss of appetiteLoss of energyLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.Depression can be difficult to recognize, as some of its symptoms are the same as those of many common illnesses.Many patients with major depression develop great skill in hiding depression or are unaware they are suffering from it.
27Depression In adolescence Middle age – triggered by life events Difficult to distinguish from addiction and substance abuseNotify physician if any of these are suspectedMiddle age – triggered by life eventsElderly – mistaken for senilityLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.Depression occurs most frequently during late adolescence, in middle age, and after retirement.In adolescence, all three conditions may exist simultaneously.Substance abuse refers to the use of a substance, even an over-the-counter drug, in a way that is not medically approved.Addiction refers to a physical or psychological dependence on a substance.Refer to Caution: Handle with Care: Signs of Depression, Substance Abuse, and Addiction in AdolescentsIn the middle agedTriggered by life events like financial troubles or death of a family member.Sometimes confused with midlife crises.In the elderly – often mistaken for senility
28Physical and Psychological Abuse Physical, psychological, or bothSuspect abuseIf the patient speaks in a guarded wayUnlikely explanation for an injuryLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.Abuse can involve people from all walks of life and of all ages.Be alert for possible abuse.
29Physical and Psychological Abuse (cont.) Signs of abuseHead injuries/skull fracturesBurns that appear deliberateBroken bonesBruises – multiple; in various stages of healingLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.
30Physical and Psychological Abuse (cont.) Other signs of abuseA child’s failure to thriveSevere dehydration or underweightDelayed medical attentionHair lossDrug useGenital injuriesLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.
31The Interview and Abuse Women, children, and elderlyMore likely to be abusedObserve carefully during interviewReport suspected abuse to physician or supervisorHave a list of hotline numbers availableLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.
32The Interview and Abuse (cont.) WomenOften feel shameListen carefully, be nonjudgmentalChildrenObserve for nonverbal cuesWatch relationship between child and caregiverElderly – observe carefullyLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.Women85% of victims of domestic violence are women and those ages 20 to 24 are at the greatest risk.May make excuses for their abuser or refuse to discuss it.Reasons for staying in the abusive relationship include fear of the abuser, threats of suicide by the abuser, financial dependence, lack of housing options, low self-esteem, and isolation.Be kind, supportive, and nonjudgmental while interviewing a woman you suspect may be a victim of abuse.ChildrenConsider the child first even as you are asking the parent or caregiver about the child’s condition.Communicate with the child and observe for nonverbal signs of pain or other problems.Watch for any problems in the relationship between the child and caregiver.The Elderly – always observe the elderly patient for nonverbal signs of problems, such as grimacing, foul odors, or bruising.
33Drug and Alcohol Abuse Substance abuse and addiction Symptoms vary with substance abusedCauseDecline in work and relationshipsErratic behaviorMood changesLoss of appetiteConstant tirednessLearning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.Substance abuse and addiction to drugs or alcohol are serious social problems.Symptoms of substance abuse or addiction differ from drug to drug.Refer to Table 36-2 Symptoms Associated with Commonly Abused Drugs.Someone who is abusing alcohol may have no apparent signs or symptoms at first.As time goes on, a person may suffer from blackouts, become secretive and guilty about drinking and deny that there is a problem.If healthcare team members recognize a problem, they should try to persuade the patient to seek help.
34Apply Your Knowledge Good Answer! While interviewing a female patient, you notice bruises on her forearms and face. You ask her how she got the bruises, and she says she cannot remember, but she must have fallen down. What should you do?ANSWER: The patient’s answer is vague and evasive. Since multiple bruises may be a sign of abuse, you should tell the physician of your suspicions.Learning Outcomes: Recognize the signs of anxiety; depression; and physical, mental, or substance abuse.Good Answer!
35Documenting Patient Information Client’s words – record exactlyClarity – use medical terminology and precise descriptionsCompleteness – fill in formsLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.Remember that the patient chart is a legal document and can be used as evidence in a court of law.To help ensure that you record patient data accurately, follow the six Cs of charting.Client’s wordsRecord them exactly; use quotation marksThey may help the doctor uncover clues to use in diagnosing the patient’s condition.Clarity – essential to describing the patient’s condition.Completeness – all the forms used in the patient record must be complete.
36Documenting Patient Information (cont.) ConcisenessChronological order – date all entriesConfidentiality – protects patient’s privacyLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.Conciseness – saves time and space when you are recording information.Chronological orderDate all entries in patient records when documenting patient care. This information can be used for legal questions regarding medical services.Most charts are arranged in reverse chronological order with the most recent information on top.ConfidentialityWithout written permission you may notDiscuss a patient’s recordsForward them to another officeFax themShow them to anyone except the doctorThe only exception is when the records must be sent to ensure continuity of care of the patient and the patient is unable to grant permission.
37Contents of Patient Charts Registration formPatient medical historyTest resultsRecords from other physicians or hospitalsLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.Whether electronic or paper, all records contain standard information.Date and initial every entry in the patient record.The patient registration form carries the date of the patient’s current visit and generally lists the patient’s age, address, medical insurance, occupation, education, racial or ethnic background, marital status, number of children, and nearest relative.Patient medical history includes the chief complaint, history of the present illness, past medical history family history, social and occupational history and may include theresults of a general physical exam.Test results include those performed in the office and those received from other physicians, hospitals, or independent laboratories.Records from other physicians or hospitals are accompanied by a copy of the patient’s written authorization to release the records.
38Contents of Patient Charts Physician’s diagnosis and treatment planOperative reportsInformed consentsDischarge summaryCorrespondenceLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.Operative reports include a record of all procedures, surgeries, follow-up care, and additional notes the physician makes regarding the patient’s case.Informed consent forms verify that the patient has understood the treatment offered and the possible outcomes or side effects of it.A discharge summary form is used to summarize the reason the patient entered the hospital; tests, procedures, or operations performed in the hospital; medications administered; and the disposition, or outcome, of the case.Correspondence with or about the patient is marked or stamped with the date the physician’s office received the document.Some medical offices also keep a separate log of telephone calls to and from the patient.The physician usually initials reports before they are filed.Refer to OLC for Building the Past Medical History and Family Health History
39Methods of Charting SOAP Subjective data Objective data Assessment Plan of actionLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.Most methods of documentation are based on the SOAP method.Subjective dataObtained from conversation with the patient or an attending family member.Includes thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and the chief complaint.Objective data – readily apparent and measurable.Assessment. – the physician’s diagnosis or impression of the patient’s problem.Plan of action – options for treatment, the type of treatment chosen, medications, tests, consultations, patient education, and follow-up.
40Methods of Charting (cont.) Source-oriented medical records (SOMR)ConventionalInformation is arranged by who provided itLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.There are three common methods for maintaining notes.Conventional or source-oriented medical records (SOMR) – information is arranged according to who supplied it.Problem-oriented medical records (POMR)Computerized medical records
41Methods of Charting (cont.) Problem-oriented medical records (POMR)Database ~ foundation of the POMR recordProblem list – each problem is dated and numberedDiagnostic and treatment planProgress notes – chronological orderLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.Problem-oriented medical records (POMR)Used more extensively by large clinics or practicesIncludes a problem list that is dated and numbers are assigned to problem.Problems are identified by a number throughout the record until resolved.Four components:Database – the patient’s medical history, diagnostic and laboratory results, and physical exam reports.Problem list – each patient condition or problem is listed individually, assigned a number, and dated.Diagnostic and treatment plan – laboratory and other diagnostic tests are completed and the physician’s treatment plan for the condition.Progress notes – notes are entered chronologically on every condition or problem recorded on the problem list. They include the chief complaint, problems, conditions, treatments, and responses to treatments.
42Methods of Charting (cont.) Computerized medical recordsCombination of SOMR and POMRImproved accessibility to patient recordsLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.Uses a combination of SOMR and POMR but provides accessibility by the physician or other healthcare workers at any time from a computer terminal.This accessibility enhances the patient’s continuity of care between departments and specialty physicians in other practices.
43Common Chart Terminology and Abbreviations NKAUse only approved abbreviationsRefer toOffice/facility policyTJC “Do Not Use List”WNLH & PAbnlLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.Abbreviations used must be accepted by the facility where you are employed as well as The Joint Commission (TJC).To help reduce medical errors, The Joint Commission (TJC) issued a list of abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols that should not be used.Refer to Table 36-3 Common Medical Abbreviations and Table 36-4 TJC “Do Not Use” Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols.ROM
44Apply Your Knowledge NICE JOB! Matching: ANSWER: ___ Precise descriptions___ What the patient says___ Charting based on problems___ Contains options for treatments___ Arrangement based on source of information___ Lists patient conditions___ Essential to protect patient privacy___ Accessibility to recordsANSWER:NICE JOB!CProblem listPOMRClarityConfidentialitySubjective dataPlanComputerized recordsSOMREBFHLearning Outcome: Use the six Cs for writing an accurate patient history.ADG
45Recording the Patient’s Medical History Includes pertinent informationAbout the patient and patient’s family medical historyAge, surgical history, allergies, medicationsMust be complete and accurateLearning Outcome: 36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills.When recording a patient history, you must do more than just fill out the form.You must review the pieces of information, organize them, determine their importance, and document the facts.Whenever you write information on the chart, you must consider its completeness and accuracy.
46Recording the Patient’s Medical History (cont.) Determine chief complaintInterviewing technique – PQRSTProvoke or palliativeQuality or QuantityRegion or RadiationSeverity scaleTimingLearning Outcome: 36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills.Determine the chief complaint or the main reason for the patient visit then ask appropriate questions to illicit needed information.Refer to Table 36-5 Example Questions When Using the PQRST Interview Technique.
47Recording the Patient’s Medical History (cont.) Key correct information into the EHRPay attention to spellingUse only approved abbreviationsSelect the correct item from menusLearning Outcome: 36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills.When keying information in an electronic record, it is important to correctly type the information into the record.When using drop down menus, take care to click the box containing the correct information.
48Progress Notes Guidelines Arrange in reverse chronological order Initial / sign entriesPatient identification informationDate & timeLearning Outcome: 36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills.The progress note is used for established patients who are seen for routine visits or follow-ups.Guidelines to consider when using a progress note include:Every entry must be initialed and signed by the person making the entry.Entries most commonly made on progress notes include documentation for prescription refills, follow-up visits, telephone conversations with patients, appointment cancellations or no shows, and referrals and consultation efforts made by the office for the patient.The patient name must be recorded on every progress note along with any other identifying information such as birth date or chart number.All entries must be dated and typically include the time.
49Polypharmacy Document current medications Encourage patient to maintain a current list of medicationsLearning Outcome: 36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills.Patients often see several physicians or specialists.It is important to remain up to date on all of the patient’s treatments and medications to reduce the likelihood of polypharmacy or unnecessarily repeating medical tests.It may be helpful to develop a form or card for the patient to use to list his/her medications. Instruct the patient to use the list and to have it updated by the other physicians that he or she sees.
50Health History Form Personal data Chief complaint (CC) Reason patient made the appointmentShort and specificHistory of present illness – detailed information about CCLearning Outcome: 36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills.Offices usually have a standard medical history form that includes:Personal Data – the patient’s name, birth date, and other basic dataChief Complaint – it should be short and specific and should cover subjective and/or objective data stated by the patient.History of present illnessWhen problem startedWhat patient has done to treat the problemRefer to Procedure 36-3 Obtaining a Medical History
51Health History Form (cont.) Past medical historyAll health problemsMedicationsAllergiesFamily historyMay help determine cause of current problemAges, medical conditionsAge at death and causeLearning Outcome: 36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills.Past medical historyInclude OTC and herbal medications as well as prescription medications.Be sure to flag patient drug allergies according to office policy.Family history – use great care and sensitivity when asking questions
52Health History Form (cont.) Social and occupational historyMarital statusOccupationSexual orientationAlcohol/drug useReview of systems – completed by practitionerLearning Outcome: 36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills.Social and occupational history – patients may feel uncomfortable or may refuse to provide certain information.Include questions concerning the patient’sLevel of stressExposure to hazardous substancesHeavy liftingRefer to CONNECT to see a video about Obtaining a Medical History .
53Apply Your Knowledge Very Good! When recording the patient’s chief complaint, you will probably need to ask more questions. What tool can you use to help you ask the appropriate questions?ANSWER: The interviewing technique – PQRST, will help you to remember the types of questions that are appropriate for the problem.Learning Outcome: 36.4 Carry out a patient history using critical thinking skills.Refer to CONNECT to see exercises about Building the Medical Face Sheet, Printing the Face Sheet, Documenting a Physical Exam , and Documenting a ProcedureRefer to OLC to practice in a live EHR programVery Good!
54In Summary36.1 The skills necessary to conduct an interview include effective listening, awareness of nonverbal cues, use of a broad knowledge base, and the ability to summarize a general picture.36.2 Anxiety can range from a heightened ability to observe to a difficulty in being able to focus. Depression can be demonstrated through severe fatigue, sadness, difficulty sleeping, and lost of appetite. Abuse can be physical or psychological.
55In Summary (cont.)36.3 The six Cs for writing an accurate patient history include client’s words, clarity, completeness, conciseness, chronological order, and confidentiality.36.4 When obtaining a patient history, you can use open-ended questions, active listening, clarification, restatement, reflection, and the PQRST interview technique; review the information obtained, determine the importance, and then document the facts accurately
56Wisdom is to the soul what health is to the body. End of Chapter 36Wisdom is to the soul what health is to the body.~ de Saint-Réal