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Immunity and Infection Chapter 17. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 2 Chapter seventeen The Chain of Infection Links in the Chain Transmitted.

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Presentation on theme: "Immunity and Infection Chapter 17. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 2 Chapter seventeen The Chain of Infection Links in the Chain Transmitted."— Presentation transcript:

1 Immunity and Infection Chapter 17

2 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 2 Chapter seventeen The Chain of Infection Links in the Chain Transmitted through a chain (six links) Pathogen - disease causing microorganism Reservoir - natural environment of the pathogen: Person, animal or environmental component Portal of Exit Means of transmission Direct transmission Indirect transmission Portal of entry Penetration of the skin Inhalation Ingestion New host Breaking the Chain

3 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 3 Chapter seventeen

4 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 4 Chapter seventeen Bodys Defense System Physical and Chemical barriers Skin, mucous membranes, respiratory tract The Immune System Immunological Defenders Neutrophils Macrophages Natural killer cells Dendritic cells Lymphocytes T-cells Helper, Killer, and Suppressor B-cells Antibodies Memory T and B cells

5 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 5 Chapter seventeen

6 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 6 Chapter seventeen The Inflammatory Response Histamine. Dilation of blood vessels, heat, redness, and swelling. The immune response Phase 1 – Dendritic cells are drawn to the site Phase 2 – Helper T cells multiply Production of Killer T and B cells Cytokines – chemical messengers Phase 3 – Killer T cells strike Cell-mediated immune Anti-body mediated immune response Phase 4 – Last Phase – Suppressor T-cells Slow down activity

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8 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 8 Chapter seventeen Immunity An infected person will never get the same illness again. Lymphocytes create amplification of the immune response are reserved by memory T and B cells Symptoms and contagion Incubation – viruses are multiplying in the body or when bacteria are actively multiplying Will not feel symptoms until the second or third phase of the immune response cycle Prodromal period – the infected host has acquired immunity

9 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 9 Chapter seventeen Immunization The process of priming the body to remember an encounter with a specific antigen. Types of vaccines VACCINE- Introduction of a killed or weakened pathogen to stimulate the body to produce antibodies. (active immunity). PASSIVE IMMUNITY- Injection of antibodies produced by other human beings or animals. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY- The ability of a memory lymphocytes to remember a previous infection. (chicken pox).

10 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 10 Chapter seventeen Immunization Issues Vaccine shortages in the U.S. Deaths from vaccine-preventable disease worldwide Vaccine safety

11 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 11 Chapter seventeen Allergy: The Bodys Defense System Gone Haywire The Bodys Defense System Gone Haywire Allergies Allergens Pollen, Dander, Dust mites, Molds, Food, Insects The Allergic response Immunoglobulin (IgE) Anaphylaxis

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13 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 13 Chapter seventeen Dealing With Allergies Avoidance Medication Immunotherapy

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15 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 15 Chapter seventeen The Troublemakers: Pathogens and Disease Bacterium – Microscopic single celled organism Pneumonia Meningitis Strep Throat and other streptococcal infections Toxic shock and other staphylococcal Tuberculosis Lyme Disease and other tickborne infections Ulcers Other Bacterial infections Tetanus Pertussis Urinary tract infections

16 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 16 Chapter seventeen Antibiotic Treatment Actions of Antibiotics Antibiotic resistance Proper antibiotics usage Dont take an antibiotic every time you are sick Use antibiotics as directed Never take an antibiotic without an prescription

17 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 17 Chapter seventeen Type of Pathogens Viruses – (parasites – take what they need) Common Cold Influenza Measles, Mumps and Rubella Chickenpox, Cold Sores, and other herpes-virus infections Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Viral encephalitis Viral Hepatitis Poliomyelitis Rabies Warts Treatment

18 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 18 Chapter seventeen

19 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 19 Chapter seventeen Types of Pathogens Fungi – Primitive plant – Yeast infections, athletes foot, and ringworm Candida albicans Protozoan – Microscopic single-celled animal – Malaria, African sleeping sickness, Giardiasis, Tricomonias, Trypanosomiasis, and Amoebic dysentary. Parasitic worm – Largest organism that can enter the body – Tapeworm, Hookworm, and Pinworm. Prions - Fetal degeneration disorders of the CNS, linked to proteinaceous infectious particles. Lack DNA and RNA

20 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 20 Chapter seventeen Emerging Infectious Diseases Selected Infections of concern West Nile virus Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Rotavirus Escherichia coli Hantavirus Ebola

21 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 21 Chapter seventeen Factors Contributing to Emerging Infections Drug Resistance Poverty Breakdown of public health measures Environmental changes Travel and Commerce Mass food production and distribution Human behaviors Bioterrorism

22 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 22 Chapter seventeen Other Immune Disorders: Cancer and Autoimmune Diseases If the immune system breaks down Getting older HIV infection Chemotherapy Autoimmune diseases Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic lupus erythmatosus

23 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. 23 Chapter seventeen Giving Yourself a Fighting Chance: How to Support Your Immune System How to support your immune system Public Health Taking care of yourself Nutrition Exercise Rest Moderation of Lifestyle Controlling Stress

24 Immunity and Infection Chapter 17


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