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Chapter 45 The Human Body.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 45 The Human Body."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 45 The Human Body

2 Your job…… In the upcoming slides move the words to the appropriate blank areas. Example- This is an presentation amazing

3 I. The Human Body – An Orientation
A. Anatomy – study of the and of the body and its parts. B. Physiology – study of the body and its parts or function work structure how shape

4 II. Anatomy – Levels of Study
A. Gross Anatomy B. Microscopic Anatomy

5 Gross Anatomy- study of the, , structures and parts of a body that are to the naked eye. Also called macroscopic anatomy. Large Easily observable visible structures organs

6 Microscopic Anatomy-the study of microscopic structures of and
Very small structures Can only be viewed with a organs microscope tissues

7 III. Levels of Structural Organization
A. The levels of structural organization Six Organ System Cells Organ Chemical/Molecular Organism Tissue

8 Levels of Structural Organization

9 B. How the Levels of Organization are Functionally Connected
An aggregation of similarly which together perform certain special functions are a . 2. A group of tissues that perform a or group of functions are an . 3. A group of organs that to perform a complex function are an . specific function Tissue work together Organ Organ System specialized cells

10 IV. Body Tissues composed of contractile cells for movement.
contains cells that receive and transmit messages. consists of layers of cells that line or cover all internal and external body surfaces. characterized by cells that are embedded in large amounts of an intercellular substance called matrix. Connective Tissue- Epithelial Tissue- Muscle Tissue- Nervous Tissue-


12 E. Types of Muscle Tissue
1. Skeletal Muscle- muscle that powers movement of the in your trunk, limbs, and . (Striated, Multinucleated) 2. Smooth Muscle- surrounds and internal organs, such as the stomach, intestine, and bladder. (Un-striated, uninucleated) 3. Muscle- found only in the heart. (Striated, uninucleated) blood vessels hollow face Cardiac bones



15 V. Body Cavities Cavity 1. 2. B. Cavity 3. Spinal or Vertebral Dorsal
Thoracic Abdominal Ventral Cranial Pelvic




19 Organ System Overview Skeletal Protects and supports body organs
Provides muscle attachment to bones for movement Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals

20 Organ System Overview Muscular Allows locomotion Maintains posture
Produces heat Moves substances through body

21 Organ System Overview Integumentary Forms the external body covering
Protects deeper tissue from injury and drying out Synthesizes vitamin D Location of cutaneous nerve receptors


23 Organ System Overview Cardiovascular
Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nutrients Wastes

24 Organ System Overview Respiratory Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
Removes carbon dioxide

25 Organ System Overview Immune
Lymph nodes, lymph vessels and white blood cells Returns fluids to blood vessels Disposes of debris Involved in immunity- destroys bacteria and tumor cells

26 Organ System Overview Digestive Breaks down food
Allows for nutrient absorption into blood Eliminates indigestible material

27 Organ System Overview Excretory Eliminates nitrogenous wastes
Maintains acid – base balance Regulation of materials Water Electrolytes

28 Organ System Overview Nervous Fast-acting control system
Responds to internal and external change Activates muscles and glands

29 Organ System Overview Endocrine Secretes regulatory hormones Growth
Reproduction Metabolism

30 Organ System Overview Reproductive Production of offspring


32 Necessary Life Functions
Maintain Boundaries- keeps the body’s internal environment distinct from the external environment- the skin and membranes Movement Locomotion Movement of substances Responsiveness Ability to sense changes and react Digestion Break-down and delivery of nutrients

33 Necessary Life Functions
Metabolism – all chemical reactions within the body Production of energy Making body structures Excretion Elimination of waste from metabolic reactions

34 Necessary Life Functions
Reproduction Production of future generation Provides new cells for growth and repair Growth Increasing of cell size and number

35 Survival Needs Nutrients Oxygen Chemicals for energy and cell building
Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals Oxygen Required for chemical reactions

36 Survival Needs Water Stable body temperature
60–80% of body weight Provides for metabolic reaction Stable body temperature Atmospheric pressure must be appropriate

37 Homeostasis Maintenance of a stable internal environment = a dynamic state of equilibrium Homeostasis must be maintained for normal body functioning and to sustain life Homeostatic imbalance – a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

38 Maintaining Homeostasis
The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems Receptor Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli) Sends information to control center

39 Maintaining Homeostasis
Control center Determines set point Analyzes information Determines appropriate response Effector Provides a means for response to the stimulus


41 Feedback Mechanisms Negative feedback
Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity Works like a household thermostat


43 Feedback Mechanisms Positive feedback
Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther In the body this only occurs in blood clotting and birth of a baby


45 The Language of Anatomy
Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding Exact terms are used for: Position Direction Regions Structures

46 Orientation and Directional Terms
Table 1.1

47 Orientation and Directional Terms

48 Body Landmarks Anterior

49 Body Landmarks Posterior

50 Body Planes


52 Abdominopelvic Quadrants

53 Abdominopelvic Major Organs


55 Do body systems work alone or do they work with other systems to function properly?
How many system interactions can you come up with?

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