We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byAngel Callahan
Modified over 2 years ago
Physical Anthropology Eighth Edition Philip L. Stein Bruce M. Rowe McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Eight Comparative Studies: Anatomy and Genetics
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-2 Locomotor Patterns Among Primates Primates exhibit a wide range of locomotor patterns. These include: –vertical clinging and leaping –arboreal and terrestrial quadrupedalism –semi-brachiation –true brachiation –quadrumanous –knuckle walking –erect bipedalism
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-3 Comparative Anatomy of Primate Locomotion Lomotor pattern is reflected in many aspects of the anatomy, including the relative length of the arms and legs, as seen in the intermembral index. In contrast with hominoids, monkeys carry their bodies parallel to the ground. The spine forms an arch supported by the limbs; the trunk is long and narrow. The hominoid back does not play an important role in locomotion. The body is vertical or semivertical to the ground. The back muscles are small and the spine is relatively inflexible. The positioning of the shoulder girdle also differs.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-4 Adaptations for Erect Bipedalism In humans, the position of the skull on top of the spine and the development of the lumbar curve have resulted in a trunk balanced over the pelvis. The illium of the pelvis is short and broad. The leg is long and powerful and the thighs angle in towards the knee. The human foot is inflexible with an arch and a non-opposable big toe.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-5 Comparative Anatomy of the Hand Primates are characterized by pentadacytlism and palms and fingertips that are covered with epidermal ridges. Most primates have grasping hands and feet. In Old World monkeys, apes and humans, the thumb can be directly opposed to the other fingers.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-6 Comparative Anatomy of the Skull The skull articulates with the spine by the occipital condyles, which are located on the sides of the foramen magnum. The relative position of the foramen magnum is a reflection of locomotor pattern. Other features of the skull reflect the relative importance of the sense organs. The eyes of most primates are located on the front of the head, allowing for binocular vision. The lower part of the eye is supported on the side by the zygomatic arch. The eye is further supported by the postorbital bar. In anthropoids, a bony postorbital septum is found behind the eye, which connects the postorbital bar to the brain case, creating a complete eye socket.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-7 Comparative Anatomy of the Skull Photographs by Dodie Stoneburner
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-8 Comparative Anatomy of the Skull (contd) Photographs by Dodie Stoneburner
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-9 The Evolution of the Primate Brain The evolution of the primate brain is characterized by a general increase in brain size relative to body size. This increase is described by the encephalization quotient. The neocortex covers the entire cerebrum in the Anthropoidea. Many convolutions increase its surface area. In the course of primate evolution, the different areas associated with specific functions have become more clearly defined. The cortical areas associated with hand coordination are three times larger in human brains compared to ape brains, and the expansion of areas associated with language is larger.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Erect Bipedalism and the Human Brain In the evolution of the human pelvis, a repositioning of the sacrum has created a complete bony ring through which the birth canal passes. The need to pass the large human brain through this opening has resulted in the human newborn having a brain less than 30 percent of its adult size. The brains of other animals are almost completely developed at birth. Thus the human infant is very dependent on others for an extended period.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Primate Dentition Mammals are characterized by heterodonty. There are four different kinds of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars and molars. The types and numbers of teeth are designated in the dental formula. Different diets have different food processing needs and therefore different dental adaptations. Figure from Primate Adaptations and Evolution by John Fleagle, copyright 1988, Elsevier Science (USA), reproduced by permission of the publisher. This material may not be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Ape Dentition The incisors of the great apes are broad and spatula-like. The upper incisors are implanted at an angle. The canine is large and projecting. When the mouth closes, the canines interlock each fitting into the diastema of the opposite jaw. The dental arcade is U-shaped, with parallel tooth rows. From Dentition of Living Primates by D. R. Swindler, p Copyright 1976, by permission of the publisher Academic Press, London.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Modern Hominid Dentition The size of teeth has decreased. The canines are small; they do not project or interlock. The canines do not show sexual dimorphism. The teeth are arranged in a curved, or parabolic dental arcade and there is no diastema. Hominid teeth have relatively thick enamel. From Dentition of Living Primates by D. R. Swindler, p Copyright 1976, by permission of the publisher Academic Press, London.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Jaw The human jaw is smaller and shorter relative to the skull than the ape jaw. In apes, the mandible is reinforced internally by a simian shelf. This shelf rarely occurs in hominids. In humans, the evolution of a small jaw has resulted in a chin. The muscles that operate the jaw are also smaller in humans. In gorillas, the temporalis muscle is large and a sagittal crest has developed across the top of the skull, providing the necessary surface area for muscle attachment. Large jaw muscles are also associated with a robust and flared zygomatic arch.
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Molecular Biology and Cytogenetics When we examine human and chimpanzee karyotypes, we can easily pair up each human chromosome with a chimpanzee counterpart. The only exception is human chromosome 2 which appears to have evolved from the fusion of two smaller chromosomes. Comparative studies are also made of proteins and DNA. The data derived from these studies can be used to develop phylogenetic trees which show evolutionary relationships. Studies have shown that humans and chimpanzees are very closely related on the genetic level, sharing at least 98.5 percent of their DNA.
SC.912.L.15.1 EVOLUTION. The theory of evolution is supported by evidence from the fossil record comparative anatomy comparative embryology biogeography.
Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 16 Primate Evolution Section 1: Primates Section 2: Hominoids to Hominins Section 3: Human Ancestry.
Biology 210 Chapter 8: Skeletal Tissues Supplement 1 By John McGill Material contributed by Beth Wyatt & Jack Bagwell.
From Them to Us… Why evolution does not mean we came from MONKEYS…
Human Classification Animal Kingdom Cordate Phylum Mammal Class Primate Order Hominoid Family Homo Genus sapiens speices.
Introduction to Vertebrates. Vertebrate Vocabulary Chapters Chordate 2.vertebrate 3.vertebra (712) 4.agnathan (714) 5.ectothermic (724) 6.endothermic.
Pig Dissection. hael.Gregory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102 %20Laboratory/Fetal%20Pig/Fetal%20Pig. htm.
Topics A history of apemen – the track record Two case studies 1. Neandertals 2. Australopithecines and Lucy How evolution hinders critical thinking Mechanism.
Correct your own answers! 16.4 Workbook KEY. Biogeography 1. Biogeographers study where organisms live now and where they and their ancestors lived in.
PRIMATES AND HUMAN ORIGINS Chapter 32 Section 3. What Is a Primate? They have: binocular vision a well-developed cerebrum relatively long fingers and.
Congress Middle School Pre-Medical Magnet Program 2008 Presented by: Diana Herec, Medical Magnet Coordinator.
Bones are the framework of the vertebrate body and thus contain much information about man's adaptive mechanisms to his environment. The study of evolution.
European Society for the Study of Cognitive Systems London 2005 THE CHILD AND THE WORLD Robin Allott.
Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 13 1 Historical Development Chapter 13 Forensic Anthropology: What We Learn from Bones Historical.
ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by.
BIOLOGY Option D. Topic Outline Origin of Life on Earth Origin of Species Evidence for Evolution Human Evolution Neo-Darwinism The Hardy-Weinberg Principle.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell.
Top Things That Make Us Human. Speech The larynx, or voice box, sits lower in the throat in humans than in chimps, one of several features that enable.
Evolution is a change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation! Ch 22.
Evolution Evidence Class Research. Please add your research to this power point. Go to the section that you were assigned and add the 4- 5 examples of.
Evidence of Evolution How Scientists Determined that Living Things Change Over Time Video #3 – “How Do We Know Evolution Happens?”“How Do We Know Evolution.
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Fine Motor Development Chapter 11.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 21.1 Chapter 21 Genomes and their Evolution.
Forensic Anthropology What can it tell us?. Vocabulary 1.Anthropology – the scientific study of the origins and behavior as well as the physical, social,
Evolution Part 1: Natural Selection. Charles Darwin The Father of Evolution The Father of Evolution Born in 1809, England Born in 1809, England.
GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory.
Ch. 22 Heredity and Evolution Objectives: -To describe the role of DNA in Heredity -To compare mitosis and meiosis -To recognize how populations change.
© Alan Richardson. The theory of evolution offers an explanation for the existence of all living organisms on the Earth today and in the past It supposes.
1 Axial (the center or axis) Appendicular (legs and arms) Skeletal Organization Skeleton is divided into two divisions!
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.