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Chapter 10 Coping with Stress A Wellness Way of Life Ninth Edition Robbins/Powers/Burgess © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Chapter 10 Objectives After reading this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define the terms, stress, stressor, and stress response. 2. Explain the three stages of the stress response. 3. Define and give examples of eustress, distress, optimal stress, acute stress, and chronic stress. 4. Explain how perception and control are involved in stress. 5. On the Life Event Stress Test, measure the number of life changes you have encountered this year and be able to predict your susceptibility to a stress-related illness. 6. Explain the difference between daily hassles and daily uplifts and how each affects overall health. 7. Describe six harmful effects of too much stress. 8. Contrast Type A, Type B, Type C and Type D personalities. 9. Identify four questions that can be asked to manage and modify angry/hostile behavior. 10. List at least six strategies for managing stress. 11. Define and list at least five benefits of the relaxation response. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Stress Stress: nonspecific response of the human organism to any demand made upon it. Stressor: factor causing stress. Acute stress: bodys response to imminent danger – most common type. Chronic stress: caused by prolonged physical or emotional stress, more than can be coped with. Optimal stress: stress is intense enough to motivate and physically prepare us to perform well but not enough to cause harm. Distress: negative stress Eustress: positive stress © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Stress and the Relationship to Health Performance Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Three-Stage Stress Response Regardless of the cause, the reaction to stressor is both psychological and physiological and leads to the stress response. Alarm Reaction: fight or flight physiological and psychological responses appear. Resistance: body tries to cope with the fight or flight reaction through organ systems. If the resistance stage is maintained, it can lead to stress-related disease. Exhaustion: resistance eventually fails and signs of alarm reappear. Disease and disability can result. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Perception and Control Whether a particular stressor causes a negative reaction depends on whether the person perceives that stressor as being negative. Some peoples problems are related to faulty perceptions. Control is a major factor. The perception of not having control is very stressful. People who handle stress best tend to control their lives and look for active solutions to the problems and circumstances of their lives. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Ways to Gain Control Over Your Life Recognize and understand what causes your stress. Make healthy lifestyle decisions. Learn and implement time management skills. Learn when to say no. Regularly practice relaxation techniques and employ often the other stress-coping strategies found in the chapter. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Harmful Effects of Stress Psychosomatic disease: physical ailment that is mentally induced. The following can be developed by stress: Hypertension Stroke Cardiovascular disease Ulcers Migraine headaches Tension headaches Addictions Cancer Allergies Asthma Hay fever Rheumatoid arthritis Backache Depression © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress Specialized branch of medicine that studies the mind-body connection. Chronic negative emotions deplete the immune system. Chronic stress and stress perceptions can damage the immunity system. Managing our stress is paramount. What we think and feel can affect our physical and psychological health. Stress management techniques that calm the mind and shift negative thinking can be helpful. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Cell Division and Telomeres Telomeres, found on the strands of DNA that make up our chromosomes, are like the little plastic tips covering the ends of shoelaces that keep the strands from unraveling. The telomeres of people that have chronic stress are almost 50% shorter. Once the telomere is gone, the DNA begins to fray and cannot be used, ultimately contributing to aging. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Daily Hassles and Uplifts Daily hassles are the events or interactions in your daily life that you find bothersome, annoying or negative. Daily hassles may be more detrimental to your health than major negative life events. Daily uplifts are positive events that make us feel good and can reverse the negative effects of daily hassles. A balance between hassles and uplifts, or allowing yourself to feel more uplifts, can be the key to better wellness. Pay attention to the uplifts. Allow yourself to feel happy – even about small things. Make a list of your hassles. What can you avoid or delete? Make a list of your uplifts. How can you notice more blessings? © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Personality Type Type A Stressed, hurried, angry, hostile, organized, on time. Body produces an extra amount of stress hormones. Take the positive qualities and reduce anger and hostility. Type B Procrastinate, weight gain, creative, laid back, no worries. Take the good and reduce putting off responsibilities. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Personality Types Type D Distressed personality with negative emotions. Tends to be depressed, anxious, and insecure. Exercise, relaxation and a healthy diet can help. The Hot Reactor Produce a large amount of harmful catecholamines when stressed that damage the heart and increase risk for sudden heart attack. Faulty perceptions of stressor – perceive nearly every stressor as life and death. Could be any personality type. Reframing, thought stopping, and relaxation are important. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Anger / Hostility Behavior Modification Techniques Ask 4 questions: Is this situation really important? Is this anger appropriate for this situation? Is this action modifiable? Is this situation worth dying for? Reframing thought is also an excellent way to calm hot, angry reactions to stress. © Royalty-Free/Corbis © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Other Stress Reduction Tips Remind yourself that you are not in charge of everything or everyone. Identify things that cause you stress and how to get around them. Complete one task at a time and allow yourself to feel good about getting it done before moving on. Plan to allow for extra time to do things and get places. Say NO! Live within your budget. Worry about only the things you can control. Weed out trivial things in your life. Unclutter your life. Live in the present. Journal the things you are thankful for each day. SLOW DOWN! © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
The Stress-Resistant, Hardy Person Type C personalities are hardy and possess the following five traits. Control – internal control of self. Commitment – to meaningful involvement in life. Challenge – is an opportunity rather than a threat. Choices – lifestyle choices that enhance health. You always have a choice on how you react to life. Connectedness – network of social support, helping and being helped by others. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Stress Management Skills How you perceive and manage the stressor is more important than the amount of stress. Exercise Relaxation techniques Lifestyle changes Reframing Laughter and humor Creating a memory bank Avoid negative coping methods – drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, sex, shopping, gambling, violence, etc. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Exercise Aerobic exercise promotes health and energy and is a powerful antidote for stress, anxiety, and even moderate depression. Many physicians prescribe exercise instead of medications or tranquilizers. Exercise aids in the resistance phase of the stress response. Exercise is a natural way to relax and renew energy. Exercise can change brain chemistry. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Relaxation Techniques Practice the following relaxation techniques to find the one that you feel most comfortable using and that works for you. Meditation Autogenic training and imagery Jacobsons Progressive Relaxation Abdominal breathing Hatha Yoga Massage Biofeedback Training © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Lifestyle Change Eat a healthy diet Practice time management Avoid alcohol, drugs, and cigarettes Get 7-9 hours of restful sleep Develop satisfying relationships Learn when to seek the help and support of others Schedule Me Time and listen to music. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Reframing Consciously reinterpreting a situation in a more positive light. Reframe lifes stumbling blocks into challenges. Look on the bright side, take control of your reactions, learn to be an optimist. Optimists have higher hardiness scores. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Laughter and Humor Can provide psychological relief from tension, anxiety, anger, hostility, and emotional pain. Laughing is internal jogging as it causes endorphins to be released in the brain. It helps relax the blood vessels and blood circulation. It provides a greater sense of control, lowers stress hormones, and improves immune function. Try to see the humor in everyday situations and dont be afraid to laugh at yourself. Avoid humor that is at someone elses expense. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Create a Memory Bank Happiness comes from noticing and enjoying the little things in life. Savor special experiences of your life and store them in your memory bank. Journaling will help you remember them. Allow yourself to remember pleasant things and feel happy. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Rx for Action Think of an act of kindness and then do it for a stranger. Get 8 hours of sleep tonight. Go to a humorous or uplifting movie or get a video/DVD of one. Reflect on the meaningful people in your life. Connect with two of them today via , telephone, or letter. Watch a sunset tonight and/or a sunrise tomorrow. Get your study area organized. Write in a journal. Record the best things that have happened to you this week. Volunteer your services to a worthy project/group that interests you. Arrive early to every class/job and all appointments tomorrow. Take a break from ing/texting. © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
What Do You Think? What are your most common stressors? What creates eustress for you, and what creates distress? How could you change or shift your perceptions of your stressors? What are your daily hassles and daily uplifts? How could you decrease the hassles and/or increase the uplifts? Have you ever experienced harmful effects from stress? What is your personality type? What is the best strategy for reducing stress for you? How often do you practice it? © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Questions? © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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