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A Look into the Future of Warfare: The Joint Battlespace Infosphere Harold W. Carter University of Cincinnati

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1 A Look into the Future of Warfare: The Joint Battlespace Infosphere Harold W. Carter University of Cincinnati

2 "The Internet is like a weapon sitting on a table ready to be picked up by either you or your competitors.” (Michael Dell) “Similar web-based systems will be cheaply available to U.S. adversaries from global vendors. … if the U.S. goal is information superiority, there is no option but to plunge into the issues of web-oriented C2.” (1999 AF SAB, “Building the Joint Battlespace Infosphere”)

3 Commander’s Perspective
Global Grid Facilitate post crisis reshaping Collaborative planning and execution Right forces at the right time Total situational awareness The World Has Changed…To Meet Our Responsibilities we must: Assemble disparate forces and resources into one joint tailored force rapidly and effectively to employ anywhere in the world Leverage Information for the Warfighter The Commanders View <click> In this changed world we must develop joint tailored forces and rapidly employ those forces anywhere in the world. In order to accomplish this we must: Provide the right forces at the right time Provide Collaborative Planning and Execution Provide Total Situational Awareness & Facilitate Post Crisis Reshaping All tied to the Global Grid Bottom line is to: Leverage information for the Warfighter 1999 SAB Study: “Building the Joint Battlespace Infosphere”

4 Information Management Problem
? Decision Maker !! AOC Current C2ISR tools only get us part way there Large, monolithic, rigid enterprises Unique information infrastructures Interoperability issues System admin & configuration overhead Decision-maker must filter & aggregate Kosovo Lessons: “Info fatigue” “Cyber-rubbernecking” Brand new enterprise systems cost-prohibitive (time & $$) GCCS DCGS To begin our discussion of the JBI, we must first consider the context that spawned the concept. JV2010 focuses us on the imperative for information superiority and interoperability. We have a large number of legacy and emerging C2ISR systems (both AF and Joint) that are making great strides toward achieving that goal. They fall short, however, in a number of areas. Most of them are still large, monolithic systems, each of which has to provide a full info mgmt infrastructure (transport, network, data, interface layers,..etc) Because of this, there is only limited horizontal exchange of data amongst the systems--hence interoperability is a real problem. The systems are very configuration intensive and difficult to administer. Furthermore, they are not very tailorable to a given operational environment--typically one must take an entire 30+server farm rather than picking just the components of functionality needed for a given task. Finally, these systems have a very costly life cycle. Once fielded, keeping these products up to speed with the state of the art requires very costly upgrades, and replacement outright becomes cost-prohibitive. Recent experiences in Kosovo have highlighted a number of these concerns. Gen Jumper has commented repeatedly on the fact we have very stovepiped systems which arise out of a lack of integrated operational concepts and doctrine. Gen Keys coined the terms “info fatigue” and “cyber-rubbernecking” in his Kosovo outbrief attesting to the fact that with all the advances in producing gobs of battlespace data, finding that one piece of critical information to make a timely operational decision was a major challenge. The info flood actually intensified the fog of war. And although we made strides in disseminating products on the web, it was very much dependent on website management to determine whether the information was accessible and locatable. Now, many of our maturing C2ISR systems have “web-enabled” ways ahead, but it isn’t clear that that will be sufficient to solve our growing information management problems. GDSS TBMCS


6 JBI Basics The JBI is a system of systems that integrates, aggregates, & distributes information to users at all echelons, from the command center to the battlefield. The JBI is built on four key technologies: Information exchange Publish/Subscribe/Query Transforming data to knowledge Fuselets Distributed collaboration Shared, updateable knowledge objects Force/Unit interfaces Templates Operational capability Information inputs Information requirements The JBI concept, as defined by Gen McCarthy’s SAB panel, is a globally interoperable information “space” that is responsible for aggregating, integrating, and intelligently disseminating all relevant battlespace information to all echelons in a JTF, from the commander to the forces in the field. If we peel the onion back one layer, we find that the JBI is distinguished by 4 key concepts: - The means by which it will accomplish information exchange is moving away from the standard query/response (or even the newer info push) models and incorporating the latest advances in e-business technology in the area of publish/subscribe mechanisms. In a future battlespace, what this means is that all sensors, weapons platforms, info systems, and users can “publish” their information products (sensor data, planning documents, guidance, intel, analysis..) into a virtual repository where it will be formatted and stored for use. Those same players can then subscribe to whatever information products they need, specifying the type of info, the granularity, the formats, and the timeliness with which they need it, and the JBI will take care of the delivery. - The JBI won’t just be a middle-man broker of information linking consumers and producers, it will also be responsible for transforming data into info and knowledge. In other words, it will enhance, correlate, aggregate information and conduct some “light” fusion. If several pieces of info on a given target, for example, are published, the JBI will aggregate them before sending them out via subscription - Next, the JBI will build upon the concept of distributed collaboration, evolving beyond the document-centric approaches we have today to an environment in which information objects can be shared and collaboratively developed or updated ; shared application contexts - Finally, the JBI will enable rapid, automatic incorporation of diverse units composing a JTF into a theater information environment. The means of accomplishing this will be via a mechanism called Force templates. These are software descriptions of military units that will describe the pub/sub mechanism, define the info exchange requirements and automatically reconfigure the JBI to incorporate that unit’s info mgmt system into the broader JBI. (describe Kosovo problems with even getting a comprehensive theater understanding of what personnel & supplies were in theater -- critical for expeditionary deployments

7 Publish & Subscribe JBI Client
Object Subscribe Publication Service Publish: Installation of Objects in “Catalog of Published Objects” maintained by specialized Publication Services. Services also maintain lists of pending Subscriptions Subscribe: Subscriptions specify metadata values that must match corresponding values in newly Published Objects - forward looking in time Query: Like Subscription, but without automatic triggering - backward looking in time Publication Service Processing: Test each new Published Object against all pending Subscriptions Test each new Query against all previously Published Objects Search: Trade-off Timeliness against Accuracy in Information Delivery

8 JBI Fuselets JBI Clients that create new knowledge derived from JBI information objects Small programs that publish JBI objects by refining or fusing information in a relatively simple way Capture simple decision logic which can be expressed in a natural way (e.g. rules) Created using scripting languages (e.g. JavaScript) or simple programming tools to adapt JBI information flows to dynamic mission needs Obtained from a library, configured, and placed in service to accomplish particular job in a JBI Not currently viewed as either mobile or intelligent

9 Example: fuselets that aggregate
Each air base publishes a “base status” object to the JBI. A fuselet that has subscribed to this type of object is triggered and publishes an aggregate “mission base status” object. Complex aggregation is achieved by cascading fuselets, forming higher-level knowledge. Represents challenges in control. Ramstein status Publish Fuselet Aviano status Mission base status Taszar status Subscribe

10 Objects and Metadata Set of attribute/value pairs

11 Force Template Information handshake between the JBI and the combat unit (defines subscribe and publish data to JBI). Information interface requirements: Information required to accomplish mission Example: Required accuracy of targeting information C2 and ISR capabilities: ISR inputs to JBI Example: weapons pod camera Force capabilities: Sortie rates (steady state and surge) Employment restrictions Munitions (TLAMs) Current readiness state Logistics requirements Force Template

12 Force / Unit Templates Combat Unit Support Unit JBI
Software descriptions of military units that are to be integrated into the JBI Describes pub/sub exchange; based on IERs Drives JBI reconfiguration to incorporate new Information requirements Information products/outputs Communications requirements Computing systems Force employment capability Ammunition inventory Fuel requirements Personnel requirements units and their native IM systems Comprehensive Information “handshake” Support Unit Information requirements Information products/outputs Communications requirements Computing systems JBI Mandatory unit subscriptions Mandatory unit publications Network routing information

13 C4ISR and the JBI Battlespace InfoSphere Command Planning Publish
Execution Products Command Guidance User Information Products & DBs Fusion Combat Support Publish Subscribe Transform Query Control Representation Task Centric Presentations Collaborative Problem Solving Automatic Formatting & Filtering Data Capture Common Planning Battlespace InfoSphere Execution The SAB describes 3 basic layers to the JBI “architecture”--input, manipulate, and interact. These functional layers transcend the entire spectrum of C2ISR operations (command, combat planning, execution monitoring, assessment, logistics, info ops, mobility, etc.). The core services of the JBI include the middle (manipulate) layer -- 5 basic functions (pub, sub, transform, query, and control). In order to effectively manipulate information, the JBI will be responsible for representing all information in some type of common structured format that will allow and facilitate interoperability and seamless exchange between disparate systems and users. On both sides of this critical layer are the functions that support the way information is input into and output from the JBI. So, on the input side, the JBI (as mentioned in the previous slide) accepts information from the whole gamut of potential sources--some of this may be received via automatic data capture and others from published input. On the interact side (bottom layer) the JBI will enable a much more natural and automatic means of interfacing with the information resident w/in. The JBI will support true collaborative problem solving, sharing individual info objects; it will automatically capture information from a variety of sources (e.g. natural language processing & speech recognition); it will intelligently delivered info products focused on the task or decision at hand, filtering out superfluous data. Info Support Combat Support

14 Architectural Concept
SENSORS Meta data Meta data Meta data C o n e c t r s JBI Subscription Broker ? ? Publish B A T L E S P C INFO Personnel ? BDA JBI Query Broker Orders of Battle Subscribe JBI Repository Weather Global Grid, Web, Internet,…. TBMCS Intentions ABCS Targets Query AFATDS Etc.... JBI Management Services GCSS GCCS-M Coalition partners ACCESS SYSTEMS JBI Platform

15 JBI Operational Architecture
Focuses on the tasks, information flows, and operational elements that meet the warfighter needs Defined through such products as: operational concept documents command relationship charts activity models information exchange requirements required capabilities matrices Develops enterprise view and representation of operational processes

16 JBI Systems Architecture
Identifies the information systems components and interconnections that make up the JBI development and execution environment. JBI platform, the run-time component that implements information exchange among C2ISR systems and fuselets Systems needed to implement the entire JBI lifecycle – Unit Infospheres – Mission-specific JBIs. Includes tools and reuse repositories to support Conceptual modeling Object modeling Allocation of object model component publication, subscription & query responsibilities Performance modeling

17 JBI Technical Architecture
Identifies applicable portions of existing standards Joint Technical Architecture Establishes new standards where there are voids Standard template for stating JBI object models Baseline common object models Mission-specific JBI object models Unit infosphere object models Individual C2ISR system object models Standard template for stating publication, subscription, query, and query response responsibilities at the same levels as for the object model Interface protocols that define the service calls between the JBI platform and all systems that interface with the platform, including C2ISR systems and fuselets

18 JBI Platform Architecture
Clients Connector Global Grid, Web, Internet,…. Access Policy JBI Repository JBI Subscription Broker JBI Management Services Meta data Meta data ? Meta data JBI Query Broker ACCESS JBI Platform

19 Advanced JBI Platform: Required JBI Infrastructure
JBI Infrastructure Services / Capabilities Layer Publish / Subscribe / Query Mechanisms & Support Services Information Object Representation / Types / Schemas / Metadata / Ontologies Distributed Object Spaces / Virtual Repositories White & Yellow Pages for Information & Service Location Transform Fuselet Construction, Modification, Composition, and Control Services Control JBI Stand Up/Down Services JBI Client Protocols, Certification & Registration Services Unit / Force Join & Depart Services JBI Access, Performance, Control, and Maintenance Services Information Flow Level QoS Management Information Assurance / Pedigree Capture / Security & DIW World Wide Web Layer Internet Layer Global Grid Communications Layer 3/24: Added this slide on infrastructure per Barringer’s request.

20 JBI Payoffs The JBI will revolutionize the way we…
DESIGN: Concentrate design effort on ops functionality Integrate at information level -- focus on content vs. format; de-couple data & applications ACQUIRE: Competitive market economy for info services & products within the JBI; no single-vendor solutions Rapid plug-n-play, standards-based insertion of innovative functionality and technology DEPLOY: Build & evolve agile JTF info framework driven by campaign CONOPS & dynamics of ops environment -- just like force structure EMPLOY: Timely decision-making from decision quality information Unity of effort through shared understanding Faster, cheaper Best of breed Customized, Adaptive Services A critical thing to understand about the JBI is that it’s payoffs extend far beyond the operational employment domain (i.e. Supporting operational decision-making throughout the full C2ISR enterprise). The JBI will also revolutionize the way we Design, Acquire, Deploy and Employ future combat information management systems. -Design: developers can focus their efforts on the top-level decision-support functions rather than the full layering of the infrastructure--this will expedite and cheapen the design process - Acquire: follow an Internet/WWW-type model in which scores of vendors produce functional products within the context of a relatively simple set of info services and protocols. No single-vendor solutions will dominate; new functionality should be able to plug-n-play with relative ease, thereby enabling much more cost-effective evolution of capabilities - Deploy: Force templates and a component-based approach will enable JTF commanders to customize their own information architecture along with their force structure to the given operational environment and then be able to evolve as it does. Expeditionary ops will become simpler by orders of magnitude because integrating new units into the theater laydown will be automated. - Employ: Decision-quality information at all levels of a JTF organization. What makes it all possible? The rich collection of emerging Web technologies and tools, e-business solutions, and commercial standards that underpin them all. Information Dominance Enabled by Web Infrastructure

21 JBI Impact Design Acquire
JBI abstraction barrier isolates information layer from delivery concerns Designers focus on information needed for decision making Enables designers to emphasize information availability, not location & ownership Emphasize information content, not data format Acquire “Plug & Play” integration at the information level Open competition on basis of functionality & performance - “best of breed” clients C2ISR Product lines, not company store Low cost of entry for innovators High payoff through information-level synergy Evolution of functionality through rapid new technology insertion (e.g., MP3)

22 JBI Impact (Concluded)
Deploy “Plug & Play” C2ISR component selection & assembly driven by current mission requirements Information system architecture (the “Information Plan”) co-designed with the CINC’s campaign plan, force structure plan, deployment plan “Designed” from the start to be responsive to CINC policy & goals Agility in the face of changing missions, roles, coalitions Economy of functionality Employ See Gen McCarthy’s JBI summer study outbriefing ! The existence of a CINC-orchestrated “Information Plan” implies: Plan execution Real-time execution assessment Replanning Better decisions, faster

23 Current Status wf-JBI AC2ISRC “Wright-Flyer” JBI
“Integrated” Cat III for JEFX 00 ISR Battle Management scenario JBI Task Force Mapping technical/operational way ahead; securing acquisition funding Assembling joint partners Concept Validation Prototypes (Y-JBIs) Explore design space Identify most viable components for operational spirals Goal is relatively inexpensive evaluation & idea generation Design space YJBI-1’s wfJBI MOE/MOP This slide depicts the activities currently underway to bring the JBI to reality: 1. The C2 Battlelab is leading an effort with ESC/MITRE, AFRL, and the AC2ISRC to demonstrate a nominal JBI capability for JEFX the “wright-flyer”. This effort is utilizing off-the-shelf COTS and GOTS (DARPA, MITRE, AFRL) technologies to assemble a “first hack” at JBI-like capabilities within the context of an ISR BM functional thread. 2. The AC2ISRC under Mgen Perryman has stood up a JBI Task Force consisting of personnel from AFRL, ESC/MITRE, the C2B, and the Center to begin charting the long-term way ahead for JBI development. This group will begin incorporating Joint service participation (Joint Battle Center, DARPA, SPAWAR, etc.) in the months to come to help synchronize our R&D efforts and expenditures 3. Next up after wfJBI is the initiation of a series of Y-JBI experimental prototypes. The goal of these parallel efforts will be to explore differing technical approaches to building a JBI -- alternate ways to erect a pub/sub infrastructure, a common object representation, and a virtual repository, The objective is to build and evaluate these prototypes quickly and inexpensively in order to identify the most viable approaches and component technologies that can be utilized to build a fully functional JBI

24 JBI Evolution Y-JBI Infrastructure Infrastructure
Provides an integrating substrate of information management services to link all C2 functionality New solutions “plug-in” without rebuilding all service layers Supplants old infrastructures while providing migration path for existing C2 systems Significant acquisition, deployment, and employment gains TBMCS GCCS GDSS Emerging C2 tools TBMCS GCCS GDSS Joint Campaign Planning Mobility Planning JBI-1 Now, how does the JBI relate to all those emerging and legacy systems mentioned at the outset of this brief? A key point here is that the JBI will serve as an integrating substrate of IM services that will enable these currently stovepiped systems to interoperate and share information in ways that aren’t possible today. As the JBI services grow more robust they will be able to supplant and replace the existing infrastructure components with much greater capability. It will also enable the development of much “thinner” client functionality because they can be built without the need to worry about all the IM infrastructure. Don’t be mislead by the growth of the size of the JBI “box” in this slide--it doesn’t represent another monolithic “system” like the DII COE or something. The size of the box indicates the robustness and maturity of services. The JBI infrastructure will need to remain very lean and dependent upon emerging commerical standards so that it can support a continual and cost-effective technology refresh. Eventually, the JBI will be able to subsume much of the functionality of today’s large systems as thin, web-based clients and provide a single interface to the whole gamut of battlespace data. This highlights the fact that the JBI has benefits in the design and acquisition realms as well as employment and deployment areas. Y-JBI Effects Based Ops Battlespace Awareness Infrastructure Infrastructure WEB ENABLED Dissolves Stovepipes & Delivers Seamless Access to Information

25 SAB Recommended Technology Investments
Prototype & Demo Evolve Rqmts JBI-2 Data Warehousing Immersive Virtual Environments Spiral Development Process Long-Term 2010 Information Assurance & Survivability Advanced Data/Sensor Fusion Intelligent Agents Distributed Storage, Indexing, & Retrieval Auto Data Capture & Info Extraction Warfighter Connectivity Commercial Tech: DoD S&T: YJBI-1 Today 2001 Web Technology: XML, XSL, XQL E-commerce Solutions JBI-1 Near-Term 2005 Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Middleware Digital Libraries We’re at a point in history now where so many critical technology threads are converging that ensure this JBI concept isn’t just dreamland…the SAB and the service labs have identified a number of emerging and maturing technologies that when systematically applied and integrated can provide us this infosphere described in the vision. The foundation for the JBI will be the rapidly growing tech base in the e-commerce / e-business (B2B, etc.) world. The XML standards that are becoming the standard for information exchange between heterogeneous systems on the web are a great example. The domain of EAI middleware, which is making these enormous corporate mergers possible is another great example (in which scores of disparate business units are brought together into a seamless enterprise). Leveraging this commercial tech base is the crux of JBI development, but doing so requires substantial S&T investment on the DoD side. COTS products are not going to be directly portable to the military domain. The SAB identified 6 critical areas that demand immediate and robust S&T investment in order to make the application of these COTS products in a JBI solution viable. It is the combination of these investments in a spiral development model that will bring the JBI from the realm of concept to reality. LEVERAGE E-BUSINESS SOLUTIONS WITH ROBUST DOD S&T INVESTMENTS

26 SAB Specific Recommendations
Immediate low-cost prototypes: AFRL/AC2ISRC JBI Platform technical architecture: ESC Evaluation of relevant COTS: ESC Military requirements for C2 Info Integration: AC2ISRC Common Representation/Templates: DISA/ESC Long term research: Advanced JBI Platform: DARPA with AFRL Advanced fusion concepts: AFRL with DARPA Information assurance: DARPA with AFRL Agent-based technology: DARPA with AFRL Advanced data survivable systems: DARPA/AFRL Active networks: AFRL Dynamic User Modeling: DARPA/AFRL Immediate low-cost rapid prototypes need only to exhibit partial coverage of JBI core platform services. Rapid prototypes should be designed to facilitate JBI concept evaluation by USAF warfighters, potential joint service users, and development engineers. The focus of these first JBI prototypes should be firmly on inexpensive evaluation and idea- generation. Advanced fusion systems: Fusion is an area that does not benefit from commercial research and so falls squarely on the shoulders of the military and intelligence communities. Information assurance: Avoiding JBI security vulnerabilities will be important. Beyond "locking all the doors and windows", the JBI should include intrusion detection systems embedded in the JBI platform itself. Agent-based infrastructure: Small, distributed, network-based, mobile code entities offer new computing models that will change how large systems are developed and how bandwidth is managed. Active nets: . Military communications cannot rely solely on the possibly chaotic behavior of the commercial network. Networking concepts that can provide quality of service (QoS) guarantees are needed. Advanced Data Models: Advanced database approaches, which range from new query methods to distributed processing over heterogeneous systems using different data models, will be needed to operate the JBI

27 JBI High-Level Approach
JBI = f(COTS + GOTS + DoD-specific R&D) COTS T&E DoD R&D + GOTS T&E Integration & Experimentation Integrated Feasibility Demonstrations / Experiments (IFD/E) Adopt / Adapt / Develop to maintain low cost of entry; “Buy, don’t Build”

28 COTS Insertion + Foundational DoD Science & Technology
JBI Roadmap 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 CONOPS Technical Architecture Technical Architecture Technical Architecture JEFX 00 JEFX 02 JEFX 04 JEFX 06 YJBI-1a JBI-2 YJBI-1b wfJBI JBI-1 Block 10 YJBI-1c JBI-1 Block 20 JBI-1 Block 30 YJBI-1d JBI Experimental Testbed Jonathan to animate COTS Insertion + Foundational DoD Science & Technology DARPA

29 Long-Term Research Areas Summary
Advanced JBI Platform Fundamental “core services” for Publish, Subscribe, Query, Transform and Control Common Representation for information standardization Advanced Fusion Concepts Integrate traditionally separate research communities for fusion, planning, and IW for a new form of COP Information Assurance & Survivability Novel approaches (e.g., NLP and semantic modeling) needed to control exchange of information between classification and coalition domains: MLS/MSL remain critical requirements despite failures of traditional approaches Vulnerabilities/challenges introduced by JBI-related technologies; e.g., Shared-spaces (JavaSpaces/Jini); XML; Distributed components (CORBA, EJB, Agents, etc.)

30 Long-Term Research Areas Summary (Continued)
Agent-Based Technology Agents with network awareness for bandwidth adaptation Enhanced mobility, control & coordination, and inter-agent communication Scalability & agent security issues Information Acquisition and Storage Automatic data capture & info extraction services Advanced data storage & retrieval (e.g., geospatial-temporal indexing) Effective Interfaces Context Understanding Multiple, simultaneous-user, interactive environments Cross-language transformation for seamless coalition collaboration, preferably in real-time Near real-time, dynamically-composable simulations to support visualization and decision-making

31 JBI “SWAT Team” Goal: Seize the JBI opportunity to provide the research, development and technical leadership necessary to formulate and execute a comprehensive program of research and development of the technical architecture for C2ISR by: Engaging in early experimental prototyping of JBI Platform services as a basis for idea generation, concept refinement, and evaluation. Performing in parallel systems studies and analysis of long term JBI Platform architecture focusing on downstream functionality for spiral development Providing the catalyst for the refocus of on-going AFRL/IF R&D activities, or the initiation of new AFRL/IF R&D activities, in partnership with others, in the long-term JBI technology areas recommended by the SAB

32 JBI “SWAT Team” Small cadre of full time senior S&Es
Senior mentor Large support group of part time S&Es from across directorate Focus on experimental exploration of JBI Platform design space JBI Core Services JBI Technical Architecture Build & maintain AFRL/IF node of JBI Testbed Serve as hub of AFRL IF Directorate JBI activities Bridges to each Division Outreach to each Branch Long Term JBI Research and other JBI enabling R&D Requirements pull for the JBI Early access to evolving JBI concepts in the Testbed Collaborate and support outside JBI activities DARPA AC2ISRC ESC/MITRE AFRL/HE Other Service Labs

33 Testbed Purpose Host and facilitate full evolution of the JBI
Support multiple prototypes (incl. wfJBI) for collaborative development and experimentation Provide an integration environment for legacy and emerging C2ISR systems Support industry IR&D efforts with access to C2 architectures & systems Provide JBI component developers regular access to evolving JBI Services – mitigates risk for downstream insertion Support operational assessment and evaluation

34 Distributed Testbed Nodes
ESC - Hanscom ARFL - Rome System Architects System and Technical architecture specifications Standards & Protocols Experimentation/Evaluation Node COTS/GOTS ring-out and analysis Metrics collection with operational systems Integration Partner with AFRL Requirements Analysis & Transition Translation of ops to technical reqts Support transition of JBI services/ components to operational fielding Science & Technology Developer R&D for enabling technologies DARPA agent & transition vehicle Experimentation & Evaluation Node COTS/GOTS ring-out and analysis Platform assessment & prototype development Integration Partner w/ ESC Emerging / legacy systems into JBI JBI component technologies Joint functional components onto JBI service layers OSC - Langley Management / Assessment Center Requirement communities Operational communities Management communities Experimentation / Demonstration Site C2B - Hurlburt DBCC - Nellis Large-Force Employment Node Robust, realistic scenarios Operational ring-out Operational Process Hub Develop / refine new CONOPS to drive JBI capabilities Operational Assessment Center Access to warfighter users on continuous basis Full array of fielded systems and architectures Established feedback and evaluation processes Warfighter Assessment Center Access to warfighter users on continuous basis Full array of fielded systems and architectures Established feedback and evaluation processes

35 Decision-Quality Information
Summary: JBI Vision Globally Interoperable Information “Space” that … Aggregates, integrates, fuses, and disseminates tailored battlespace information to all echelons of a JTF Links JTF sensors, systems & users together for unity of effort Integrates legacy C2 resources From this background, the AF SAB has defined and the labs and product centers are refining this concept of a Joint Battlespace Infosphere, or JBI. The essence of a JBI is a globally interoperable information “space” (if you will) which will be responsible for aggregating, integrating, fusing, and intelligently disseminating all relevant battlespace knowledge to support effective decision-making at all echelons of a JTF. In other words, it is a seamlessly accessible combat information infrastructure linking all sensors, systems, and users in a Joint Task Force to achieve an informational unity of effort. It is intended to provide a means to integrate legacy and emerging C2ISR resources as well as serve as a platform for rapid and cost-effective insertion of new tools. The end-product of the JBI is information that is of “Decision-Quality”; that is, the right information, within the proper time constraints, in the appropriate formats, etc…. to make the most operationally effective decision. Some of the key tenets of implementing this JBI are that it needs to focus on decision-making, not just technical capability; that it will need to leverage to a high degree emerging COTS technologies, and that it will need to facilitate a low cost of entry for new capabilities and functionalities; that is, rather than another single-vendor implementation, it will need to support competitive insertion of a variety of technology components. Decision-Quality Information Focuses on Decision-Making Enables Affordable Technology Refresh Leverages Emerging Commercial Technologies

36 Questions? "Information superiority becomes a precondition for fighting to achieve air and space superiority," Lt. Gen. Liu Shunyao, Chief, China Peoples Liberation Army Air Force 28 Feb 2000, AW&ST (“Chinese War Plans Emphasize Air Force's Offensive Role”)

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