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The glory that was Greece

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1 The glory that was Greece
PAGES The glory that was Greece

translates “lovers of wisdom” Greek thinkers were called philosophers Greeks had confidence in the power of the human mind They were driven by curiosity and a belief in reason. Greek thinkers, artist, and writers explored the nature of the universe and the place people held in it.

3 GREEK PHILOSOPHERS Greek thinkers challenged the belief that events were caused by the whims of gods. They used observation and reason to find causes instead. Modern science traces its roots to the Greek search for such principles. Some Greek philosophers were interested in ethics and morality. They wanted to know things such as: The best type of government The standards that should rule human behavior

4 SOCRATES Athenian stonemason & philosopher He wrote no books
Socratic method He posed a series of questions to students Challenged them to examine the implications of their answers Such questioning was a threat to accepted Athenian traditions At the age of 70, he was put on trial for corrupting the city’s youth & failing to respect the gods. He was found guilty & sentenced to death. Athenian law’s death penalty was death by poison. He drank a cup of hemlock for the death penalty Poisonous herb found in the Mediterranean region

5 PLATO After Socrates was sentenced to death, Plato no longer trusted democracy. He left Athens for 10 years, but returned to set up a school called the Academy. He emphasized the importance of reason. Author of The Republic, which described his idea of an ideal state. He argued for a state that regulated every aspect of its citizens’ lives in order to provide for their best interests. His ideal society was divided into three classes: Workers- who were used to produce necessities to life Soldiers- used to defend the state Philosophers- to think and rule and would be highly trained to ensure order and justice. Wisest ruler- Philosopher-king– would have ultimate authority Talented women could be educated & serve the state Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is included in this book

6 ARISTOTLE Was Plato’s most famous student
Developed his own ideas about government He did so by analyzing every form of government Found good and bad examples of each form Though democracy could lead to mob rule (like Plato) He favored rule by a single strong, virtuous leader He thought people ought to live in good conduct to pursue the “golden mean” which was a moderate course between extremely good and extremely bad. He also set up a school, but his was named, the Lyceum

7 The Lyceum Set up by Aristotle
For the study of all branches of knowledge Left writings on Politics Ethics Logic Biology Literature 1,500 years later European universities evolved and courses were based on the works of Aristotle

8 ARCHITECTURE Greek architects The Parthenon
Goal was to convey a sense of perfect balance Balance was between the harmony & order of the universe The Parthenon Most famous example of Greek architecture Temple dedicated to goddess Athena

9 ART Sculpture & Painting
Early sculptures were of people in rigid poses from the Egyptian style 450 BC Greeks sculpted in natural poses was lifelike & idealistic by carving gods, goddesses, athletes, & famous men in a way the showed people in a perfect & grateful form Only surviving Greek paintings are on pottery

10 POETRY & DRAMA Greek literature began with the epics of Homer
Drama was the most important Greek contribution to literature 1st plays evolved out of religious festivals Plays were performed in large outdoor theaters with little or no scenery They had elaborate costumes and masks Playwrights discussed moral & social issues or explored the relationship between people and the gods

11 TRAGEDY Aeschylus, Sophocles, & Euripides
All 3 are playwrights that wrote tragedies or plays that told stories of human suffering that usually end in disaster The purpose was to stir emotions of pity & fear Euripides survived the Peloponnesian War and is believed to have led him to question his accepted ideas His plays suggest people not the gods are the cause of human misfortune.

12 THE WRITING OF HISTORY Greeks applied observation, reason, & logic to the study of history Herodotus Author of The Persian Wars Called the “Father of History” in the western world He visited many lands and collected information from people who remembered the events he chronicled He noted bias and conflicting accounts He invented conversations & speeches for historical figures This set standards for future historians by stressing the importance of research and the need to avoid bias

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