Presentation on theme: "The glory that was Greece"— Presentation transcript:
1 The glory that was Greece PAGESThe glory that was Greece
2 SETTING THE SCENE Philosopher translates “lovers of wisdom”Greek thinkers were called philosophersGreeks had confidence in the power of the human mindThey were driven by curiosity and a belief in reason.Greek thinkers, artist, and writers explored the nature of the universe and the place people held in it.
3 GREEK PHILOSOPHERSGreek thinkers challenged the belief that events were caused by the whims of gods.They used observation and reason to find causes instead.Modern science traces its roots to the Greek search for such principles.Some Greek philosophers were interested in ethics and morality.They wanted to know things such as:The best type of governmentThe standards that should rule human behavior
4 SOCRATES Athenian stonemason & philosopher He wrote no books Socratic methodHe posed a series of questions to studentsChallenged them to examine the implications of their answersSuch questioning was a threat to accepted Athenian traditionsAt the age of 70, he was put on trial for corrupting the city’s youth & failing to respect the gods.He was found guilty & sentenced to death.Athenian law’s death penalty was death by poison.He drank a cup of hemlock for the death penaltyPoisonous herb found in the Mediterranean region
5 PLATOAfter Socrates was sentenced to death, Plato no longer trusted democracy.He left Athens for 10 years, but returned to set up a school called the Academy.He emphasized the importance of reason.Author of The Republic, which described his idea of an ideal state.He argued for a state that regulated every aspect of its citizens’ lives in order to provide for their best interests.His ideal society was divided into three classes:Workers- who were used to produce necessities to lifeSoldiers- used to defend the statePhilosophers- to think and rule and would be highly trained to ensure order and justice.Wisest ruler- Philosopher-king– would have ultimate authorityTalented women could be educated & serve the statePlato’s Allegory of the Cave is included in this book
6 ARISTOTLE Was Plato’s most famous student Developed his own ideas about governmentHe did so by analyzing every form of governmentFound good and bad examples of each formThough democracy could lead to mob rule (like Plato)He favored rule by a single strong, virtuous leaderHe thought people ought to live in good conduct to pursue the “golden mean” which was a moderate course between extremely good and extremely bad.He also set up a school, but his was named, the Lyceum
7 The Lyceum Set up by Aristotle For the study of all branches of knowledgeLeft writings onPoliticsEthicsLogicBiologyLiterature1,500 years laterEuropean universities evolved and courses were based on the works of Aristotle
8 ARCHITECTURE Greek architects The Parthenon Goal was to convey a sense of perfect balanceBalance was between the harmony & order of the universeThe ParthenonMost famous example of Greek architectureTemple dedicated to goddess Athena
9 ART Sculpture & Painting Early sculptures were of people in rigid poses from the Egyptian style450 BC Greeks sculpted in natural poses was lifelike & idealistic by carving gods, goddesses, athletes, & famous men in a way the showed people in a perfect & grateful formOnly surviving Greek paintings are on pottery
10 POETRY & DRAMA Greek literature began with the epics of Homer Drama was the most important Greek contribution to literature1st plays evolved out of religious festivalsPlays were performed in large outdoor theaters with little or no sceneryThey had elaborate costumes and masksPlaywrights discussed moral & social issues or explored the relationship between people and the gods
11 TRAGEDY Aeschylus, Sophocles, & Euripides All 3 are playwrights that wrote tragedies or plays that told stories of human suffering that usually end in disasterThe purpose was to stir emotions of pity & fearEuripides survived the Peloponnesian War and is believed to have led him to question his accepted ideasHis plays suggest people not the gods are the cause of human misfortune.
12 THE WRITING OF HISTORYGreeks applied observation, reason, & logic to the study of historyHerodotusAuthor of The Persian WarsCalled the “Father of History” in the western worldHe visited many lands and collected information from people who remembered the events he chronicledHe noted bias and conflicting accountsHe invented conversations & speeches for historical figuresThis set standards for future historians by stressing the importance of research and the need to avoid bias