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Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-1 Chapter Fifteen Auditing Financing Process: Long-Term Liabilities,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-1 Chapter Fifteen Auditing Financing Process: Long-Term Liabilities,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-1 Chapter Fifteen Auditing Financing Process: Long-Term Liabilities, Stockholders Equity and Income Statement Accounts Chapter Fifteen Auditing Financing Process: Long-Term Liabilities, Stockholders Equity and Income Statement Accounts

2 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-2 Auditing Long-Term Debt The auditor must be assured that the amounts shown on the balance sheet for the various types of long-term debt are not materially misstated. This assurance extends to the recognition of interest expense. For the vast majority of entities, it is more efficient to follow a strategy of conducting substantive testing.

3 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-3 Control Risk Assessment – Long-Term Debt When a substantive strategy is followed, the auditor still needs a sufficient understanding of the entitys internal control system over debt.

4 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-4 Assertions and Related Control Activities Occurrence and Authorization 1.Adequate documentation must verify that a note or bond was properly authorized. 2.Any significant debt commitments should be approved by the board of directors or by executives who have been delegated this authority. When the entity has proper controls for issuing debt transactions, it is generally easy for the auditor to test those transactions for validity and authorization at the end of the period.

5 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-5 Assertions and Related Control Activities Completeness The client should maintain a subsidiary ledger that contains information about all the long-term debt owed by the entity. The debt amount recorded in the subsidiary ledger should be reconciled to the general ledger control account regularly.

6 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-6 Assertions and Related Control Activities Valuation Notes and bonds are recorded at their face value less any unamortized discount or plus any unamortized premium. The effective interest method should be used to amortize discounts and premiums

7 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-7 Assertions and Related Control Activities Disclosure - Classification Controls should ensure that notes and bonds are properly classified in the financial statements. The common issue is to properly classify as a short-term liability the portion of long-term debt that is due in the next year.

8 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-8 Substantive Procedures of Long-Term Debt The auditor should examine any new debt agreements, determine the status of prior debt agreements, and confirm balances and other relevant information with outside parties. Analytical procedures are useful because of the direct relationship between interest expense and the amount of long-term debt.

9 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15-9 Substantive Procedures of Long-Term Debt

10 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Substantive Procedures of Long-Term Debt

11 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Auditing Stockholders Equity The following three types of transactions are of importance to the auditor: 1.Issuance of stock including transactions such as sale of stock for cash; the exchange of stock for assets; and issuance of stock for stock splits. 2.Repurchase of stock including both the reacquisition of stock and retirement of stock. 3.Payment of dividends including cash and stock dividends. 1.Issuance of stock including transactions such as sale of stock for cash; the exchange of stock for assets; and issuance of stock for stock splits. 2.Repurchase of stock including both the reacquisition of stock and retirement of stock. 3.Payment of dividends including cash and stock dividends.

12 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Control Risk Assessment – Stockholders Equity A substantive strategy is often used to audit stockholders equity because the number of transactions is usually small. The auditor must still be aware of the types of controls that are in place to prevent the misstatement of equity transactions.

13 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Assertions and Related Control Activities Occurrence Verify that stock and dividend transactions comply with corporate charter. Accuracy Verify that stock and dividend transactions have been properly posted and summarized in the accounting records. Authorization Verify that stock and dividend transactions have been properly approved. Valuation Verify that stock and dividend transactions have been properly valued.

14 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Segregation of Duties The following duties should be segregated: 1.The individuals responsible for issuing, transferring and canceling stock certificates should not have any accounting responsibilities. 2.The individual responsible for maintaining the detailed stockholders records should be independent of the maintenance of the general ledger control accounts. 3.The individual responsible for maintaining the detailed stockholders records should not also process cash receipts or disbursements. 4.Appropriate segregation of duties should be established among the payment and recording of dividend payments.

15 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Auditing Equity Capital Accounts Occurrence and Completeness When outside agents are not used the auditor should: oTrace the transfers of shares between stockholders to the stock register and/or stock certificate book. oFoot the shares outstanding in the stock register and/or stock certificate book and agree them to total shares outstanding in the general ledger. oExamine any canceled stock certificates. oAccount for and inspect any unissued stock certificates in the stock certificate book. When outside agents are not used the auditor should: oTrace the transfers of shares between stockholders to the stock register and/or stock certificate book. oFoot the shares outstanding in the stock register and/or stock certificate book and agree them to total shares outstanding in the general ledger. oExamine any canceled stock certificates. oAccount for and inspect any unissued stock certificates in the stock certificate book.

16 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Auditing Equity Capital Accounts Valuation When equity capital is issued for cash the valuation is straightforward. The proceeds from the sale are normally traced to the cash receipts records. When equity capital is issued for cash the valuation is straightforward. The proceeds from the sale are normally traced to the cash receipts records. When equity capital is exchanged for property, goods, or services, the valuation issue is more complex. Generally, fair market value is an issue and the accounting may involve a gain or loss. When equity capital is exchanged for property, goods, or services, the valuation issue is more complex. Generally, fair market value is an issue and the accounting may involve a gain or loss. Stock dividends may also create complex auditing issues. The auditor must recompute the dividend and trace the entries to the general ledger. Stock dividends may also create complex auditing issues. The auditor must recompute the dividend and trace the entries to the general ledger. When equity capital is issued for cash the valuation is straightforward. The proceeds from the sale are normally traced to the cash receipts records. When equity capital is issued for cash the valuation is straightforward. The proceeds from the sale are normally traced to the cash receipts records. When equity capital is exchanged for property, goods, or services, the valuation issue is more complex. Generally, fair market value is an issue and the accounting may involve a gain or loss. When equity capital is exchanged for property, goods, or services, the valuation issue is more complex. Generally, fair market value is an issue and the accounting may involve a gain or loss. Stock dividends may also create complex auditing issues. The auditor must recompute the dividend and trace the entries to the general ledger. Stock dividends may also create complex auditing issues. The auditor must recompute the dividend and trace the entries to the general ledger.

17 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Auditing Equity Capital Accounts Completeness of Disclosures Examples of disclosure items include: o Number of shares authorized, issued and outstanding for each class of stock. o Call privileges, prices and dates of preferred stock. o Stock option or purchase plans. o Restrictions on retained earnings and dividends. o Any completed or pending transactions that may affect stockholders equity. Examples of disclosure items include: o Number of shares authorized, issued and outstanding for each class of stock. o Call privileges, prices and dates of preferred stock. o Stock option or purchase plans. o Restrictions on retained earnings and dividends. o Any completed or pending transactions that may affect stockholders equity.

18 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Auditing Dividends All dividends declared and paid will be audited because of concerns of violations of corporate bylaws or debt covenants. When an outside agent for dividend-disbursing is used, the auditor can confirm the amount disbursed with the agent. This amount is agreed with the amount authorized by the board of directors. When an outside agent is not used, the auditor can recompute the amount of the dividend authorized by the board of directors and trace the amount to cash disbursements or dividends payable.

19 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Auditing Retained Earnings Under normal circumstances, retained earnings are affected by the current years income or loss and the dividends declared and or paid. The major exception is the existence of prior period adjustments, valuation accounts for certain financial instruments and foreign currency translation.

20 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Auditing Income Statement Accounts The audit of revenue and expense accounts depends on the extent of work conducted on the entitys control system and balance sheet accounts. Substantive procedures on selected income statement accounts include: o The results of testing controls for the various business processes. o The results of the detailed tests of balance sheet accounts and the related income statement accounts. o Performance of substantive analytical procedures on income statement accounts. o Detailed tests of selected income statement accounts.

21 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Assessing Control Risk for Business Processes If control risk is set at the maximum – the auditor does not rely on controls. Instead extensive substantive procedures are used. If a reliance strategy is followed – the auditor determines if controls may be relied upon. If controls are operating effectively – the auditor may reduce control risk below the maximum.

22 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Direct Tests of Balance Sheet Accounts Income statement accounts are normally audited in the course of auditing the related balance sheet accounts.

23 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Substantive Analytical Procedures Extensive use may be made of analytical procedures in the audit of revenue and expense accounts. Common size income statement for current and previous years. Percentage income statement for current and previous years. Trend and ratio analysis.

24 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Tests of Selected Account Balances The auditor may wish to examine key revenue and expense accounts in some detail. Usually, the auditor verifies the transactions in the account by examining the supporting documentation. Accounts audited in this manner may be related to income tax reporting and include legal and audit expense, travel and entertainment, charitable contributions, and other income and expense.

25 Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin End of Chapter 15


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