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Developing a Global Vision through Marketing Research

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1 Developing a Global Vision through Marketing Research
International Marketing 15th edition Chapter 8 Developing a Global Vision through Marketing Research Philip R. Cateora, Mary C. Gilly, and John L. Graham

2 The Research Process Research process steps
Define the research problem and establish research objectives Determine the sources of information to fulfill the research objectives Consider the costs and benefits of the research effort Gather relevant data from secondary or primary sources, or both Analyze, interpret, and summarize the results Effectively communicate the results to decision makers Research steps are similar for all countries Variations and problems can occur in implementation Differences in cultural and economic development Roy Philip

3 Defining the Problem and Establishing Research Objectives
The major difficulty is converting a series of often ambiguous business problems into tightly drawn and achievable research objectives The first, most crucial step in research is more critical in foreign markets because an unfamiliar environment tends to could problems definition Other difficulties in foreign research stem from failures to establish problem limits broad enough to include all relevant variables Roy Philip

4 Problems of Availability and Use of Secondary Data
U.S. government provides comprehensive statistics for United States Marketing data not matched in other countries Quality Quantity Exceptions are Japan and several European countries Continuing efforts to improve data collection United Nations Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Roy Philip

5 Availability and Reliability of Data
Most countries simply do not have governmental agencies that collect on a regular basis the kinds of secondary data readily available in the U.S. Researchers’ language skills impede access to information Requires native speaker of language Official statistics are sometimes too optimistic, reflecting national pride rather than practical reality, while tax structures and fear of the tax collector often adversely affect data Less-developed countries prone to optimism Willful errors “Adjusted reporting” Roy Philip

6 Comparability of Data Issues with data (especially in less developed, countries) Data can be many years out of date Data collected on an infrequent and unpredictable schedule Too frequently, data are reported in different categories or in categories much too broad to be of specific value Roy Philip

7 Validating Secondary Data
Questions to judge the reliability of secondary data sources Who collected the data? Would there be any reason for purposely misrepresenting the facts? For what purposes was the data collected? How was the data collected? Are the data internally consistent and logical in light of known data sources or market factors? Checking the consistency of one set of secondary data with other data of known validity An effective and often-used way of judging validity The availability and accuracy of recorded secondary data increase with level of economic development Roy Philip

8 Gathering Primary Data – Quantitative and Qualitative Research (1 of 2)
Data collected specifically for the particular research project Quantitative research Usually a large number of respondents Respondents answer structured oral or written questions using a specific response format (such as yes/no) or to select a response from a set of choices Responses can be summarized in percentages, averages, or other statistics Toto – a Japanese firm with the premiers quantitative research on bathroom and toilet technology Roy Philip

9 Gathering Primary Data – Quantitative and Qualitative Research (2 of 2)
If questions are asked, they are almost always open-ended or in-depth Seeks unstructured responses that reflect the person’s thoughts and feelings on the subject Qualitative research interprets people in the sample Qualitative research is helpful in revealing the impact of sociocultural factors on behavior patterns and in developing research hypotheses Roy Philip

10 Problems of Gathering Primary Data
Hinges on the ability of the researcher to get correct and truthful information that addresses research objectives Problems in international marketing research Stem from differences among countries Range from inability or unwillingness of respondents to communicate their opinions Inadequacies in questionnaire translation Roy Philip

11 Ability to Communicate Opinions
Formulating opinions about a product or concept Depends on the respondent’s ability to recognize the usefulness of such a product of concept Product or concept must be understood and used in community The more complex the concept, the more difficult it is to design research that will help the respondent communicate meaningful opinions and reactions Gerber has more experience in trying to understand consumers with limitations Babies can neither answer questions or fill out questionnaires Roy Philip

12 Willingness to Respond
Cultural differences provide best explanation for unwillingness or inability of many to respond to research surveys The role of the male, the suitability of personal gender-based inquiries, and other gender-related issues can affect willingness to respond Less direct measurement techniques and nontraditional data analysis methods may also be more appropriate Roy Philip

13 Sampling in Field surveys
Problems in sampling stem from the lack of adequate demographic data and available lists from which to draw meaningful samples Affected by a lack of detailed social and economic information No officially recognized census information No other listings that can serve as sampling frames Incomplete and out-of-date telephone directories No accurate maps of population centers Roy Philip

14 Language and Comprehension
The most universal survey research problem in foreign countries is the language barrier Literacy poses yet another problem Marketers use three different techniques to help ferret out translation errors ahead of time Back translation Parallel translation Decentering Roy Philip

15 Estimating Market Demand
Two methods of forecasting demand Expert opinion The key in using expert opinion to help in forecasting demand is triangulation Analogy Assumes that demand for a product develops in much the same way in all countries as comparable economic development occurs in each country Roy Philip

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