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International Financial Policy A foreign exchange dealers office during a busy spell is the nearest thing to Bedlam I have struck. Harold Wincott CHAPTER.

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Presentation on theme: "International Financial Policy A foreign exchange dealers office during a busy spell is the nearest thing to Bedlam I have struck. Harold Wincott CHAPTER."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Financial Policy A foreign exchange dealers office during a busy spell is the nearest thing to Bedlam I have struck. Harold Wincott CHAPTER 20 Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 International Financial Policy 20 The Balance of Payments Balance of payments is a countrys record of all transactions between its residents and the residents of all foreign nations These include a countrys buying and selling of goods and services (imports and exports) and interest and profit payments from previous investments, together with all the capital inflows and outflows These accounts record all payments made by foreigners to U.S. citizens and all payments made by U.S. citizens to foreigners in those years 20-2

3 International Financial Policy 20 The Current Account The current account (lines 1–14) is the part of the balance of payments account in which all short-term flows of payments are listed The balance of merchandise trade is the difference between the value of goods exported and the value of goods imported The balance of trade is the difference between the value of goods and services exported and imported 20-3

4 International Financial Policy 20 The Financial and Capital Account The financial and capital account (lines 15–25) is the part of the balance of payments account in which all long-term flows of payments are listed 1.The capital account includes debt forgiveness, migrants transfers, and transfers related to the sale of fixed assets 2.The financial account includes trade in assets such as business firms, bonds, stocks, and ownership right to real estate Official reserves are government holdings of foreign currencies 20-4

5 International Financial Policy 20 Exchange Rates An exchange rate is the rate at which one countrys currency can be traded for another countrys currency The exchange rate is determined by demand and supply in the forex market (foreign exchange market) where traders buy and sell currencies The forex markets are very busy with nearly $2 trillion traded every day 20-5

6 International Financial Policy 20 The Supply and Demand for Euros Price of euros (in $) Euros Supply Demand $1.50 QDQD QSQS $1.30 In the supply of and demand for euros, Price is measured in $ Quantity is in euros QEQE If the price increases to $1.50, the quantity supplied (Q S ) of euros is greater than the quantity demanded (Q D ) 20-6

7 International Financial Policy 20 Changes in Interest Rates Interest rates in the U.S. increase Demand for U.S. interest-bearing assets increases Demand for dollars to buy U.S. assets increases The increase in the demand for dollars causes the price of dollars to increase 20-7

8 International Financial Policy 20 Changes in a Countrys Income or Prices Income or prices increase in the U.S. Imports increase Demand for foreign currency to buy imports increases which means the supply of the dollar increases The increase in supply of the dollar causes the price of the dollar to decrease 20-8

9 International Financial Policy 20 The Net Effect of Monetary Policy on Exchange Rates M i Y Exchange Rate P Competitiveness Imports Exchange rate Exchange rate (LR) Expansionary monetary policy lowers exchange rates It decreases the relative value of a countrys currency 20-9

10 International Financial Policy 20 The Net Effect of Monetary Policy on Exchange Rates M Y i Exchange Rate Exchange rate Exchange rate (LR) Contractionary monetary policy increases exchange rates It increases the relative value of a countrys currency P Imports Competitiveness 20-10

11 International Financial Policy 20 The Net Effect of Fiscal Policy on Exchange Rates Expansionary Fiscal policy Y ? Exchange Rate ? P Competitiveness Imports Exchange rate Exchange rate (LR) The effect of expansionary fiscal policy on exchange rates is not so clear Exchange rate i 20-11

12 International Financial Policy 20 The Net Effect of Fiscal Policy on Exchange Rates Y Exchange rate Exchange rate (LR) P Imports Competitiveness The effect of contrationary fiscal policy on exchange rates is not so clear i Exchange rate ? Exchange Rate ? Contractionary Fiscal policy 20-12

13 International Financial Policy 20 Purchasing Power Parity and Real Exchange Rates Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a method of calculating exchange rates that values currencies at rates such that each currency will buy an equal basket of goods According to PPP, if a basket of goods costs $7 in the U.S. and ¥1000 in Japan, the exchange rate should be $1 = 1000/7 = ¥143 Purchasing power parity exchange rates may or may not be appropriate long-run exchange rates 20-13

14 International Financial Policy 20 Real Exchange Rates A real exchange rate is an exchange rate adjusted for differential inflation or differential changes in the price level. A nominal exchange rate is the actual exchange rate used when currencies are exchanged %Δ real exchange rate = %Δ nominal exchange rate + (domestic – foreign inflation) 20-14

15 International Financial Policy 20 Alternative Exchange Rate Systems Three exchange rate regimes are: 1.Fixed exchange rate where the government chooses an exchange rate and offers to buy and sell currencies at that rate 2.Flexible exchange rate where the determination of exchange rates is left totally up to the market 3.Partially flexible exchange rate where the government sometimes buys or sells currencies to influence the exchange rate, while at other times letting private market forces operate 20-15


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