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Physical Anthropology Eighth Edition Philip L. Stein Bruce M. Rowe McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Eight Comparative Studies: Anatomy and Genetics
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-2 Locomotor Patterns Among Primates Primates exhibit a wide range of locomotor patterns. These include: –vertical clinging and leaping –arboreal and terrestrial quadrupedalism –semi-brachiation –true brachiation –quadrumanous –knuckle walking –erect bipedalism
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-3 Comparative Anatomy of Primate Locomotion Lomotor pattern is reflected in many aspects of the anatomy, including the relative length of the arms and legs, as seen in the intermembral index. In contrast with hominoids, monkeys carry their bodies parallel to the ground. The spine forms an arch supported by the limbs; the trunk is long and narrow. The hominoid back does not play an important role in locomotion. The body is vertical or semivertical to the ground. The back muscles are small and the spine is relatively inflexible. The positioning of the shoulder girdle also differs.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-4 Adaptations for Erect Bipedalism In humans, the position of the skull on top of the spine and the development of the lumbar curve have resulted in a trunk balanced over the pelvis. The illium of the pelvis is short and broad. The leg is long and powerful and the thighs angle in towards the knee. The human foot is inflexible with an arch and a non-opposable big toe.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-5 Comparative Anatomy of the Hand Primates are characterized by pentadacytlism and palms and fingertips that are covered with epidermal ridges. Most primates have grasping hands and feet. In Old World monkeys, apes and humans, the thumb can be directly opposed to the other fingers.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-6 Comparative Anatomy of the Skull The skull articulates with the spine by the occipital condyles, which are located on the sides of the foramen magnum. The relative position of the foramen magnum is a reflection of locomotor pattern. Other features of the skull reflect the relative importance of the sense organs. The eyes of most primates are located on the front of the head, allowing for binocular vision. The lower part of the eye is supported on the side by the zygomatic arch. The eye is further supported by the postorbital bar. In anthropoids, a bony postorbital septum is found behind the eye, which connects the postorbital bar to the brain case, creating a complete eye socket.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-7 Comparative Anatomy of the Skull Photographs by Dodie Stoneburner
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-8 Comparative Anatomy of the Skull (contd) Photographs by Dodie Stoneburner
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-9 The Evolution of the Primate Brain The evolution of the primate brain is characterized by a general increase in brain size relative to body size. This increase is described by the encephalization quotient. The neocortex covers the entire cerebrum in the Anthropoidea. Many convolutions increase its surface area. In the course of primate evolution, the different areas associated with specific functions have become more clearly defined. The cortical areas associated with hand coordination are three times larger in human brains compared to ape brains, and the expansion of areas associated with language is larger.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Erect Bipedalism and the Human Brain In the evolution of the human pelvis, a repositioning of the sacrum has created a complete bony ring through which the birth canal passes. The need to pass the large human brain through this opening has resulted in the human newborn having a brain less than 30 percent of its adult size. The brains of other animals are almost completely developed at birth. Thus the human infant is very dependent on others for an extended period.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Primate Dentition Mammals are characterized by heterodonty. There are four different kinds of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars and molars. The types and numbers of teeth are designated in the dental formula. Different diets have different food processing needs and therefore different dental adaptations. Figure from Primate Adaptations and Evolution by John Fleagle, copyright 1988, Elsevier Science (USA), reproduced by permission of the publisher. This material may not be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Ape Dentition The incisors of the great apes are broad and spatula-like. The upper incisors are implanted at an angle. The canine is large and projecting. When the mouth closes, the canines interlock each fitting into the diastema of the opposite jaw. The dental arcade is U-shaped, with parallel tooth rows. From Dentition of Living Primates by D. R. Swindler, p Copyright 1976, by permission of the publisher Academic Press, London.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Modern Hominid Dentition The size of teeth has decreased. The canines are small; they do not project or interlock. The canines do not show sexual dimorphism. The teeth are arranged in a curved, or parabolic dental arcade and there is no diastema. Hominid teeth have relatively thick enamel. From Dentition of Living Primates by D. R. Swindler, p Copyright 1976, by permission of the publisher Academic Press, London.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Jaw The human jaw is smaller and shorter relative to the skull than the ape jaw. In apes, the mandible is reinforced internally by a simian shelf. This shelf rarely occurs in hominids. In humans, the evolution of a small jaw has resulted in a chin. The muscles that operate the jaw are also smaller in humans. In gorillas, the temporalis muscle is large and a sagittal crest has developed across the top of the skull, providing the necessary surface area for muscle attachment. Large jaw muscles are also associated with a robust and flared zygomatic arch.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Molecular Biology and Cytogenetics When we examine human and chimpanzee karyotypes, we can easily pair up each human chromosome with a chimpanzee counterpart. The only exception is human chromosome 2 which appears to have evolved from the fusion of two smaller chromosomes. Comparative studies are also made of proteins and DNA. The data derived from these studies can be used to develop phylogenetic trees which show evolutionary relationships. Studies have shown that humans and chimpanzees are very closely related on the genetic level, sharing at least 98.5 percent of their DNA.
Modern Humans and Modern Apes Compared. EYES Modern Human Located in front of skull. Excellent binocular vision Excellent colour vision Reduced sense.
THE PRIMATES Year 13 Biology Achievement standard 3.7.
Chapter 5 An Overview the Primates Primates as Mammals Characteristics of Primates Primate Adaptations Primate Taxonomy A Survey of the Living Primates.
Comparing Humans & Apes. Why Bipedalism? Chimpanzees & bipedalism Chimpanzees use a variety of postures. Their main mode of slow locomotion on the ground.
Lab 2: Hominid Anatomy Key features to know Modified from
Human Evolution Part I - Primates. “To understand the story of evolution, we must understand both our ancestors and our relationships to our closest living.
Human Derived Traits Locomotion differences Dental differences Brain differences Life history differences Cultural adaptations.
Paleoanthropology -The study of human origins and evolution -Paleoanthropologists use two terms that are easily confused: Hominoid: refers to the group.
Humans as Primates. Objectives Describe primates and their evolution. Describe the major anatomical features that define humans as primates. Outline the.
Key Trends in Hominid evolution. Bipedalism is walking on two legs. First observed in Australopithecines Adaptations of the human body for bipedal locomotion.
AN UNUSUAL APE W.A.L.T- Describe trends in human evolution by discussing skeletal changes linked to bipedalism.
Human Evolution. Describe the major anatomical features that define humans as primates Primata = an order of mammals, including apes, monkeys, tarsiers.
Analysis of Primates Comparisons of Human, Ape, and Australopithecine.
Hominid Evolution Human Evolution. Objectives Identify the characteristics that all primates share. Describe the major evolutionary groups of primates.
1 This is Jeopardy Human Evolution 2 Category No. 1 Category No. 2 Category No. 3 Category No. 4 Category No Final Jeopardy.
Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Human Evolution Chapter 32.
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Exploring Biological Anthropology: The Essentials, 3 rd Edition CRAIG STANFORD JOHN S. ALLEN.
Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition Solomon Berg Martin Chapter 21 The Evolution of Primates.
Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies How Human Evolved Chapter 21 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission.
HUMAN EVOLUTION Where we fit Primate family tree Hominoids Primate features Ape features Ape vs. Human - skeletal Ape vs. Human – skull Ape vs. Human –
IB Biology Review Human Evolution. Taxonomy of Humans Kingdom:Animalia Phylum:Chordata Class:Mammalia Order:Primate Family:Hominidae Genus:Homo Species:Sapiens.
Probably first appeared about 200,000 years ago. Paleoanthropologists study human evolution. There is sparse evidence relating to the evolution.
Comparative Primate Anatomy The Hardware of Human Culture.
Evidence (Don’t need to write each) Anatomical differences and similarities between African apes and humans Fossil evidence Genetic evidence Cultural.
HUMAN EVOLUTION (knicked from Hamish) Slide 2Where we fitWhere we fit Slide 3 Primate family treePrimate family tree Slide 4 HominoidsHominoids Slide 5Primate.
Human Evolution Chapter 32. Human Evolution 2Outline Evolution of Primates Mobile Limbs Binocular Vision Evolution of Early Hominids Evolution of.
12.6 Primate Evolution KEY CONCEPT Humans appeared late in Earth’s history.
EVOLUTION OF HUMANS Disclaimer: This is not the final answer to the question of how human evolution occurred; this is a short collection of information.
Human Evolution Review of knowledge. Finding the evidence for evolution Right conditions = few examples. Once have them need to date them, potassium-
Chapter 43 Mammals Section 4 Primates & Human Origins.
Skull Studies. Skeleton Framework of an animal’s body Gives shape, support, and protection Vertebrates, endoskeleton Muscle attachment allowing for movement.
Chapter 10 Paleoanthropology: Reconstructing Early Hominid Behavior and Ecology.
Primate Classification. ~25 million years ago: Old World Monkeys split from Hominoids, a linage that resulted in humans, gorillas and chimps ~17 million.
Primate and Human evolution Chapter 16. I. Primate Origins A. Primate –a group of mammals that includes lemurs, monkeys, apes and humans. B. Primates.
Skeletal Features of Bipedalism Professor Janaki Natalie Parikh
Walking upright on two legs habitually (all of the time)
Primate Evolution Section 16.1 Primates. Daily Objective Understand that Primates share several behavioral and biological characteristics, which indicates.
Why Study Primates?. Light shall be thrown on humanity’s history The human family is but one branch on the tree of life.
Biological Anthropology The Early Hominids. Hominid Species Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus.
SC.912.L.15.1 EVOLUTION. The theory of evolution is supported by evidence from the fossil record comparative anatomy comparative embryology biogeography.
Class Slides Set 16A The Skull. Many changes take place in the skull...
Primates Primates are an order of mammals which includes lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans Where do we separate?
Human Evolution 1 CH 32 - Outline Evolution of Primates Mobile Limbs Binocular Vision Evolution of Early Hominids Evolution of Later Hominids Evolution.
Biological Anthropology. In order to understand the place of humans in nature, it is first necessary to understand the group of mammals to which humans.
Primates. Share a Common Ancestor, prosimians, monkeys, apes, humans. Relevant Lifestyle features Colour Vision Grasping hands Forward facing eyes. Dependent.
COPYRIGHT © 2008 Nelson Education Ltd. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Human Evolution and PREHISTORY Link to the Canadian Association for Physical Anthropology Link.
Vocabulary Review Ch 43 - Mammals. In animals, the characteristic of maintaining a high, constant body temperature through regulation of metabolism and.
Kingdom Animal Phylum Chordate Class Mammal Order Primates Family Hominids Genus Homo Species Sapiens.
The goal of primatology, the study of primates, is to understand how different primates have adapted anatomically and behaviorally to their environment.
Paleoanthropology: Reconstructing Early Hominid Behavior and Ecology.
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