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Classes, Exceptions, Collections, and Scrollable Controls

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1 Classes, Exceptions, Collections, and Scrollable Controls
Chapter 12 Classes, Exceptions, Collections, and Scrollable Controls

2 Chapter 12 Introduction

3 Chapter 12 Topics Classes Exceptions Collections Object Browser
Abstract Data Types Objects, Properties, Methods Exceptions Collections Object Browser Scrollable Controls

4 Section 12.1 Classes and Objects
Classes Are Program Structures That Define Abstract Data Types and Are Used to Create Objects

5 Abstract Data Types An abstract data type (ADT) is a data type created by a programmer ADTs are important in computer science and object-oriented programming An abstraction is a model of something that includes only its general characteristics Dog is an abstraction Defines a general type of animal but not a specific breed, color, or size A dog is like a data type A specific dog is an instance of the data type

6 Classes A class is a program structure that defines an abstract data type Must create the class first Then can create instances of the class Class instances share common attributes VB forms and controls are classes Each control in the toolbox, is its own class When you place a button on a form you’re creating an instance of the button class An instance is also called an object

7 Properties, Methods, and Events
Programs communicate with an object using the properties and methods of the class Class properties example: Buttons have Location, Text, and Name properties Class methods example: The Focus method functions identically for every single button Class event procedures: Each button in a form has a different click event procedure

8 Object Oriented Design
The challenge is to design classes that effectively cooperate and communicate Analyze program specifications to determine ADTs that best implement the specifications Classes are fundamental building blocks Typically represent nouns of some type

9 Object Oriented Design Example
Specifications: We need to keep a list of students that lets us track the courses they have completed. Each student has a transcript that contains all information about his or her completed courses. At the end of each semester, we will calculate the grade point average of each student . At times, users will search for a particular course taken by a student. Nouns from the specification above usually become classes in the program design Verbs such as calculate GPA and search become methods of those classes

10 OOD Class Characteristics
Class Attributes (properties) Operations (methods) Student LastName, FirstName, Display, Input IdNumber StudentList AllStudents, Count Add, Remove, FindStudent Course Semester, Name, Display, Input Grade,Credits Transcript CourseList, Count Display, Search, CalcGradeAvg

11 Interface and Implementation
Class interface is the portion of the class visible to the application programmer Class implementation is the portion of the class hidden from client programs Private member variables Private properties Private methods Hiding of all data and procedures inside a class is referred to as encapsulation

12 Section 12.2 Creating a Class
To Create a Class in Visual Basic, You Create a Class Declaration The Class Declaration Specifies the Member Variables, Properties, Methods, and Events That Belong to the Class

13 Class Declaration ClassName is the name of the class
Public Class ClassName MemberDeclarations End Class ClassName is the name of the class Examples of MemberDeclarations are presented in the following slides To create a new class: Clicking Add New Item button on toolbar Select Class from Add New Item dialog box Provide a name for the class and click Add Adds a new, empty class file (.vb) to project

14 Member Variables A variable declared inside a class declaration
Syntax: AccessSpecifier may be Public or Private Example: AccessSpecifer VariableName As DataType Public Class Student Public strLastName As String ‘Student last name Public strFirstName As String ‘Student first name Public strId As String ‘Student ID number End Class

15 Creating an Instance of a Class
A two step process creates a class object Declare a variable whose type is the class Create instance of class with New keyword and assign the instance to the variable freshman defined here as an object variable Can accomplish both steps in one statement Dim freshman As Student freshman = New Student() Dim freshman As New Student()

16 Accessing Members Can work with Public member variables of a class object in code using this syntax: For example: If freshman references a Student class object And Student class has member variables strFirstName, strLastName, and strID Can store values in member variables with object.memberVariable freshman.strFirstName = "Joy" freshman.strLastName = "Robinson" freshman.strId = "23G794"

17 Property Procedure A property procedure is a function that behaves like a property Controls access to property values Procedure has two sections: Get and Set Get code executes when value is retrieved Set code executes when value is stored Properties almost always declared Public to allow access from outside the class Set code often provides data validation logic

18 Property Procedure Syntax
Public Property PropertyName() As DataType Get Statements End Get Set(ParameterDeclaration) End Set End Property

19 Property Procedure Example
Public Class Student ' Member variables Private sngTestAvg As Single Public Property TestAverage() As Single Get Return sngTestAvg End Get Set(ByVal value As Single) If value >= 0.0 And value <= Then sngTestAvg = value Else MessageBox.Show( _ "Invalid test average.", "Error") End If End Set End Property End Class

20 Setting and Validating a Property
TestAverage property is set as shown: Passes 82.3 into value parameter of Set If in the range 0.0 to 100.0, value is stored If outside the range, message box displayed instead of value being stored Dim freshman as New Student() freshman.TestAverage = 82.3 Set(ByVal value As Single) If value >= 0.0 And value <= Then sngTestAvg = value Else MessageBox.Show( _ "Invalid test average.", "Error") End If End Set

21 Read-Only Properties Useful at times to make a property read-only
Allows access to property values but cannot change these values from outside the class Use the ReadOnly keyword instead of Public This causes the propertyName to be read-only -- not settable from outside of the class ReadOnly Property PropertyName() As DataType Get Statements End Get End Property

22 Read-Only Property Example
' TestGrade property procedure ReadOnly Property TestGrade() As Char Get If sngTestAverage >= 90 return "A" Else If sngTestAverage >= 80 return "B" Else If sngTestAverage >= 70 return "C" Else If sngTestAverage >= 60 return "D" Else return "F" End If End Get End Property

23 Object Removal & Garbage Collection
Memory space is consumed when objects are instantiated Objects no longer needed should be removed Set object variable to Nothing so it no longer references the object Variable is a candidate for garbage collection when it no longer references an object The garbage collector runs periodically destroying objects no longer needed freshman = Nothing

24 Going Out of Scope An object variable instantiated within a procedure is local to that procedure An object goes out of scope when Referenced only by local variables and The procedure ends Object removed once it goes out of scope An object instantiated in a procedure and assigned to a global variable is not removed Reference remains when procedure ends

25 Going Out of Scope, Example
Sub CreateStudent() Dim sophomore As Student sophomore = New Student() sophomore.FirstName = "Travis" sophomore.LastName = "Barnes" sophomore.IdNumber = "17H495" sophomore.TestAverage = 94.7 g_studentVar = sophomore End Sub With this statement, sophomore will not go out of scope. Without this statement, it will go out of scope when the procedure ends. (g_studentVar is a module-level variable.)

26 Comparing Object Variables
Multiple variables can reference the same object Can test if two variables refer to same object Must use the Is operator The = operator cannot be used to test for this Dim collegeStudent As Student Dim transferStudent As Student collegeStudent = New Student() transferStudent = collegeStudent If collegeStudent Is transferStudent Then ' Perform some action End If

27 IsNot & Nothing Object Comparisons
Use the IsNot operator to determine that two variables do not reference the same object Use the special value Nothing to determine if a variable has no object reference If collegeStudent IsNot transferStudent Then ' Perform some action End If If collegeStudent Is Nothing Then ' Perform some action End If

28 Creating an Array of Objects
Can create an entire array of object variables Declare an array whose type is a class Instantiate an object for each element ' Declare the array Dim mathStudents(9) As Student Dim i As Integer For i = 0 To 9 ' Assign each element to an object mathStudents(i) = New Student() Next i

29 Objects As Procedure Arguments
Can use object variables as arguments to a sub or function Example: student object s as an argument Pass object variable with the procedure call Sub DisplayStudentGrade(ByVal s As Student) ' Displays a student’s grade. MessageBox.Show("The grade for " & _ s.FirstName & " " & s.LastName & _ " is " & s.TestGrade.ToString) End Sub DisplayStudentGrade(freshman)

30 Objects Passed ByVal and ByRef
If argument is declared using ByRef Values of object properties may be changed The original object variable may be assigned to a different object If argument is declared using ByVal The original object variable may not be assigned to a different object

31 Functions Can Return Objects
Example below instantiates a student object Prompts for and sets its property values Then returns the instantiated object Dim freshman As Student = GetStudent() Function GetStudent() As Student Dim s As New Student() s.FirstName = InputBox("Enter the first name.") s.LastName = InputBox("Enter the last name.") s.IdNumber = InputBox("Enter the ID number.") s.TestAverage = InputBox("Enter the test average.") Return s End Function

32 Class Methods In addition to properties, a class may also contain sub and function procedures Methods are procedures defined in a class Typically operate on data stored in the class The following slide shows a Clear method for the Student class Method called with freshman.Clear() Method clears member data in the Student class object referenced by freshman

33 Clear Method for Student Class
Public Class Student ' Member variables Private strLastName As String 'Holds last name Private strFirstName As String 'Holds first name Private strId As String 'Holds ID number Private sngTestAverage As Single 'Holds test avg (...Property procedures omitted...) ' Clear method Public Sub Clear() strFirstName = String.Empty strLastName = String.Empty strId = String.Empty sngTestAverage = 0.0 End Sub End Class

34 Constructors A constructor is a method called automatically when an instance of the class is created Think of constructors as initialization routines Useful for initializing member variables or performing other startup operations To create a constructor, simply create a Sub procedure named New within the class Next slide shows a Student class constructor The statement freshman = New Student() Creates an instance of the Student class Executes constructor to initialize properties of the Student object referenced by freshman

35 Constructor Example Public Class Student ' Member variables
Private strLastName As String 'Holds last name Private strFirstName As String 'Holds first name Private strId As String 'Holds ID number Private sngTestAverage As Single 'Holds test avg ' Constructor Public Sub New() strFirstName = "(unknown)" strLastName = "(unknown)" strId = "(unknown)" testAvg = 0.0 End Sub (The rest of this class is omitted.) End Class

36 Create a Class Tutorial 12-1 demonstrates code needed to set up for the Student class

37 A Collection Holds a Group of Items
Section 12.3 Collections A Collection Holds a Group of Items It Automatically Expands and Shrinks in Size to Accommodate the Items Added to It, and Allows Items to Be Stored With Associated Key Values, Which May Be Used in Searches

38 Collections A collection is similar to an array
A single unit that contains several items Can access items in a collection by numeric index A collection’s indices begin at one, not zero Collections automatically expand and shrink as items are added and removed The items stored in a collection do not have to be of the same type

39 A Collection is a Class Dim customers As Collection customers = New Collection() ' Or alternatively Dim customers As New Collection() New collections are instantiations of the Collection Class The Collection Class provides various methods and properties for use with individual collections

40 Adding Items to a Collection
Object.Add(Item [, Key] [, Before] [,After]) Add is a method of the Collection class Object is the collection that Item is added to Item can be an object, variable, or value Key is a unique value optionally used to identify a member of the collection Before or After is used to specify where a new item should be placed in the collection Default is to insert at the end of the collection

41 Uses of Before and After
Add custData with key "Smith" before the item with key "Thomas“ Add custData with key "Smith" after the item with key "Reece“ Add custData after 3rd item in collection customers.Add(custData, "Smith", "Thomas") customers.Add(custData, "Smith",, "Reece") customers.Add(custData,,,3)

42 Add Method Exceptions An exception can occur when adding to a collection so Try-Catch should be used Cannot add member with same key as another member of the collection If a key or index is specified for a Before or After, the value must exist Try customers.Add(custData, "Smith") Catch ex as ArgumentException MessageBox.Show(ex.Message) End Try

43 Accessing Item by Their Indices
Can access an item in a collection using an index value Index value can be used in two ways: Using the collection’s Item method Or specify the index as is done with an array Get value at index 3 of names collection by: names.Item(3) –or- names(3) Object.Item(Index) Object(Index)

44 IndexOutOfRange Exception
If an invalid index is encountered, an index out of range exception will occur Should use Try-Catch to trap such messages Dim custData as Customer Try custData = Ctype(customers.Item(5), Customer) Catch ex as IndexOutOfRangeException MessageBox.Show(ex.Message) End Try

45 The Count Property The Count property of a collection gives the number of current items in the collection Dim intX As Integer For intX = 1 To names.Count lstNames.Items.Add(names(intX).ToString()) Next intX

46 Storing Objects in a Collection
Storing an object, without a key Storing an object, with a key Dim studentCollection As New Collection() studentCollection.Add(studentData) studentCollection.Add(studentData, _ studentData.IdNumber)

47 Searching for an Item by Key Value
Item method can be used to retrieve an item with a specific index If Expression is a string, it is used as a key to search for the matching member If Expression is numeric, it is used as an index value for the item If no item is found (via key or index), an exception occurs Object.Item(Expression)

48 Retrieving Item Examples
Find studentCollection item with key 49812 If Option Strict on, must cast result to Student Retrieve all members by index and display LastName property in a message box Dim s as Student s = Ctype(studentCollection.Item(“49812”), Student) Dim i as Integer Dim s as Student For I = 1 to studentCollection.Count s = Ctype(studentCollection.Item(i), Student) MessageBox.Show(s.LastName) Next i

49 Using References Versus Copies
When an Item in a collection is a fundamental VB data type, only a copy is retrieved This code does not change the item at index 1 The Item in this collection is an object so: A reference is returned instead of a copy LastName of object in collection is changed Dim n as Integer n = CType(numbers(1), Integer) n = 0 Dim s as Student s = CType(studentCollection.Item("49812"), Student) s.LastName = "Griffin"

50 For Each Loop with a Collection
Can use a For Each loop to read members of a collection Eliminates the counter variable required to use a For…Next Also no need to compare to Count property Dim s As Student For Each s In studentCollection MessageBox.Show(s.LastName) Next s

51 Removing Members of a Collection
Object.Remove(Expression) Remove is a method of the Collection class Object is collection Member removed from Expression can be Numeric and interpreted as an index Or a string and interpreted as a key value Exception thrown if Expression not found

52 Removing Member Examples
Verify “49812” is a key value in collection, then remove member with this key value Verify index location 7 exists in collection, then remove member at this index location If studentCollection.Contains(“49812”) Then studentCollection.Remove("49812") End If Dim intIndex As Integer = 7 If intIndex > 0 _ and intIndex <=studentCollection.Count Then studentCollection.Remove(intIndex) End If

53 Working with Collections
Since a collection is an instance of a class Procedures accept collections as arguments Functions can return a collection Follow same guidelines as any class object Parallel collections work like parallel arrays Can use index to relate parallel collections just as we did with arrays Or can use key values to relate collections

54 Section 12.4 The Student Collection Application
Create an Application that Uses a Collection of Student Objects

55 Section 12.5 The Object Browser
The Object Browser Is a Dialog Box That Allows You to Browse All Classes and Components That Are Available to Your Project

56 Working with Collections
A dialog box with information about objects Allows you to examine Information about forms in your project Classes you’ve created Other components used by VB in your project Tutorial 12-3 uses the Object Browser to examine the Student Collection project

57 Object Browser, Example

58 Section 12.6 Scroll Bars and Track Bars
The HScrollBar, VScrollBar, and TrackBar Controls Provide a Graphical Way to Adjust a Number Within a Range of Values

59 Visual Appearance and Usage
The HScrollBar and VScrollBar look like normal scroll bars The TrackBar has an arrow pointer as the slider and has tick marks along its length Scrollable controls hold integers in their Value property Position of slider corresponds to Value Move scroll bar to increase or decrease Value Right increases, left decreases horizontal bar Up increases, down decreases vertical bar

60 Scrollable Control Properties
Minimum – the bar’s lowest possible value Maximum – the bar's highest possible value Value – the bar's value at the current position LargeChange – change in the Value property with a mouse click on/near the slider SmallChange – change in the Value property for amouse click on an arrow at the end TickFrequency - for TrackBar only, the number of units between tick marks With min=0 and max=1000, if Tick Frequency is 100, 10 tick marks are shown on the bar

61 Coding for Scrollable Controls
Any change to the position of a scroll bar generates a Scroll event Allows program to react to a shift in scroll bar Standard prefixes for these controls Horizontal scroll bar is hsb Vertical scroll bar is vsb TrackBar is tb Tutorial 12-4 demonstrates how to set up Scroll events and use of these controls

62 Section 12.7 Introduction to Inhertance
Inheritance Allows a New Class to be Based on an Existing Class The New Class Inherits the Accessible Member Variables, Methods, and Properties of the Class on Which It Is Based

63 Why Inheritance? Inheritance allows new classes to derive their characteristics from existing classes The Student class may have several types of students such as GraduateStudent ExchangeStudent StudentEmployee These can become new classes and share all the characteristics of the Student class Each new class would then add specialized characteristics that differentiate them

64 Base and Derived Classes
The Base Class is a class that other classes may be based on A Derived Class is based on the base class and inherits characteristics from it Can think of the base class as a parent and the derived class as a child

65 The Vehicle Class (Base Class)
Consider a Vehicle class with the following: Private variable for number of passengers Private variable for miles per gallon Public property for number of passengers (Passengers) Public property for miles per gallon (MilesPerGallon) This class holds general data about a vehicle Can create more specialized classes from the Vehicle class

66 The Truck Class (Derived Class)
Declared as: Truck class derived from Vehicle class Inherits all non-private methods, properties, and variables of Vehicle class Truck class defines two properties of its own MaxCargoWeight – holds top cargo weight FourWheelDrive – indicates if truck is 4WD Public Class Truck Inherits Vehicle ' Other new properties ' Additional methods End Class

67 Instantiating the Truck Class
Instantiated as: Values stored in MaxCargoWeight and FourWheelDrive properties Properties declared explicitly by Truck class Values also stored in MilesPerGallon and Passengers properties Properties inherited from Vehicle class Dim pickUp as New Truck() pickUp.Passengers = 2 pickUp.MilesPerGallon = 18 pickUp.MaxCargoWeight = 2000 Pickup.FourWheelDrive = True

68 Overriding Properties and Methods
Sometimes a base class property procedure or method does not work for a derived class Can override base class method or property Must write the method or property as desired in the derived class using same name When an object of the derived class accesses the property or calls the method VB uses overridden version in derived class Version in base class is not used

69 Property Override Example
Vehicle class has no restriction on number of passengers But may wish to restrict the Truck class to two passengers at most Can override Vehicle class Passengers property by: Coding Passengers property in derived class Specify Overridable in base class property Specify Overrides in derived class property

70 Overridable Base Class Property
Overridable keyword added to base class property procedure Public Overridable Property Passengers() As Integer Get Return intPassengers End Get Set(ByVal value As Integer) intPassengers = value End Set End Property

71 Overridden Derived Class Property
Overrides keyword and new logic added to derived class property procedure Public Overrides Property Passengers() As Integer Get Return MyBase.Passengers End Get Set(ByVal value As Integer) If value >= 1 And value <= 2 Then MyBase.Passengers = value Else MessageBox.Show("Passengers must be 1 or 2", _ "Error") End If End Set End Property

72 Overriding Methods Overriding a method is similar to a property
Specify Overridable and Overrides keywords An overridable base class method An overriding derived class method Public Overridable Sub ProcedureName() Public Overridable Function ProcedureName() As DataType Public Overrides Sub ProcedureName() Public Overrides Function ProcedureName() As DataType

73 Overriding the ToString Method
Every programmer created class is derived from a built-in class named Object Object class has a method named ToString which returns a fully-qualified class name Method can be overridden to return a string representation of data stored in an object

74 ToString Override Example
Object class ToString method is Overridable Vehicle class might override the ToString method as shown below ' Overriden ToString method Public Overrides Function ToString() As String ' Return a string representation ' of a vehicle. Dim str As String str = "Passengers: " & numPassengers.ToString & _ " MPG: " & mpg.ToString Return str End Function

75 Base & Derived Class Constructors
A constructor (named New) may be defined for both the base class and a derived class When a new object of the derived class is created, both constructors are executed The constructor of the base class will be called first Then the constructor of the derived class will be called

76 Protected Members In addition to Private and Public, the access specifier may be Protected Protected base class members are treated as public to classes derived from this base Protected base class members are treated as private to classes not derived from this base Tutorial 12-5 provides an opportunity to work with base and derived classes

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