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Cell Reproduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Reproduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Reproduction

2 Cell Division Increases the number of cells and causes many-celled organisms to grow Cell cycle- series of events that take place from one cell division to the next

3 Interphase Most of the life of a eukaryotic cell, or cell with a nucleus, is spent in this period of growth and development During interphase, a cell duplicates its chromosomes and prepares for cell division After interphase, the nucleus divides, and then the cytoplasm separates to form two new cells Muscle and nerve cells no longer divide so they are always in interphase

4 Chromosomes Chromosome- structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material

5 Mitosis Process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei

6 Prophase Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disintegrate
Centrioles move to the opposite ends of the cell Spindle fibers begin to stretch across the cell

7 Metaphase Pairs of chromatids line up across center of cell

8 Anaphase Each centromere divides
Each pair of chromatids separates and moves to opposite ends of the cell

9 Telophase Spindle fibers disappear and a new nucleus forms

10 Cytokinesis For most cells, the cytoplasm separates after the nucleus divides In animal cells, the cell membrane pinches in the middle and the cell membrane divides In plant cells, a cell plate forms


12 Results Each cell in your body, except for sex cells, has a nucleus with 46 chromosomes People with conditions such as Down Syndrome, have extra or less chromosomes. Allows growth and replaces worn out or damaged cells

13 Asexual Reproduction A new organism is produced from one parent organism An organism with no nucleus divides into two identical organisms by fission Budding a small exact copy of the adult grows from the body of the parent Regeneration a whole new organism grows from a piece of the parent

14 Sexual Reproduction Two sex cells, called the sperm and egg, come together Sperm formed in male reproductive organs Egg formed in female reproductive organs Fertilization the joining of the sperm and egg The new cell that forms after fertilization is called the zygote.

15 Cells Your body forms 2 types of cells
Diploid cells that have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Includes brain, skin, bone cells. Haploid only 23 individual chromosomes, NOT PAIRS. These are the sperm and egg cells.

16 Meiosis Process that produces haploid cells.
Insures that offspring will have same total amount of chromosomes as parent because after two haploid cells combine, a diploid zygote is produced During meiosis, two nucleus divisions occur Meiosis I Meiosis II

17 Interphase Before meiosis starts, each chromosome is duplicated (just like in mitosis)

18 Prophase I Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disintegrate
Centrioles move to the opposite ends of the cell Spindle fibers begin to stretch across the cell Each duplicated chromosome comes near its duplicate

19 Metaphase I Pairs of duplicated chromosomes line up in center of cell
The centromere of each chromatid pair attaches to a spindle fiber

20 Anaphase I Two pairs of chromatids of each similar pair move away from each other to opposite ends of the cell. Each duplicated chromosome still has two chromatids.

21 Telophase I Cytoplasm divides and two new cells form
Each new cell has one duplicated chromosome from each similar pair

22 Prophase II The duplicated chromosomes and spindle fibers reappear in each cell

23 Metaphase II Duplicated chromosomes move to the center of the cell
Each centromere attached to two spindle fibers instead of one

24 Anaphase II Centromere divides
Chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell Each chromatid is individual chromosome

25 Telophase II Spindle fibers disappear.
New nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes at each end of the cell

26 Meiosis At the end of meiosis II, the cytoplasm divides. SUMMARY
Two cells form during meiosis I Those two cells form two new cells in meiosis II Results in FOUR SEX CELLS, each with one half the number of chromosomes in its nucleus as in the original nucleus

27 Let’s Review Meiosis!





32 DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (a chemical)
Contains information for organism’s growth and function When a cell divides, DNA code is copied and passed to new cell Watson and Crick made accurate model of DNA in 1953

33 DNA Structure Similar to twisted ladder
Sides of ladder are made up of sugar-phosphate molecules The rungs of ladder made of nitrogen bases Adenine and Thymine are base pairs Guanine and Cytosine are base pairs Before cell divides, DNA duplicates itself by unwinding and separating its sides, then each side becomes a pattern on which new side forms


35 Genes and RNA Genes sections of DNA on a chromosome
RNA carries the codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm Messenger RNA carries the code that directs the order in which amino acids bond Ribosomal RNA makes up ribosomes, where proteins are built Transfer RNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes to build proteins

36 Codons Every 3 base pairs (such as UGA) on the messenger RNA are a CODON Each codon represents a specific amino acid The ribosome reads the messenger RNA by each codon, then adds the correct amino acid to the protein chain

37 RNA



40 RNA DNA vs. RNA DNA to RNA to Proteins

41 Mutations Any permanent change in the DNA sequence of a cell’s genes or chromosome Can be caused by outside factors like X rays, sunlight, and chemicals A change in the gene or chromosome can change traits of the organism

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