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Presentation on theme: "SURGERY FOR NSCLC GREG CHRISTODOULIDES MD, FACS, FCCP, FESTS"— Presentation transcript:

THORACIC SURGEON Mar. L. March 9-11, 2012

2 General Remarks Surgical excision of NSCLC gives the best chance for cure Unfortunately <20% of lung cancers are diagnosed in early stage In Cyprus there are about 200 cases of lung cancer recorded every year and about thoracotomies performed in general (Cancer Registry)

3 Surgical risks in elective lung resection
Major complications occur in 9% Minor events in 19% (J.Martin 2004) Mortality is 3% for lobectomies and 6% for pneumonectomies Our mortality in Cyprus is 2% for the last 10y and the complications around 15% Most complications are related to cardio – pulmonary problems COPD is the most common risk factor

4 STAGING OF DISEASE Pre-op L.N. staging – WHY?
It will direct the surgical choices Pts with positive mediastinal L.N. are not good candidates for resection as they yield bad results staging is necessary for determining the prognosis To compare various studies

5 Mediastinal L.Nodes Anatomical mapping

6 New staging for NSCLC

7 Staging of Mediastinal L.Nodes
Non invasive CT MRI PET Integrated PET-CT Invasive Non surgical TTNA-TBNA EBUS-FNA EUS-FNA Surgical Mediastinoscopy +Ant.M VATS Intra-op sampling or Complete dissection

8 Techniques of L.N staging
Mediastinoscopy is the most valuable but is the most invasive Level 2, 4, and 7, should always be included

9 Mediastinoscopy should be done (ESTS guidelines)
In all centrally located lung tumors In all positive PET-scan L.N. In all low uptake L.N. on PET-scan In L.N. bigger than 16mm on CT (21% probability of N2 disease, De langer 2006) Can be omitted in peripheral lesion with negative PET scan L.N

10 Transbronchial and transesophageal needle aspiration
TBNA (EBUS-FNA) U/S guided bronchoscopy with FNA EU/S - FNA


12 Intra-operative Staging
Systematic L.N. sampling: is the routine biopsy of representative nodes from all L.N. stations Mediastinal L.N. dissection: removal of all L.N. bearing tissue in each nodal station (radical)

13 Radical Lymphadenectomy V Sampling
Is a matter of debate Radical Lymph/ctomy can get more metastatic L.N. (Keller et al, Ann.Surg. 2000) some randomised studies showed survival benefit with radical Lymph/tomy (Whitson et al: Ann. Th. Surg. Sept. 2007, Mancer et al: Cochrane Syst.Rev. Jan. 2005)

14 Stage I Includes IA and IB (tumors <3cm and <5cm)
No L.N. involved Tumor > than 2cm from carina

15 Surgical management of stage I NSCLC
Best treated with surgery Lobectomy with mediastinal L.N. dissection is the preferred procedure If the LN are neg. no further post-op treatment is needed The 5y survival is 70% (60-80%) for stage IA and 60% for stage IB

16 Stage I RX: Lobectomy & L.N. Dissection

17 Surgery for stage II NSCLC
Stage II includes T1 & T2 with N1 Lobectomy or pneumonectomy with L.N. dissection is the preferred Rx Occasionally sleeve lobectomy is an option for centrally located small tumors in pulmonary compromised pts Overall 5y survival is 45% for IIA and 33% for IIB

18 Stage II NSCLC

19 Surgery for stage IIIA NSCLC
It includes T1-(T4) with N2(N1) involvement MLN mets is the most important factor affecting treatment and prognosis Pts with cN2 yield bad results with surgery (Rush pts 5y survival 16% and Mountain 540 pts, 5y survival 23%) pN2 disease yield better results 40% (Pearson J.Th.Cardiovasc.S % versus 15%, Martini 34% versus 9%)

20 Surgery for stage IIIA NSCLC
Bx of mediastinal L.N. should always be done pre-op We operate pts with neg. mediastinal L.N. Pts with stage IIIB or IIIA-N2 should have pre-op chemo-radiation and re-stage The overall 5y survival (review 12 large studies with complete resection after Ch/R) 44% for T3 N0 26% for T3 N1

21 Surgery or NO Surgery for N2 ?
Most thoracic oncologist and surgeons agreed that N2 disease in multiple levels should be treated with chemoradiation (Ch/R) Most surgeon also believe that downstaged or minimal stage N2 disease, if considered resectable after Ch/R, surgery is beneficial

22 The role of surgery after neoadjuvant treatment
For responders, surgical resection is beneficial and increase the survival Restaging to identify responders (EBUS- FNA, CT-PET, re-mediastinoscopy) No surgery for N2 disease but 25% 5y survival for N0 (Cerfolio Ann.Thor. Surg. 2008, and Detterberk Thor. S. Clin.2008, report up to 40% 5y.surv.) Morbidity & mortality is slightly increased especially in Rt pneumonectomy

23 Surgical techniques

24 Rt Pneumonectomy

25 Surgery for T3 with chest wall involvement
If surgical candidates, complete resection is the aim The resection should be un-block with clear margine of the infiltrated chest wall

26 CONCLUSIONS Surgery is the best Rx for stage I & II (lobectomy – pneumonectomy – segmentectomy ) Accurate staging – Localized disease - and Complete Resection are the requirements for cure Pts with pre-op detected N2 disease have poor surgical prognosis Re-evaluation after Ch/R for possible surgical excision is an important option



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