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Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-1 1 Chapter 11 Intercultural communication.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-1 1 Chapter 11 Intercultural communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-1 1 Chapter 11 Intercultural communication

2 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-2 2 Topic overview Introduction: impact of globalisation Understanding the term culture Defining intercultural communication Third space communication Strategies for effective intercultural communication

3 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-3 3 Impact of globalisation Globalisation has resulted in diverse societies and workplaces. Australia: –43 per cent of the population born overseas or at least one parent born overseas. –Over 200 languages are spoken (Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs 2005). Increasing diversity: need to develop intercultural communication competence.

4 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-4 4 Activity 1 Form groups of three to four students and discuss the following questions: 1.What are the key components of culture? 2.Individually, or in pairs, write a simple definition of culture. 3.Compare your definition with another group. Note the similarities and differences.

5 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-5 5 Defining culture There are over 100 definitions of culture. The following definitions of culture are tied together by an understanding that: –culture is learned –culture is shared –cultural experiences vary within a cultural group –culture changes continuously –every exchange with others is intercultural. Culture permeates everything we think, say, do and are.

6 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-6 6 Defining culture (cont.) Chaney & Martin (2004, p. 268): Culture is the structure through which the communication is formulated and interpreted; deals with the way people live.

7 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-7 7 Defining culture (cont.) Ferraro (2002): Culture is everything that people have, think, and do as members of their society (cited in Gudykunst & Kim 2003, p. 19).

8 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-8 8 Defining culture (cont.) Gudykunst & Kim (2001, p. 15): Our culture provides us with a system of knowledge that generally allows us to know how to communicate with other members of our cultures and how to interpret their behaviour.

9 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-9 9 Defining culture (cont.) Hofstede (2001): Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another (cited in Dwyer 2005, p. 201).

10 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-10 10 Defining culture (cont.) Mohan, McGregor, Saunders & Archee (2004, p. 80): … culture can best be understood if it is broken up into four main dimensions: –history and world view, including values, beliefs and religion –socialisation, including education, enculturation and personal growth –language –non-verbal communication.

11 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-11 11 Defining culture (cont.) Windschuttle & Elliott (1999, p. 481): A culture is a shared system of behaviour, values, beliefs, attitudes, manners, symbols and assumptions.

12 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-12 12 Activity 2 Form groups of three or four students. 1.Working alone, write down five rules or conventions your family follows when eating a meal together. In one household, the five rules might be as follows: –Set the table. –Turn off the television. –Help bring the food to the table. –Wait until everyone is seated before starting to eat. –At the end of the meal, thank whoever cooked the meal.

13 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-13 13 Activity 2 (cont.) 2.Now, compare your familys rules with those in your group. What is different? What is the same? 3.How much of your family meal rules are based on your familys own ideas and how much on wider cultural expectations (e.g. using a knife and fork vs using chopsticks)? 4.Spend some time in your group discussing how the rules change depending on particular circumstances (e.g. when a guest comes to dinner; when a family member has a birthday; on the weekend, etc.).

14 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-14 14 The unspoken rules Life is made up of hundreds of unspoken expectations and ways of behaving. Even within the same ethnic and linguistic background, the culture will be distinct from one family to another. Individual behaviour also depends on the context and the other individuals with whom the interaction is taking place.

15 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-15 15 Understanding culture Understanding culture is about being conscious of what we do everyday without even thinking about it. The key to understanding culture is the recognition that culture is transmitted and maintained solely through learning, enculturation and group interaction (Dwyer 2005, p. 33).

16 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-16 16 Iceberg analogy of culture Tip (external culture): –language, customs, typical food, dress –acquired through observation, education/training –easily learned and can be changed. Under water (internal culture): –values, ways of thinking and perceiving, non- verbal communication –overtly learned (formal education) or implicitly learned through socialisation –influences/motivates our behaviour

17 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-17 17 Ethnocentrism The belief in the superiority of ones own culture (Guffey 2001, p. 12) Judging others by our own values Often results in stereotypes

18 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-18 18 Stereotypes Oversimplified behavioural patterns applied to entire groups –e.g. all Australians drink beer Fixed and distorted generalisations about all members of a group Ignore individual differences and specifics of the person or the situation

19 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-19 19 Stereotypes (cont.) Support underlying prejudices or biases Support a superiority/inferiority belief system Used to justify unfair differential treatment Learnt through socialisation and often reinforced or perpetuated by the media (adapted from Cross-cultural awareness training module n.d.).

20 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-20 20 Activity 3 In groups of three or four, write a brief stereotype for each of the following nationalities: –Australians –New Zealanders –Chinese –British –Japanese –German –French Present your feedback to class.

21 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-21 21 Activity 3 (cont.) 1.Was it easy to agree on a simple stereotype for each nationality? 2.Who taught us these stereotypes? 3.Based on your own experience, are these stereotypes true? 4.How are stereotypes used to discriminate against others? 5.Can you think of any situations where stereotypes might be useful?

22 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-22 22 Conceptualising communication Communication is a symbolic activity –words, non-verbal displays and objects (e.g. the national flag). The meanings of symbols vary from culture to culture. Communication is a process involving the transmitting and interpreting of messages –messages can be transmitted, but meanings cannot.

23 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-23 23 Creation of meaning The channel used to transmit the message influences how we interpret the meaning. For example: –face-to-face –telephone –computer-mediated (e.g. email, Internet) –handwritten message. The context also influences the interpretation of the message (e.g. work, home, school) and issues of power affect the interpretation of a message.

24 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-24 24 Communication awareness Communication takes place at varying levels of awareness. Much of what we know was learned unconsciously. Most of the time we are unaware of the process of communication. Awareness is heightened in new or strange situations.

25 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-25 25 Communication intention Intention is not a necessary condition for communication. Other conditions include: –habits (rituals such as greetings) –emotions (responding to others without thinking, e.g. becoming defensive if we feel we have been insulted).

26 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-26 26 Non-verbal communication Only 7 per cent of what is communicated between people is transmitted through words (Lahiff & Penrose 1997, p. 61). So often we focus on language (the words), when effective communication is much more about culture.

27 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-27 27 Activity 4 Working in pairs, complete the following exercises: 1.List five communication symbols (words, non-verbal displays or objects). 2.Consider issues of power in an educational setting. How does this affect the communication between student and teacher?

28 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-28 28 Activity 4 (cont.) 3.Think of a recent communication exchange with a person from another country. Can you recall any non-verbal issues that impeded your communication (e.g. kissing, touching, hand signals)? 4.Consider the same question in relation to communicating with a person from your own country.

29 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-29 29 Intercultural or cross- cultural? Intercultural communication: social interaction, sharing of meanings between people from diverse cultures, focus on understanding and sharing rather than comparing Cross-cultural communication: focus on comparison of communication styles

30 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-30 30 Intercultural communication Concept of stranger: anyone unknown or unfamiliar Self-disclosure: a major factor in develop- ment of personal relationships with strangers Need for communication partners to validate and confirm the other Speaking the same language is no guarantee of shared understandings (consider gender, age, status) ALL interactions could be called intercultural

31 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-31 31 Third space Effective communicators step outside their own culture when communicating, taking on a third space perspective –Describes the possibility for a negotiated re- imagining of cultural identity –Identity is constructed and deconstructed Removal of us vs. them distinctions Requires mutual commitment Need to find common ground

32 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-32 32 Strategies for effective intercultural communication Resist stereotypes. Resist assumptions. Recognise own cultural position. Develop empathy. Communicate respect. Be aware of non-verbal communication. Aim for clarity. Recognise and rectify mistakes.

33 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-33 33 Activity 5 Do an Internet search on Geert Hofstede and the five cultural dimensions. How useful do you think Hofstedes cultural dimensions are in developing effective intercultural communication skills?

34 Copyright 2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Communication Skills, by Bretag, Crossman and Bordia 11-34 34 Summary To develop intercultural communication competence, we need first to understand the concept of culture. Compare cross-cultural communication with intercultural communication. Be aware of ethnocentrism, stereotypes and other barriers to communication. Aim for third space communication.


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