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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 19 Agency and Liability to Third Parties.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 19 Agency and Liability to Third Parties."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 19 Agency and Liability to Third Parties

2 19-2 Introduction to Agency Law Agency: Relationship between principal and agent Agent: One authorized to act for/on behalf of principal Principal: One who hires agent to represent him/her Fiduciary: One with duty to act primarily for another persons benefit

3 19-3 Creation of Agency Relationship Expressed Agency: Agency formed by making written/oral agreement Power of Attorney: Document giving agent authority to sign legal documents on behalf of principal Durable Power of Attorney: Power of attorney intended to continue to be effective/take effect after principal incapacitated Agency By Implied Authority: Agency formed by implication, through conduct of parties Agency By Estoppel: Agency formed when principal leads third party to believe that another individual serves as his/her agent (although principal had actually made no agreement with purported agent) Agency By Ratification: Agency that exists when individual misrepresents himself/herself as agent for another party, and principal accepts/ratifies unauthorized act

4 19-4 Requirements for Agency By Ratification Individual must misrepresent himself/herself as agent for another party Principal accepts/ratifies unauthorized act Principal has complete knowledge of all material facts regarding contract Principal must ratify entirety of agents act

5 19-5 Agency Relationships Agency Relationship: Fiduciary relationship (relationship of trust) in which agent acts on behalf of principal Principal-Agent Relationship: Employer hires employee to enter into contracts on behalf of employer; parties have agreed that agent will have power to bind principal in contract Employer-Employee Relationship: Employer hires employee to perform certain tasks; employer has right to control conduct of employees Employer-Independent Contractor Relationship: Employer hires persons (other than employee) to conduct some sort of task; employer has no control over details of conduct of independent contractor

6 19-6 Employee or Independent Contractor? Does worker engage in distinct occupation/independently established business? Is work done under employers supervision, or does specialist without supervision complete the work? Does employer supply the tools? What skill is required for the occupation? What is the length of time for which worker employed? Is worker a regular part of the employers business? How is worker paid?

7 19-7 Principals Duties To Agent Compensation Reimbursement and Indemnification Cooperation Safe Working Conditions

8 19-8 Agents Duties To Principal Loyalty Notification Performance Obedience Accounting

9 19-9 Principals Rights and Remedies Against Agent Constructive Trust Avoidance Indemnification

10 19-10 Agents Rights and Remedies Against Principal Tort and Contract Remedies Demand For An Accounting Specific Performance

11 19-11 Authority of the Agent: The Link to the Principals Liability

12 19-12 Authority of Agent and Liability of Principal Express Authority: Principal explicitly instructed agent to perform act Implied Authority: Relationship inferred from actions/conduct of parties; authority inferred from nature of relationship Apparent Authority and Estoppel: Third party reasonably believes (based on actions of principal) that agency relationship exists between principal and another individual

13 19-13 Contractual Liability of Principal and Agent For Authorized Agent Acts Authorized Acts: Agent acts within scope of agents authority; Classification of Principal: Must be classified as either disclosed, partially disclosed, or undisclosed -Disclosed PrincipalAgent not liable, principal liable -Partially Disclosed PrincipalAgent possibly liable, principal liable -Undisclosed PrincipalAgent liable, principal liable

14 19-14 Contractual Liability of Principal and Agent for Unauthorized Agent Acts Unauthorized Acts: Acts that go beyond scope of agents authority Third Party Reasonably Believes Agent Has Authority: -Agent liable -Principal not liable Third Party Believes Agent Mistaken About His/Her Authority: -Agent not liable -Principal not liable

15 19-15 Tort Liability and the Agency Relationship Agents Tortious ConductPrinciple directly responsible if: -Principal directs agent to commit tortious act; or -Principal fails to provide proper instruments, tools, or adequate instructions Agent MisrepresentationIf agent misrepresents himself/herself to third party, principal may be tortiously liable for agents misrepresentation Respondeat SuperiorPrincipal/employer liable if employee wrongfully injures third party (not because he/she personally at fault, but because he/she negligently hired agent)

16 19-16 Questions Regarding Course and Scope of Employment Did employer authorize employees act? Did act occur within time and space limits of employment? Was act performed (at least in part) on behalf of employer? To what extent were employers interests advanced by act? To what extent were private interests of employee involved? Did employer provide the means by which act occurred? Did employee use force that employer did not expect? Did employer know that act would involve commission of crime?

17 19-17 Principals Liability and the Independent Contractor General Rule: Individual who hires independent contractor not liable for independent contractors tortious actions under doctrine of respondeat superior, unless contractor engages in hazardous activities

18 19-18 Termination of Agency Relationship Termination By Acts of Parties Lapse of Time Fulfillment of Purpose Occurrence of Specific Event Mutual Agreement Revocation of Authority Renunciation By Agent

19 19-19 Termination of Agency Relationship Termination By Operation of Law Death (Of either principal or agent) Insanity (Of either principal or agent) Bankruptcy (Of either principal or agent) Change in Circumstances Change in Law Impossibility of Performance Disloyalty of Agent

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