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McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Criminal Investigation Criminal Investigation Swanson Chamelin Territo eighth edition EIGHT Investigative Resources
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Outline the intelligence/analytical cycle Understand various components of crime analysis Assess criminal profiling and its criticisms Discuss the organized/disorganized offender model Explain the practice of investigative psychology Describe behavioral evidence analysis Discuss the practice of geoprofiling Recognize financial difficulty indicators used in financial analysis Identify three major components of NCAVC and the services they provide Describe the functions of NCIC and CODIS 8-1
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE INTELLIGENCE/ANALYTICAL CYCLE The intelligence/analytical cycle is a five-step process which is continuous: –Planning and Direction. The intelligence/analytical process must be managed from identifying the focus of the intelligence effort to delivering the finished product to the police unit requesting it. –Collection and Management. Collection is the gathering and managing of raw data/information which is then analyzed to produce the finished product. 8-2(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE INTELLIGENCE/ANALYTICAL CYCLE (cont'd) –Processing. Processing is how raw information from all sources is converted into a form which can be used by analysts. –Analysis and Production. Analysis and production is how the conversion of the data which has been processed is translated into the finished intelligence product. –Dissemination. The last element the five-step intelligence cycle is the dissemination of the finished intelligence report back to the end-used who requested it. 8-2(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE INTELLIGENCE CYCLE Consists of five steps Is continuous 8-3 (Source: Marilyn B. Peterson, Bob Morehouse, and Richard Wright, eds., Intelligence 2000: Revising the Basic Elements (New Jersey: International Association of Law Enforcement Analysts, 2000), p. 8.)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. TYPES OF CRIME ANAYLSIS 8-4 These are common sources of blood and DNA evidence that investigators need to be aware of in conducting crime scene searches. TypeDescription TacticalProvides analytical information used to assist operations and investigative personnel in identifying specific, present crime trends, thereby giving them an informed basis for making rapid, effective responses to field problems (e.g. a series of pharmacy robberies) StrategicInvolves analyzing long-range problems and making projections about likely increases or decreases in crime rates and trends; also includes preparing crime statistic reports and providing data for use in allocation of personnel. AdministrativeFocuses on providing economic, social, geographic, and other information to administrators; includes doing feasibility studies, special research projects, grant proposals, and reports to county commissions or city councils (e.g. in answer to the question, Why is crime decreasing?) (Source: Steven Goettlieb, Sheldon Arenberg, and Raj Singh, Crime Analysis from First Report to Final Arrest (Montclair, CA: Alpha Publishing, 1994), pp. 13-24.)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CRIME BULLETINS One method by which crime analysts can disseminate general interest information is through the publication of a series of bulletins Some crime bulletins deal with sex offenders 8-5
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. TIME-EVENT CHART One of the most useful and quickly learned methods of analyzing crime is the time event chart (TEC), which displays events in chronological order. 8-6 7 months3 months3 weeks2 weeks11 days5 days Offender paroled from state prison Stops meeting with parole officer Informant says he is frequent crack user Robs tourist Robs Stop-n-Go Robs pharmacy Robs bank, wounds guard
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CRIMINAL PROFILING Criminal Profiling. The process of inferring distinctive personality characteristics of individuals responsible for committing crimes has commonly been referred to as criminal profiling (See Slide 8-7) Criticisms of Profiling. Despite its successes, profiling as a field is not without criticisms. Include in these criticisms are: –untrained or inadequately trained profilers –promising too much and delivering too little –relying on inadequate or dated databases –overstating the meaning of physical evidence 8-7
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE ORGANIZED/DISORGANIZED OFFENDER The organized/disorganized offender is an FBI model. The organized/disorganized offender dichotomy has a strong crime scene focus. –Stage 1: Collecting inputs, which are essential for accurate profiling –State 2: Using Decision Process Models, which is the process of organizing and arranging the inputs into meaning patterns –Stage 3: making the crime assessment, which is the reconstruction of the sequence of events and the behavior of both the victim and the offender 8-8(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE ORGANIZED/DISORGANIZED OFFENDER (cont'd) Stage 4: Developing the criminal profile, a process which addresses the type of person who committed the crime and that individual's behavioral organization in relation to the crime, including background information, physical characteristics, habits, beliefs, values, pre-offense behavior leading to the crime and post-offense behavior Stage 5: Continuing the on-going investigation by those assigned to it, with the profiler making adjustments in the profile if fresh information warrants it and being available to discuss the case with those assigned on an as- needed basis Stage 6: Following the apprehension, reviewing the agreement between the outcome and the various stages of the profiling process are examined 8-8(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PROFILE CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZED AND DISORGANIZED MURDERS 8-9 OrganizedDisorganized Average or above-average IQBelow-average IQ Socially adeptSocially inadequate, often never married, fearful of people, may have developed well-defined delusional system Skilled-occupation employment history, but uneven work history, sometimes has job below abilities Poor work history Sexually competentSexually incompetent, may never have achieved sexual intimacy High birth order in family, often first sonLow birth order in family Fathers work generally stableFathers work history unstable Parental discipline perceived by offender as inconsistent Harsh parental discipline May feel angry or depressed at time of crime, but reports himself as calm during it Recurring obsessional and/or primitive throughts, at time of crime is confused and distressed, acts impulsively under stress May use alcohol prior to crimeLimited use of alcohol Precipitating situational stress, e.g. financial, marital, relationships with females, and employment problems Minimal situational stress Usually living with partnerLives alone or with parental figure Likely to have car in good conditionUsually finds victims in his geographic area, lives in close proximity to scene Follows crime in newspapers, clippings about crimes committed often found at offenders home, may take souvenirs from victim or scene Little interest in news media (Source: Robert Ressler, Ann W. Burgess, and John E. Douglas, Sexual Homicides: Patterns and Motives (New York: Free Press, 1992), pp. 121-122, 130.)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. INVESTIGATIVE PSYCHOLOGY Although more than a few psychologists and psychiatrists are involved in profiling, investigative psychology is associated with the work of Englishman David Canter Canter, an environmental psychologist, was asked by New Scotland Yard in 1985 to integrate investigative and psychological concepts The model he developed rests on five factors –Interpersonal Coherence assumes that offenders will deal with their victims in a manner similar to the way they treat people in their day-to-day lives 8-10(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. INVESTIGATIVE PSYCHOLOGY (cont'd) –The Significance of Time and Place may provide analysts with clues about the offender's mobility and even his residence –Criminal Characteristics are used by researchers and analysts to place offenders into broad categories, from which subcategories can be selected or developed –Criminal Career is an assessment as to whether the offender may have engaged in criminal activity before and what type of activity it most likely was –Forensic Awareness draws in part from Step 4 above, criminal career. It is an assessment of the scene and evidence to determine if the offender has any special knowledge of evidence gathering procedures used by the police 8-10(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE ANALYSIS BEA is a deductive criminal profiling method. In operation, BEA is a four-step process: –Equivocal Forensic Analysis. Equivocal forensic analysis refers to a review of all physical evidence which questions all assumptions and conclusions –Victimology. Victimology is the thorough study and analysis of the victim's characteristics 8-11(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE ANALYSIS (cont'd) Crime Scene Characteristics. These characteristics may include, among many other things, method of approach, method of attack, method of controlling the victim, location, nature, type, and sequence of sexual acts, materials used, verbal statements, and precautionary acts taken by the offender. –Deduction of Offender Characteristics. The fourth step is more artful and therefore a matter of expertise rather than science. Offender characteristics fall into two categories: hard and soft. 8-11(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. GEOGRAPHIC PROFILING Geographic information system (GIS) software provides the capability to superimpose different types of data on a map –Geoprofiling/GP is an investigative strategy that uses the locations of a series of crimes to determine the most probable area of the offenders residence –GP does not solve crimes; it does prioritize suspects and their likely addresses –This allows investigators to focus their resources and strategies, e.g., saturation patrol, surveillance, and neighborhood canvasses 8-12
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. FINANCIAL DIFFICULTY INDICATORS Business Indicators of Financial Difficulty. Examples include but are not limited to: –Decreasing Revenue –Increasing production costs, e.g., labor and material –Increased competition, better products available –Costly rental and lease agreements 8-13(a)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. FINANCIAL DIFFICULTY INDICATORS (cont'd) Personal Indicators of Financial Difficulty. Examples include: –Bounced Checks –Costly rental and lease agreements –Inability to pay current bills, e.g., utilities –Lenders impose or refuse loans or credit –Payment of bills by cashier's check, certified check, or money order 8-13(b)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VIOLENT CRIME NCAVC, which is operated by the FBI, is organized into three components: –The Behavioral Analysis Unit provides investigative and operational support for complex and time sensitive cases typically involving threats and acts of violence –The Child Abduction and Serial Murder Investigative Resources Center (CASMIRC), mandated by the Congress in 1998 –The Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (VICAP), facilitates cooperation, coordination, and communication among law enforcement investigations, violent serial offenders 8-14
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. THE NATIONAL CRIME INFORMATION CENTER NCIC has been operated by the FBI since 1967 NCIC which provides a nation-wide telecommunication link between police agencies has repeatedly demonstrated its value to federal, state, and local agencies The newest version of the FBIS system, NCIC 2000, came on line. 8-15
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. NCIC 2000 DATABASES The new NCIC 2000 has dramatically improved the prior system As a result law enforcement will have more information available in a timely fashion 8-16 Databases Continued from NCICAdditional NCIC 2000 Services Stolen Articles Foreign Fugitives Stolen Guns Criminal History Queries Stolen License Plates Deported Felons Missing Persons Criminal Justice Agency Identifier Stolen Securities Stolen Boats Gang and Terrorist Members Unidentified Persons U.S. Secret Service Protective File Stolen Vehicles Persons Subject to Protection Orders Wanted Persons Canadian Police Information Center Enhanced name search (searches all derivatives of names, such as Jeff, Geoff, Jeffrey) Search of right-index-finger prints Mug shots Other identifying images (such as scars, tattoos, and images of vehicles (e.g. Ford Mustang)) Convicted Sexual Offender Registry Convicted Persons on Supervised Release Database Persons Incarcerated in Federal Prisons User manuals available online Information linking (all information related to a case will be returned on a single inquiry; e.g. if guns are in a stolen vehicle, a query on the vehicle will return information on the stolen guns as well) Improved data quality Online ad hoc searches to support criminal investigations Maintains five days of system inquiries to allow agencies to be notified if they are looking for information on the same individual or stolen property (Source: Louis Freeh (director of the FBI), NCIC 2000 press release, July 15, 1999, p. 2.)
McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CODIS With the marrying of DNA and computer technology, a counterpart of Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) could be created By 1998, the FBIS Combined DAN Index System (CODIS) was fully operational, tying together local, state, and federal DNA files States enacted laws requiring the collection of DNA samples from certain categories of offenders 8-17
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