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1 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Social Psychology & INFOSEC NEW ENGLAND INFORMATION SECURITY GROUP 2004-05-20 M. E. Kabay, PhD, CISSP Assoc. Prof. Information Assurance Program Director, Master of Science in Information Assurance Norwich University
2 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Topics l Attribution Theory l Social Cognition: Forming Judgments l Beliefs and Attitudes l Prejudice l Locus of Control l Persuasion and Attitude Change l Conformity, Compliance and Obedience l Pro-Social (Helpful) Behavior
3 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Attribution Theory l How people explain their own and others' behavior l Weiner's classification: StableUnstable Internal External Dispositions; traits; level of ability or intelligence Effort; mood; physical state Good/bad luck; opportunity; transient situations Degree of task difficulty; env helps/hindrance
4 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Attribution Theory (contd) How we explain behavior l Fundamental Attribution Error – Star Trek's Leonard Nimoy is really like the character he portrays (Mr Spock) l Actor-Observer Effect – What I do is a reasonable response to the situation but what you do is in your nature l Salience – What stands out is perceived as most important even if it isn't
5 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Attribution Theory (contd) l Self-Serving Bias – If I succeed it's because of how good I am, but if I lose it's not my fault l Self-Handicapping – If I expect to fail I'll make sure there's a good excuse l Depressed People – If I lose it's because of how bad I am, but if I succeed it's not to my credit
6 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Attribution Theory: Implications l Leader and others: remember not to pigeon- hole someone – E.g., Hes always _______ l Reverse situation – think about explanations for perplexing or objectionable behavior – If I were behaving that way, it would be because __________ l Challenge unthinking reliance on salience – question assumptions about causality – Why should the fact that he limps make a difference to _________?
7 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Social Cognition: Forming Judgements l Schemas influence perception l Decision-making usually includes only a small subset of available information l Language influences perception l Reasoning is only a small part of forming judgments or opinions
8 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Schemas l Organized knowledge about the world l Influence perceptions Allports experiments with drawings of people on tramway l Affect memory witnesses unreliable l More subtle and complex for in-groups than for out-groups – give outgroup no credit l May lead to self-fulfilling prophecies; e.g., math teachers vs girls – Reward compliance with schema (boys) – Punish deviation (girls) Suggestion: question expectations, assumptions
9 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Schemas (contd) l Schema from one sphere may interfere with successful implementation of new policies l Present counterintuitive information in advance – Provide enough time for assimilation – Distribute background papers – Use case studies to counter inappropriate schemata
10 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Inadequate Sampling Judgments are often based on inadequate samples l Early, negative, information weighted heavily l The availability heuristic can lead to errors in judgment – Whats easy to remember weighs too heavily in decision – Anecdotal evidence inappropriately strong
11 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Inadequate Sampling (contd) l Provide decision makers with powerful arguments first l Ensure theres lots of striking, memorable evidence in presentation l Explicitly challenge incorrect intuition, preconceptions, conclusions
12 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Beliefs and Attitudes l Belief: cognitive information without affect – The operators are responsible for tape mounts. l Attitude: evaluation or emotional response – The */$&/! Operators are supposed to be responsible for tape mounts! l Cognitive dissonance: incompatible beliefs, attitudes or behavior – I am an honest person – but I have taken home three dozen Zip disks this month.
13 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Beliefs and Attitudes l Before attempting to change beliefs and attitudes, study what they are – Interviews – Focus groups – Surveys l Use language carefully – Positive terms for desired end-point l Encouragement is effective – Even minor praise, smile can shape beliefs and attitudes l Allow time for change – weeks at least
14 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Beliefs and Attitudes (contd) Suggestions for security group: l Explore current beliefs and attitudes towards security – Identify areas of conflict, negative affect – Correct erroneous beliefs fast – Explore why some policies are successful l Provide consistent pro-security messages to avoid dissonance – e.g., managers should not ignore polices l Rewards more effective than punishment – encouraging positive attitudes & behavior
15 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Prejudice l Stereotypes – simple models of others; – e.g., racial profiling, assumptions about security officers l Roots of prejudice are many – historical, social, familial, psychological, personal l Authoritarian personality includes prejudice l Minimal-group research – easy to generate inter- group hostility and prejudice simply by grouping l Group competition exacerbates prejudice – Creating common goals and projects for hostile groups mitigates prejudice l Favorable depictions improve inter-group relations
16 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Locus of Control l People work better when they feel in control – Able to affect outcomes – Considered by decision-makers – Listened-to l Experimental evidence – Teams working in noisy environment – Patients in convalescence homes
17 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Locus of Control Locus of Control Group 1
18 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Locus of Control Locus of Control Group 2 STOP
19 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Locus of Control
20 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Persuasion and Attitude Change: Effective Communication What influences pace of change: l Audience/Listener variables l Channel variables l Communicator/Presenter variables l Message variables
21 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Effective Communication: Listener Variables l Knowledge base l Objectives l Intelligence l Alertness l Motivation
22 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Knowledge Base l Define prerequisite knowledge, skills l Ask each participant for brief biography l Explore related areas of knowledge l Identify strengths and weaknesses l Incorporate interests into examples, discussions
23 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Intelligence l Less important than frequently assumed l Encourage questions, discussion l Praise interventions, ideas, contributions l For courses – Effective study methods can compensate – Offer assistance outside class
24 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Alertness l Sleep deprivation harmful to learning l Use channel variables to enhance alertness l Provide frequent breaks l Respond immediately to inattention l Use humor and the unexpected l Discourage heavy lunches l Forbid alcohol during task-force meetings, workshops and training
25 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Motivation l What would you like to be able to do after this course that you cant do now? l Beware forced participation: work to convince of meeting or courses utility l For courses: address benefits of mastery – Share experiences in real world – Bring in enthusiastic graduate If possible, one who was negative at start Have brief description of positive results, value
26 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Channel Variables l Time available l Working conditions l Visibility, audibility, clarity l High interactivity
27 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Time Available l Allow for at least ~2-3 minutes/slide on average – Check your timings if you use more slides – Be sure that you can in fact present all the slides l At most ~1 hr between breaks – Use longer breaks (e.g., 20-30 minutes) to foster creativity – Informal discussions often useful l At most ~7 hr/day l If necessary, plan 2 or more days or sessions for better assimilation and application of complex issues
28 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Working Conditions l Keep room relatively cool l Lights bright if possible l Comfortable chairs l Desks or tables with enough room for computers and papers l Printed materials with room for notes l Multimedia: reference articles, videos l If possible and appropriate, network with hub & LAN connectors – High-speed access to Net – NetMeeting software
29 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Visibility, Audibility, Clarity l Stand, move, sit l Speak clearly at all times – Keep microphone away from direct line of breath (avoids noise) l Vary speed – Slower than conversation – Pauses effective for emphasis l Over-inflect for emphasis – Different from conversational mode – Increase frequency range and dynamic range l Face the audience, not the slide / poster
30 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. High Interactivity l Ask questions frequently l Challenge individuals l Turn discussion to relevant personal experiences l Use digressions constructively to reinforce message l Use examples from participants experiences l When teaching, remember individual students interests and point out relevance of specific material to them
31 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Effective Communication: Presenter Variables l Psychology and motivation l Empathy and imagination l Patience l Subject knowledge l Background knowledge l Ethical standards l Externals
32 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Psychology and Motivation l Commitment to group / participant / student achievement l Beware feelings of power and superiority l Encourage questions, challenges – Thank people for raising questions; smile – Set example: I dont know that; can anyone help on that question?.... Ill do some research for the next meeting / class. – Deal with extensive discussions at break to avoid disrupting flow of meeting
33 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Psychology and Motivation (contd) l Admit mistakes immediately and clearly – On that third point, I was wrong. Thank you to Scott for pointing out that.... l Unforgivable to humiliate people – Grounds for dismissal l Every session is a chance for leader / teacher to learn – Write down ideas for improvement
34 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Empathy and Imagination l Remember what it was like being a beginner – Define jargon terms – Define acronyms on first use l Identify basic knowledge and skills needed for assimilation of later concepts, material l In courses, ensure that basics are thoroughly mastered – If necessary, take disproportionately longer at start of meeting / course l Encourage meetings after meeting / class – Make schedule of availability known – Stick to schedule, especially for students
35 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Patience l Find alternative ways of explaining ideas / skills – Analogies – Examples – War stories l When question out of place, defer answer – Later in lecture if suitable – At break or after class l Respect students for wanting to understand
36 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Subject Knowledge l Difficult or impossible to provide technical leadership or to teach without mastering subject l Create your own presentation materials – Or adapt existing materials l Use all available resources to supplement your knowledge and understanding – Textbooks – Articles – Colleagues – Online databases l I dont know; lets try to find out!
37 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Background Knowledge l Read widely in related areas l Bring in analogies from other areas of experience l Use personal life-experiences when suitable l Talk about feelings as well as ideas l Express values openly l Use divergence of judgment or opinion as opportunity for expanding everyones knowledge
38 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Ethical Standards l Work for the participants and the organizations benefit l Review and revise course materials as appropriate before reusing them l Provide value for time invested l Take participants other commitments into account stay on schedule – Start when you say youll start – Stop when you say youll stop l If teaching a course, make it possible to achieve maximum grades l Teachers: beware of emotional / sexual entanglements with students violation of professional ethical standards
39 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Effective Communication: Message Variables l Context l Behavioral objectives l Organization l Content l Review questions
40 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Context l Provide overview of coming materials – If appropriate, specify preliminary readings – Provide notes for participants / students – Use overview slides throughout presentation l Explain why information matters to participants or students l Focus on practical skills and examples l Courses: consider open-book exams, cooperative learning
41 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Behavioral Objectives l Avoid internally defined objectives such as knowing, becoming familiar with etc. l What will the team or the class be able to DO after the session / course that they cant do yet? – Analyze, apply, attack, choose, compare, contrast, decide, defend, define, discuss, design, demonstrate, establish, explain, improve, optimize, prepare, repair, solve, teach,.... – Within certain time limits, with certain tools available, accomplish specific actions....
42 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Organization l Design presentation / course top-down – Sketch out areas of concern, skills – Fill in details l Fundamental questions – Whats this all about? (context) – So why should I care about it? (motivation) – So whats the scoop? (content) l Provide signposts explaining upcoming sections l Start each section with restatement of why it matters l Emphasize mastery of basic knowledge l Point to more advanced topics
43 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Organization (contd) l Memory works through association – Engrams patterns of neuronal firings in chains that activate experience, concepts – Want to provide lots of hooks for assimilation / memory l Present practical examples before stating theory – Need concrete example to establish framework for associations l Invite comment, experiences from participants before presenting theory – Opportunity to strengthen integration of new information into web of associations
44 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Evaluating Effectiveness of Communication l When leading a meeting or an informal course or workshop, gauge effectiveness through – Watching body language throughout session – Informal discussion – 1:1 conversation l Interviews, focus groups, surveys l For formal courses, can use essays, quizzes, examinations, projects – Include active knowledge as well as passive – If open-book, preferable to restrict time; e.g., 2 minutes per question Declining accuracy
45 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Conformity, Compliance and Obedience l Shift normative values towards goal – Express expectation of cooperation – We l Group solidarity increases conformity – Group exercises, games, teamwork – If using contests, mix up the teams l Outliers are especially important – Both enthusiasts and resisters l Norm of reciprocity – Give a little, get a little l Foot in the door – Get a little, get more
46 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Pro-Social (Helpful) Behavior Acting helpfully requires 4 steps: l Notice problem – Need awareness l Recognize as emergency – Need training l Take responsibility for action – Need climate for responsible action – No worry about looking foolish l Decide on action – Sound training, good policies
47 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Pro-Sociality (contd) l Bystander Effect – Larger groups have slower reaction time – Diffusion of responsibility – Uncertainty about social climate l Counter bystander effect using rewards for responsible behavior – E.g., reporting security violations – Challenging unbadged strangers
48 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Pro-Sociality (contd) l Cost-benefit analysis – Make prosociality low cost / high gain – Provide hotline for security violations – Allow anonymity in reports l Make failing to support policy expensive – Personnel policies: clear sanctions – Performance review – Possible dismissal
49 Copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. DISCUSSION M. E. Kabay, PhD, CISSP mailto:email@example.com http://www2.norwich.edu/mkabay
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