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System Software, Virus Protection, and File ManagementWhat Software Runs Your Hardware? Chapter 4
Student Learning OutcomesDefine the role of system software and the three main types of system software. Describe the role of your operating system software as it manages peripheral devices and memory. List and describe the different personal operating systems for notebook and desktop computers, PDAs, and tablet PCs. Define the role of utility software as it relates to your operating system software. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Student Learning OutcomesDiscuss why anti-virus software is so important. Define the relationships among device letters, filenames, extensions, and folders in managing your information. Describe the types of utilities you can use to compress and decompress files. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesIntroduction Without system software, your computer equipment would be useless. System software is simply all the instructions that your computer processes regardless of what application software you are using. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesSystem Software Task manager for your entire computer Gets computer going upon booting Notifies printer when you want to print Manages system resources Three main categories: Operating system software Device drivers Utility software System software is really the task manager for a computer system. It… Gets your computer going when you turn it on Allows you to specify which software you want to run Notifies the printer when you want a paper copy of a document Manages your system resources such as RAM Checks for viruses ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
4.1 Operating System SoftwareOperating system software is system software that controls your application software and manages how your hardware devices work together Many students fail to understand the full purpose of operating system software. Good analogy is the car – a car without gas gets you nowhere. A computer without system software is not useful. Key points: Operating system software supports multitasking which allows you to work with more than one piece of software at a time (see Figure 3.10 on page 3.11). Operating system software manages all system resources such as RAM, your hard disk, and your monitor. Operating system software provides security features such as the use of a password. SimNet Concepts Support CD: “What is an Operating System” ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Types of Operating SystemsDifferent technology platforms require different operating system software Personal Operating Systems Multi-User Operating Systems As an exercise – ask students to give an explanation of each of these operating systems. You might also wish to ask them if they have any personal experience with a multi-user operating system and a network operating system. Personal Operating systems (personal OS) – enable a single user to use a personal technology such as a PDA, smart phone, tablet PC, notebook computer, or desktop computer. Personal OSs are essentially operating systems designed for one person at a time using one computer. More popular personal OSs include the Microsoft family of operating systems, Linux, and Mac OS. Multi-user operating systems enable many people simultaneously to use the resources of a central computer, which is usually a minicomputer, a mainframe computer, or a supercomputer. Multiple Oss must process all those information-processing requests and determine, for example, the order in which documents will be printed on a printer, which task will receive priority for CPU processing, and so on. Network operating systems run a network, steering information between computers, managing security and users, and enabling many people to work together across the network. Network Operating Systems ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
4.2 Personal Operating Systems Microsoft FamilyMicrosoft Windows XP Home (Windows XP Home) Microsoft Windows 2000 Millennium (Windows 2000 ME or Windows ME) Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional (Windows 2000 Pro) Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional (Windows 2000 Pro) – an operating system for people who have a personal computer connected to a network of other computers at work or at school. Microsoft Windows XP Professional (Windows XP Pro) – Microsoft’s newest operating system for people who have a personal computer connected to a network of other computers at work or at school. Microsoft Windows XP Professional (Windows XP Pro) ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Microsoft’s Windows XP HomeCreate unique users for the same computer Key points: If you’re buying a notebook for school use, check with the technology support department concerning which operating system to buy. If you’re buying a computer for primarily home use, buy either Windows 2000 Me or Windows XP Home. For the typical home computer user, there is little difference between Windows 2000 Me and Windows XP Home. Ask students what operating system they think is right for them? Here are some tips: Avoid Linux unless you’re running a server computer. Mac OS is only for Apple computers. Windows 2000 Me and Windows XP Home are for home computer users (which one really doesn’t matter). Windows 2000 Pro and Windows XP Professional are for computers connected to a network most of the time SimNet Concepts Support CD: “The World of Windows” p Fig. 4.5 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Popular Operating Systems Non-MicrosoftMac OS For Apple computers GUI similar to Windows Can "speak" password with newest release Mac OS is the operating system for today’s Apple computers. Mac OS looks and feels similar to the Microsoft family of operating systems. You would only use Mac OS if you by an Apple. SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Other Operating Systems” and “The World of Macintosh” ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesMAC OS MAC OS is the operating system for Apple Computers. Supports a graphical user interface similar to most Windows operating systems. SimNet Concepts Support CD: “The World of Macintosh” p Fig. 4.6 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Popular Operating Systems Non-MicrosoftLinux Open-source operating system Mainly used on high-end workstations and network servers Can be either a personal operating system or a network operating system Linux is an open-source operating system that provides a rich operating environment for high-end workstations and network servers. Linux is open-source, meaning that you can modify the code to work however you want. Linux works very well for Web servers and other types of servers. Linux is not for the typical home computer user. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Operating Systems - PDAsTwo most popular types of PDAs are: Palm and Handspring Uses the Palm Operating System (Palm OS) Pocket-PCs. Uses Pocket PC operating system If you buy a PDA you have numerous choices for an operating system. Your choice of PDA will most likely determine which operating system you will have. There are a few other manufacturers of PDAs that provide different operating systems, including Sharp – which uses a combination of Linux and a proprietary operating system, and Psion which uses an operating system called EPOC. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Operating Systems - Tablet PCsPrimary choice for an operating system on a Tablet PC (any brand) is Microsoft Windows XP Tablet PC Edition If you buy a tablet PC (any brand) your primary choice for an operating system is Microsoft Windows XP Tablet PC Edition. This operating system is similar to Microsoft Windows XP Home, except that it includes special capabilities that enable a tablet PC to work effectively. When you buy a tablet PC, the operating system will come already installed. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
4.3 Device Drivers, Utilities, and Virus ProtectionWorking effectively and efficiently with a computer you will need these tools: Operating System Device Drivers Effectiveness And Efficiency Increased Utilities You can expand your computer capabilities in a variety of ways – add more RAM, faster CPU, scanner, CD burner, gamepad, printer, digital camera etc. When you add such devices, the operating system often needs some additional information about the device. If so, the operating system needs a device driver. As an exercise, ask students to identify any peripherals they may have added to their computer systems. Students love to add more “toys” and they are always proud to talk about them. Ask them if they had any difficulties or if the system automatically identified the new “plug and play” devices. Virus Protection SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Utilities” ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesDevice Drivers Device Drivers is software and information that enables your operating system to establish the communications between your existing hardware and your new device Device drivers are available for printers, displays, CD-ROM readers, diskette drives, and so on ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesDevice Drivers – cont. Many device drivers are built into the operating system that comes with your computer. However, if you later buy a new type of device that the OS didn’t anticipate, you will have to install the new device driver ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesUtility Software Provides additional functionality to the operating system Example: File Security software to protect files and folders of information as well as to enable you to send secure messages Key points: Utility software is vitally important. Utility software lets you change your screen saver. Utility software includes anti-virus software, utility software that scans for and often eliminates viruses in your RAM and on your storage devices. Other utility software includes: Crash-proof software – utility software that helps you save information if your system crashes and you’re forced to turn it off and then back on again. Uninstaller software – utility software that you can use to remove software from your hard disk you no longer want. Disk optimization software – utility software that organizes your information on your hard disk in the most efficient way. p Fig. 4.8 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesAnti-Virus Software Anti-virus software continually scans RAM, storage devices, and incoming files for viruses and removes the viruses Viruses can be of two types: Benign Malignant Viruses are rampant in cyberspace. You’re likely to receive an infected file if you send , download information from the Internet, or enter chat rooms or discussion groups. To protect your computer system you should have anti-virus software that’s RAM resident so that it can spot viruses as they arrive. Some Web sites are included in the box where students can find anti-virus software products. Following are some sites where you can find anti-virus software. McAfee at PC-cillin at Dr. Solomon Antivirus Toolkit at Norton Antivirus at Inoculate IT at ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies4.4 File Management File Collection of information Most of the information you work with is stored in files File management Keeps track of files Helps you manage the files on your computer Just like we store papers in manila folders, we can store computer files in online folders Imagine if you kept all of your papers in stacks on your desk! It would be hard to locate what you need, especially if you are in a hurry. The same applies to computers. File management systems allow computers to manage files better and find them when you need them. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
File Naming ConventionsFilename unique name given to a file of information Filename extension further identifies the contents of a file by specifying the file type. Examples of extensions include: Word – doc Excel – xls Access – mdb PowerPoint - ppt A filename is a unique name that you give to a file of information. A filename extension (most often just called an extension) furthers identifies the contents of your file usually by specifying the file type. Follow the file naming conventions set forth by your operating system. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
File Naming Convention RulesFile naming conventions are rules that you must follow in creating file names and differ according to your operating system. Mention to students that even though file names can be longer than in the past, many people use one word file names (no spaces) to keep things simple – since some operating systems like Linux do not accept spaces. Helps if you are ever going to transfer files between different systems p Fig. 4.11 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
What letter is used for the floppy disk drive? The hard disk?Organizing Files File manager utility software Manage and organize files Find and copy files Move, rename, and delete files Identify storage devices with device letters Unique identifier for each storage device What letter is used for the floppy disk drive? The hard disk? To help you manage your files, your operating system includes utility software called file manager utility software. File manager utility software is utility software that helps you manage, organize, find, copy, move, rename, and delete files on your computer. To use your file manager utility software effectively, you need to know something about … Device letters Directories Folders Pathnames Filenames. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Identifying Storage Devices with Device LettersDevice letter is a unique identifier for each different storage device on your computer Floppy disk: A:\ Hard disk: C:\ Other storage devices will be assigned different letters depending on the computer and the operating system used A good exercise to show students is to log into a network, and give them a “tour” of the storage devices that are connected. This will give them a better appreciation of how a network encompasses many different storage areas – some of which students can access such as their assigned temporary storage area (if they do indeed have any) on the network, and areas where the technical people store their information. You can also access the Control Panel tools, and give them a presentation of a smaller version of a computer. Either way, it is an educational experience for students and will give them a better appreciation of what it is like to work in a large organization whose file structure will be very different from what they are used to. p Fig. 4.12 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Directories and FoldersDirectory A list of files on a particular storage device Main directory is called the root directory Folder Special portion of your root directory into which you can place files that have similar information Can have folders within folders Called subfolders A successful way of reinforcing the concepts of folders is to have the students create folders on either a hard drive or a floppy as an assignment. Request that a file be saved in the folder. For students new to computing, the idea of folders is sometimes confusing. A directory is a list of the files (and folders) on a particular storage device. A folder is a special area where you can save files. Folders help with organization. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesFolder Structure Finance 3212 4032 C:\ Each of your storage devices contains a directory. A directory is a list of the files on a particular storage device. This main directory is often called the root directory. If you have many files, the root directory must contain them all, unless you create sub-directories or folders. A folder (which your operating system will display as a manila folder icon) is a special portion of your root directory into which you can place files that have similar information. For example, you can create a folder called Finance and store in it all the files you create for your Finance class. p Fig. 4.13 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
A:\Finance\Finance 4032\Finance Final Analysis.xlsPathname A:\Finance\Finance 4032\Finance Final Analysis.xls Folder Filename Subfolder Device letter Extension There is a file called Finance Final Analysis.xls stored in the Finance 4032 sub-folder within the Finance folder on Drive A. Go to Windows Explorer and look at the listing of folders and files. Ask the students to identify the folder, subfoler(s), filename and extension. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
File Allocation Tables (FAT)File allocation table (FAT) table that an OS maintains on a hard disk that provides a map of the clusters (basic units of logical storage on a hard disk) that a file has been stored in When you write a new file to a hard disk, the file is stored in one or more clusters that are not necessarily next to each other; they may be rather scattered over the disk A computer places parts of files in different locations, or sectors, to maximize the hard drive space. A sector is a single area that can hold a certain number of bytes of data. (Usually this number is 512 bytes.) The computer groups sectors into a cluster. A cluster is an organized collection of sectors. A cluster can hold from 512 bytes to 256 kilobytes, depending on the hard drive and the operating system How does your computer keep track of where it places your file? Your computer uses its file allocation table to record where it places all the pieces of the file. The file allocation table (FAT) is a file that stores information about the physical location of every file on the computer’s hard disk. The FAT also tracks used areas on the disk so files don’t overwrite each other. . Fragmentation occurs when your computer places parts of files over many hard disk areas. Too much fragmentation reduces your hard drive’s efficiency. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
File Allocation Tables – ContOS creates a FAT entry for the new file that records where each cluster is located and their sequential order When you read a file, the OS reassembles the file from clusters and places it as an entire file where it can be read A computer places parts of files in different locations, or sectors, to maximize the hard drive space. A sector is a single area that can hold a certain number of bytes of data. (Usually this number is 512 bytes.) The computer groups sectors into a cluster. A cluster is an organized collection of sectors. A cluster can hold from 512 bytes to 256 kilobytes, depending on the hard drive and the operating system How does your computer keep track of where it places your file? Your computer uses its file allocation table to record where it places all the pieces of the file. The file allocation table (FAT) is a file that stores information about the physical location of every file on the computer’s hard disk. The FAT also tracks used areas on the disk so files don’t overwrite each other. . Fragmentation occurs when your computer places parts of files over many hard disk areas. Too much fragmentation reduces your hard drive’s efficiency. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesFile Fragmentation Fragmentation occurs when your computer places parts of files over many disks areas or clusters Fragmentation over time can slow data access (each fragment of a file must be accessed for the entire file to be read), the user may use a defragmentation utility so that the data on the storage medium can be reorganized – a process known a defragmentation Fragmentation occurs when your computer places parts of files over many hard disk areas. Too much fragmentation reduces your hard drive’s efficiency. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesFile Compression File Compression is the shrinking of a file into a smaller file In order to use a compressed file, it must be decompressed back to its original size The file size is controlled by setting a file compression ratio. A file compression ratio determines how small the compressed file will be WinZip is a popular Windows program that compresses and decompresses files File compression shrinks a file or files into a smaller file. A compressed file is a smaller file due to file compression. When you compress a file you control how small you want it to be by setting the compression ratio. The compression ratio determines how small you want a compressed file to be. For example, if you set a compression ratio of 30:1, the compressed file will be 30 times smaller than the original. Unlike some compressed items, such as a crushed car or trash, a compressed file is easy to restore back to its original size. Decompressing is “unshrinking” a compressed file back to its original size. You’ll also hear it referred to as “unzipping” a file. A disk compression utility operates between the compressed files and the operating system. When you use a disk compression utility to compress a disk, you can save more to a single disk. When you save a file to a compressed disk, the file is automatically compressed. When you open the file, it’s automatically decompressed. The process does slow down the access speed. Make sure that students understand the difference between file compression and disk compression. ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
WinZip Compression UtilityWinzip is compression and decompression utility software. Most students have heard of zipped files. When are these used? How do you use them? If you receive a zipped file as an attachment, you must unzip it in order to use it. You need a utility software program to do this. There are many free compression programs available. Visit for a list of downloadable software. Make sure students don't confuse zip disk (like Jaz disks) with zipped files. p Fig. 4.15 ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies4.5 Consumer Q&A How Can I Upgrade My Operating System Software when a New Version is Available? If I Receive a Zipped File as an Attachment, How Do I Decompress it? Which PDA Operating System Provides the Best Compatibility with My Computer’s Operating System? Figure 4.9 Mentions Cookies – What Are They? ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies4.5 Consumer Q&A How Often Do I Need to Scan My Hard Disk for Viruses? Can I Compress Multiple Files into a Single Smaller File? What Happens if a Virus Attacks My File Allocation Table File? ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies4.6 Key Terms File manager utility software File security software Filename Filename extension Folder Hot swap Linux Anti-virus software Defragmentation utility Device driver Device letter Disk compression utility File File compression software ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies4.6 Key Terms Mac OS Windows 2000 ME Windows 2000 Pro Windows XP Home Windows XP Pro Microsoft Windows XP Tablet PC Edition Multi-user OS Multitasking Network operating system Operating system software Palm Operating system ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies4.6 Key Terms Pathname Personal operating system Plug and play System software Utility software Utility software suite ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
©2003 The McGraw-Hill CompaniesReview of Concepts Exploring Your Control Panel How do you set the blinking rate of your cursor? Understanding File Storage Can you track files in a FAT? ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Hands On Projects E-CommerceResearching Anti-Virus Software Finding Student Loans Money is waiting for you Locating Games What are the most popular gaming sites? ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Hands On Projects Ethics, Security & PrivacyContent Filtering on the Internet Should your school be allowed to filter your Internet travels? When is a child too old to have parents filtering content? Can you filter the content of your spouse? ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Hands On Projects on the WebResearching Disk Backup Utility Tools Protecting Yourself with a Firewall ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
Hands On Projects Group ActivitiesBuilding Your Own 3-D Screen Saver CubeShow makes it happen Finding Out More about Tablet PC Operating Systems Finding Files on Your Hard Disk Your School’s Operating System Software ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies
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