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Jaundice Yellow discoloration of sclera, skin, mucous membranes due to deposition of bile pigment Clinically detected with serum bilirubin 2-2.5mg/dL or.

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Presentation on theme: "Jaundice Yellow discoloration of sclera, skin, mucous membranes due to deposition of bile pigment Clinically detected with serum bilirubin 2-2.5mg/dL or."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jaundice Yellow discoloration of sclera, skin, mucous membranes due to deposition of bile pigment Clinically detected with serum bilirubin 2-2.5mg/dL or  (2 times normal)

2 What is bilirubin? The breakdown product of Hemoglobin from injured RBCs and other heme containing proteins. Produced by reticuloendothelial system Released to plasma, bound to albumin Hepatocytes conjugate it and extrete through bile channels into small intestine.


4 What causes  bilirubin?
Prehepatic Unconjugated Hepatic mixed Post-hepatic conjugated

5 Causes Hepatocellular disease Viral infections (hepatitis A, B, and C)
Chronic alcohol use Autoimmune disorders Drugs Pregnancy

6 Causes Parenteral nutrition Sarcoidosis Dubin-Johnson syndrome
Rotor's syndrome Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary sclerosing cholangitis

7 Drugs that may cause liver damage
Analgesics Paracetamol Aspirin Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Cardiac drugs Methyldopa Amiodarone Psychotropic drugs Monoamine oxidase inhibitors Phenothiazines (such as chlorpromazine) Others Sodium valproate Oestrogens (oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy)

8 Symptoms Yellow discoloration of the skin, sclerae and mucous membranes Itching (pruritus) due to deposits of bile salts on the skin Stool becomes light in color Urine becomes deep orange and foamy

9 Clinical Features Careful history and examination
Family history (Gilbert, Rotor, Crigler-Najjar, Dubin-Johnson, Sickle Cell) Healthy young person with fever, malaise, myalgias = viral hepatitis (try to locate source) Gradually develops symptoms = hepatic/bile duct obstruction (consider liver disease/cirrhosis) Develops acutely with abdominal pain = acute cholangitis sec to choledocholithiasis

10 Clinical Features Painless jaundice in older person with epigastric mass & weight loss = biliary obstruction from malignancy Hepatomegaly with pedal edema, JVP, and gallop = CHF

11 History that should be taken from patients presenting with Jaundice
Duration of jaundice Previous attacks of jaundice Pain Chills, fever, systemic symptoms Itching Exposure to drugs (prescribed and illegal) Biliary surgery Anorexia, weight loss Colour of urine and stool Contact with other jaundiced patients History of injections or blood transfusions Occupation

12 Examination of patients with Jaundice
Liver Size Shape Surface Enlargement of gall bladder Splenomegaly Abdominal mass Colour of urine and stools Depth of jaundice Scratch marks Signs of chronic liver disease Palmar erythema Clubbing White nails Dupuytren’s contracture Gynaecomastia

13 Laboratory Tests Pigment studies Alkaline Phosphatase
Serum bilirubin, direct Serum bilirubin, total Urine R/E for bilirubin and urobilinogen Alkaline Phosphatase Liver aminotransferrase levels AST ALT Elevated levels usually indicate cellular damage to the liver > 70% of liver cells may be damaged before LFT’s become elevated

14 Blood Studies Serum Ammonia
Liver converts ammonia to urea. Ammonia rises in liver failure Protein Studies Serum albumin Low levels seen with liver disease Serum Globulin Elevated levels with advanced cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis

15 CBC PT Other labs pertinent to history Coombs test Hb electrophoresis Viral hepatitis screen ULTRASOUND

16 Tumor Marker Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Increased levels are seen with hepatic carcinoma Prothrombin Time (PT) Time required for a firm fibrin dot to form In liver dysfunction, increase clotting time with increased risk of bleeding

17 Liver Biopsy Used to obtain a specimen of liver tissue
Done under local anesthesia

18 Autoantibody and immunoglobulin characteristics in liver disease
Auto antibodies Immunoglobulin Primary billiary cirrhosis High titre of antimitochondrial antibody in 95% of patients Raised IgM Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis Smooth muscle antibody in 70%, antinuclear factor in 60%, Low antimitochondrial antibody titre in 20% Raised IgG in all patients Primary sclerosing cholangitis Antinuclear cytoplasmic antibody in 30%

19 Summary An isolated raised serum bilirubin concentration is usually due to Gilbert’s syndrome, which is confirmed by normal liver enzyme activities and full blood count Jaundice with dark urine, pale stools, and raised alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity suggests an obstructive cause, which is confirmed by presence of dilated bile ducts on ultrasonography Jaundice in patients with low serum albumin concentration suggests chronic liver disease Patients with high concentrations of bilirubin (>100 micro mol/l) or signs of sepsis require emergency specialist referral Imaging of the bile ducts for obstructive jaundice is increasingly performed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, with endoscopy becoming reserved for the therapeutic interventions

20 Pre-Hepatic Disorders

21 Haemolysis Gilberts Excess bilirubin production Failure to conjugate
Unconjugated Bil ++ Normal ALP/ALT Low Hb/retics++ Splenomegaly Pigmented gallstones Gilberts Failure to conjugate 2-5% Autosomal recessive Asymptomatic Bilirubin Unconjugated Normal ALT/ALP Worse if infection, miss a meal

22 Hepatic Disorders & Hepatic Failure

23 Acute & Chronic Liver Disease
Drugs Viral Alcohol Autoimmune Chronic Biliary Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary sclerosing cholangitis Liver cell damage (cirrhotic) Alcohol Autoimmune Viral* Haemochromatosis* Wilsons* A1AT*

24 Physical Findings Acute Chronic
Moderate liver enlargement, tenderness, +/- jaundice Chronic Sallow complexion, extremity muscle atrophy, palmar erythema, spider nevi, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, splenomegaly, ascites

Hepatitic ALT/AST +++ Cholestatic ALP/GGT+++ Albumin Low FBC Pancytopaenia Elevated wcc PT Elevated ACUTE LIVER INJURY LFTs Hepatitic ALT/AST +++ Albumin Normal FBC PT Mild elevation Exception- paracetomol

26 Blood tests for liver disease
Liver autoantibodies Anti-mitochondrial Anti-Smooth muscle Immunoglobulins IgM IgG IgA Ferritin/TIBC PBC AICAH Alcohol Haemochromatosis

27 Gross specimen of cirrhosis of the liver

28 Post-Hepatic Disorders

29 Intrinsic to the ductal system
Gallstones Surgical strictures Infection (cytomegalovirus, Cryptosporidium infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Intrahepatic malignancy Cholangiocarcinoma Extrinsic to the ductal system Extrahepatic malignancy (pancreas, lymphoma) Pancreatitis

30 CASE SCENARIO A 54 years old female is presented in emergency department with complaints of low grade fever, nausea and loss of appetite for last 10 days. now she is worried because of yellow discoloration of sclera and dark colored urine for one day. What physical signs you can suspect in this case?

31 , CASE SCENARIO On examination, she has fever of 100-F.she is jaundiced and having tender hepatomegaly. How will you investigate this case ?

32 CASE SCENARIO Bilirubin 10mg/dl ALT 1593IU Alkaline phosphatase 840IU
Hb 12.3 TLC 8900 Platelets PT 3 seconds prolong Serum albumin 3.6mg/dl What is your likely diagnosis ?

33 CASE SCENARIO Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D

34 CASE SCENARIO How will you differentiate hepatitis A and hepatitis E infection ? How will you manage this case ?

35 CASE SCENARIO Bed rest Increase oral juices intake in anorexic patients Anti emetics Parenteral feeding if severe anorexia and vomiting Vitamin and liver supportive agents


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