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John M. Logsdon Space Policy Institute

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John M. Logsdon Space Policy Institute Elliott School of International Affairs The George Washington University October 11, 2007

2 CHINA Packaging of DH-4 comsat, launch via Long March, and training of engineers Development of next generation Long March launcher for 2013 entry into service Development of new launch site closer to equator

3 PACKAGE DEALS China has sold package of DFH-4 comsat, Long March launch, building of ground station, and training of customers’ engineers to Nigeria and Venezuela Nigcomsat-1 launched May 13, 2007 by CZ-3B. Payload was It is equipped with four C-band , 14 Ku-band transponders, eight Ka-band and two L-band transponders. VENESAT-1 to be launched in 2008 These are first sales of Chinese-integrated communications satellites to foreign customers. China manufactures bus and integrates satellite; Thales Alenia provides ITAR-free communications payload These transactions have geopolitical as well as commercial implications (e.g., access to resources, political leadership)

China is developing a new series of launch vehicles with initial launch in 2013 Payload To GTO, up to14 tons To LEO, up to 25 tons Two new engines 120 t KO/LOX 50 t H/LOX Three core stages, ranging from 2.5m to 5m in diameter

5 Xichang Satellite Launch Center Wenchang Satellite Launch Center
NEW LAUNCH SITE On September 22, 2007, China’s State Council and the Central Military Commission approved the construction of the Wenchang Satellite Launch Center, located on Hainan Island at 19 degrees north longitude. Hainan is China’s southernmost province. Current launch site for GEO launches located at Xichang, which is at 28 degrees north longitude Press reports say “The site will launch China’s next-generation rockets and associated spacecraft into synchronous orbit about the Earth, along with the launching of space stations and deep space probes. It will also launch manned lunar missions.” Xichang Satellite Launch Center Wenchang Satellite Launch Center

6 EUROPE New European Space Policy, approved May 22, 2007, restated European commitment to assured access to space By 2009, Europe plans to have full range of launch vehicles operational from its Korou launch site EADS unveiled at Paris Air Show its concept for a suborbital passenger-carrying spaceship

In 2003, European governments through ESA approved an European Guaranteed Access to Space (EGAS) package that provided financial assistance to the troubled Ariane program In 2005, ESA Ministers approved the Ariane5 Consolidation and Evolution Program (ACEP) as next step in keeping Ariane viable New European Space Policy, approved on May 22 by all EU and ESA member states, says that “independent and cost-effective access to space needs to remain a strategic goal for Europe, which will look first to its launcher resources.” However, this policy statement does not rule out the launch of European satellites on non-European launchers

First launch of Russian Soyuz launch vehicle from European launch site in French Guiana is planned for 2009 Technology control an issue; Soyuz launch complex separated from main Ariane facilities First flight of smaller Vega launch vehicle also planned for 2009 All three vehicles will be managed for commercial customers by Arianespace

The largest European space company, EADS Astrium, on June 13, 2007 unveiled its concept for a passenger-carrying suborbital spacecraft The craft would take off and land using conventional jet engines. At an altitude of ~12km, rocket engines will be ignited to give it the acceleration to go above 100km, with three minutes of weightlessness EADS-Astrium is seeking co-investors for the project. With a 2008 start, the first flight might be possible by 2012

10 INDIA Has launched 7 satellites for other countries using its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), with Israeli TechSAR observation satellite awaiting launch No launches for private sector customers. Indian Department of Space created ANTRIX Corporation in 2002 as its commercial arm. Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) failed on July 10, 2006 after three prior successes. Returned to flight with September 2, 2007 launch India is upgrading GSLV to be able to launch 4 ton payloads to GTO

11 JAPAN H-IIA launch vehicle has had 12 successes out of 13 attempts, all with Japanese government payloads Operation of H-IIA has been transferred to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, with the hope that vehicle can be marketed as commercial launcher. No contracts yet. ( Upgraded H-IIB scheduled for first launch in 2009; able to carry 8 tons to GTO

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