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Chapter 8 Arrays, Timers, and More.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Arrays, Timers, and More."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Arrays, Timers, and More

2 Chapter 8 Introduction

3 Chapter 8 Topics Arrays are like groups of variables that allow you to store sets of similar data A single dimension array is useful for storing and working with a single set of data A multidimensional array can be used to store and work with multiple sets of data Array programming techniques covered Summing and averaging all the elements in an array Summing all the columns in a two-dimensional array Searching an array for a specific value Using parallel arrays

4 Section 8.1 Arrays An Array Is Like a Group of Variables With One Name
You Store and Work With Values in an Array by Using a Subscript

5 Array Characteristics
An array stores multiple values of same type Like a group of variables with a single name For example, the days of the week would be: a set of 7 string variables maximum length of 9 characters All variables within an array are called elements and must be of the same data type You access the elements in an array through a subscript

6 Subscript Characteristics
A subscript, also known as an index, is a number that identifies a specific element within an array Subscript numbering works like the index for a list box: Subscript numbering begins at 0 1st element in an array is always subscript 0 Last element is total number of elements - 1

7 Declaring an Array ArrayName is the variable name of the array
Dim ArrayName(UpperSubscript) As DataType ArrayName is the variable name of the array UpperSubscript is the value of the array's highest subscript Must be a positive whole number DataType may be any valid Visual Basic data type VB knows an array is declared when name is followed by number of elements in parens

8 Array Declaration Example
Dim hours(5) As Integer hours(0) hours(1) hours(2) hours(3) hours(4) hours(5) Note that 6 elements are available when an array with an uppersubscript of 5 is declared Each element is an integer type

9 Default Initialization
All elements of an Integer array are initialized to zero Same initialization as an integer variable Each array element is initialized exactly the same as a simple variable of that data type A Single is initializled to zero (0.0) A String is initialized to nothing (empty string)

10 Implicit Array Sizing & Initialization
An array can be initialized when declared Example: This array is implicitly sized Upper subscript value is left blank Number of elements implied from initialization Upper subscript of 5 implied by this example A 6 element array is declared Elements are assigned the values shown Dim numbers() As Integer = {2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12}

11 Named Constant as Upper Subscript
A named constant may be used as an array's highest subscript instead of a number A common use for named constants Highest subscript is often used multiple times If highest subscript changes, use of a named constant allows it to be changed in one place Const UPPER_SUB As Integer = 100 Dim array(UPPER_SUB) As Integer

12 Working With Array Elements
Simply include the subscript to use an array element like an ordinary variable numbers(2) refers to 3rd element of array numbers(0) = 100 numbers(1) = 200 numbers(2) = 300 numbers(3) = 400 numbers(4) = 500 numbers(5) = 600 pay = hours(3) * rate tallies(0) += 1 MessageBox.Show(grossPay(5).ToString)

13 Arrays and Loops Loops are frequently used to process arrays
Use a loop to prompt for 10 values Use a loop to reset values in the names array to an empty string Dim count As Integer For count = 0 To 9 series(count) = CInt(InputBox("Enter a number")) Next count Dim count As Integer For count = 0 To 999 names(count) = "" Next count

14 Array Bounds Checking Visual Basic checks each subscript value of each array reference used at run time A subscript is invalid if it is Negative Greater than the UpperSubscript declared An invalid subscript causes VB to throw an exception Bounds checking is not done at design time

15 For Each … Next Statement
This statement is similar to a For…Next Iterates for each element in the array strName assigned value of next array element at each iteration Tutorial 8-1 demonstrates array processing Dim employees As String() = {"Jim", "Sally", _ "Henry", "Jean", "Renee"} Dim strName As String For Each strName In employees MessageBox.Show(strName) Next name

16 Section 8.2 More About Array Processing
There Are Many Uses of Arrays and Many Programming Techniques That Involve Them For Example, Arrays Are Used to Total Values or Search for Data

17 Determining Number of Elements
Arrays have a Length property that holds the number of elements in the array Note that length is number of array elements, not the upper subscript of the array Length property always 1 greater than the upper subscript Dim values(25) As Integer For count = 0 to (values.Length – 1) MessageBox.Show(values(count).ToString) Next count

18 Total the Values in an Array
Variable to hold sum (intTotal)is initialized to zero prior to loop Iterate over all elements, adding each element to intTotal Dim intUnits(24) as Integer ‘Declare array Dim intTotal As Integer = 0 'Initialize accumulator Dim intCount as Integer ‘Declare loop counter ‘Find total of all values held in array For intCount = 0 To (intUnits.Length – 1) intTotal += intUnits(intCount) Next intCount

19 Average the Values in an Array
Similar to previous example but then divides total by number of elements to get average Dim intUnits(24) as Integer ‘Declare array Dim intTotal As Integer = 0 'Initialize accumulator Dim dblAverage as Double ‘Declare average var Dim intCount as Integer ‘Declare loop counter ‘Find total of all values held in array For intCount = 0 To (intUnits.Length – 1) intTotal += intUnits(intCount) Next intCount ‘Use floating-point division to compute average dblAverage = intTotal / intUnits.Length

20 Find Highest & Lowest Array Values
Pick first element as the highest Search rest of array for higher values If a higher value is located, save the value Use similar logic to find lowest value Dim intNumbers(24) as Integer Dim intCount as Integer Dim intHighest as Integer = intNumbers(0) For intCount = 1 To (intNumbers.Length - 1) If intNumbers(intCount) > intHighest Then intHighest = intNumbers(intCount) End If Next intCount

21 Copy Values in One Array to Another
Done by copying elements one at a time Note that this cannot be done by a simple assignment newValues = oldValues Causes newValues variable to reference the same memory location as oldValues Thus any change to oldValues will affect newValues and vice versa For intCount = 0 To 100 newValues(intCount) = oldValues(intCount) Next intCount

22 Parallel Arrays Sometimes useful to store related data in two or more arrays called parallel arrays Causes the ith element of one array to be related to the ith element of another Allows related data to be accessed using the same subscript on both arrays

23 Parallel Arrays Example
Assume the following array declarations Element 1 refers to the same person with name in one array and address in the other Dim names(4) As String Dim addresses(4) As String Names(0) Names(1) Names(2) Names(3) Names(4) Person #1 Person #2 Person #3 Person #4 Person #5 Addresses(0) Addresses(1) Addresses(2) Addresses(3) Addresses(4)

24 Parallel Arrays Processing
Use parallel array processing to add name and address of each person to a list box Tutorial 8-2 has an example of parallel arrays Dim names(4) As String Dim addresses(4) As String For intCount = 0 To 4 lstPeople.Items.Add("Name: " & names(intCount) & _ " Address: " & addresses(intCount)) Next intCount

25 Array & List Box Parallel Processing
A list box selection used as an array index ' Initialize a List Box with names lstPeople.Items.Add("Jean James") ' Subscript 0 lstPeople.Items.Add("Kevin Smith") ' Subscript 1 lstPeople.Items.Add("Joe Harrison") ' Subscript 2 ' Initialize an Array with corresponding phone numbers phoneNumbers(0) = " " phoneNumbers(1) = " " phoneNumbers(2) = " " ' Process a selection If lstPeople.SelectedIndex > -1 And _ lstPeople.SelectedIndex < phoneNumbers.Length Then MessageBox.Show(phoneNumbers(lstPeople.SelectedIndex)) Else MessageBox.Show("That is not a valid selection.") End If

26 Searching Arrays, The Search
Find 1st instance of value 100 in array scores intPosition gives position of this value Dim blnFound as Boolean = False Dim intCount as Integer = 0 Dim intPosition as Integer = -1 ‘ Search for a 100 in the array Do While Not blnFound And intCount < scores.Length If scores(intCount) = 100 Then blnFound = True intPosition = intCount End If intCount += 1 Loop

27 Searching Arrays, The Result
Indicates whether the value was found If found, position is given as a test number ' Was 100 found in the array? If blnFound Then MessageBox.Show( _ "Congratulations! You made a 100 on test " & _ (intPosition + 1).ToString, "Test Results") Else "You didn’t score a 100, but keep trying!", _ "Test Results") End If

28 Sorting an Array Arrays have a Sort method
Arranges elements in ascending order (lowest to highest) Sorted so that numbers = {1, 3, 6, 7, 12} Sorted so that names = {Alan, Bill, Kim, Sue} Dim numbers() As Integer = { 7, 12, 1, 6, 3 } Array.Sort(numbers) Dim names() As String = { "Sue", "Kim", _ "Alan", "Bill" } Array.Sort(names)

29 Resizing an Array ReDim is a new keyword
ReDim [Preserve] Arrayname(UpperSubscript) ReDim is a new keyword If Preserve is specified, the existing contents of the array are preserved Arrayname names the existing array UpperSubscript specifies the new highest subscript value Can declare an array with no subscript and state number of elements later with ReDim

30 Resizing Example Array scores declared with no elements
User prompted for number of elements ReDim resizes array based on user input Dim scores() As Single ' Declared with no elements Dim numScores as Integer ' Obtain number of elements from the user numScores = CInt(InputBox("Enter number of test scores")) If numScores > 0 Then ReDim scores(numScores - 1) Else MessageBox.Show("You must enter 1 or greater.") End If

31 Section 8.3 Sub Procedures and Functions That Work With Arrays
You May Pass Arrays As Arguments to Sub Procedures and Functions You May Also Return an Array From a Function This Allows You to Write Sub Procedures and Functions That Perform General Operations With Arrays

32 Passing Arrays as Arguments
Array numbers passed to DisplaySum sub Sub computes/shows sum of array elements Can pass any integer array to DisplaySum Dim numbers() As Integer = { 2, 4, 7, 9, 8, 12, 10 } DisplaySum(numbers) Sub DisplaySum(ByVal intArray() As Integer) Dim total As Integer = 0 ' Accumulator Dim count As Integer ' Loop counter For count = 0 To (intArray.Length - 1) total += intArray(count) Next MessageBox.Show(“Total is " & total.ToString) End Sub

33 Passing Arrays: ByVal and ByRef
When passing an array ByVal Calling procedure “sees” sub procedure changes to element values Simple variables don’t work this way If sub assigns array argument to another array, no effect on array in calling procedure When passing an array ByRef If sub assigns array argument to another array, calling procedure array values affected

34 Passing Arrays Example
After ResetValues procedure executes, numbers array still contains { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 } If array passed ByRef, numbers array will contain { 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 } after procedure runs Dim numbers() As Integer = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 } ResetValues(numbers) Sub ResetValues(ByVal intArray() As Integer) Dim newArray() As Integer = {0, 0, 0, 0, 0} intArray = newArray End Sub

35 An Array Returned From a Function
Return type String() indicates an array of strings Thus the function result must be assigned to an array of strings Function GetNames() As String() ' Get four names from user ' Return them as an array of strings. Dim strNames(3) As String Dim strInput As String Dim count As Integer For count = 0 To 3 strInput = InputBox("Enter name " & _ (count + 1).ToString) strNames(count) = strInput Next Return strNames End Function

36 Section 8.4 Multidimensional Arrays
You May Create Arrays With More Than Two Subscripts to Hold Complex Sets of Data

37 A Two Dimensional Array Picture
Thus far, arrays have been one-dimensional However, arrays can also be two-dimensional Picture a two-dimensional array like a spreadsheet with rows and columns Column 0 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Row 0 Row 1 Row 2

38 Two Dimensional Array Syntax
Dim ArrayName(UpperRow, UpperColumn) As DataType UpperRow and UpperColumn give the highest subscript for the row and column indices of the array The array on the previous slide could be: Defines three rows; 0, 1, and 2 And four columns; 0, 1, 2, and 3 Dim array(2,3) As Single

39 Two Dimensional Array Subscripts
Dim array(2,3) As Single Column 0 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Row 0 array(0,0) array(0,1) array(0,2) array(0,3) Row 1 array(1,0) array(1,1) array(1,2) array(1,3) Row 2 array(2,0) array(2,1) array(2,2) array(2,3)

40 Nested Loops And Two Dimensions
Nested loops are often used in processing two-dimensional arrays In the example, a nested loop is used to insert a value into every element of array scores For row = 0 To 2 For col = 0 To 3 num = Val(InputBox("Enter a score.")) scores(row, col) = num Next col Next row

41 Implicit Sizing and Initialization
Can be used with multi-dimensional arrays: Row 0 values Row 1 values Row 2 values Initializes array numbers with the following values Dim numbers(,) As Integer = _ { {1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6}, {7, 8, 9} } Col 0 Col 1 Col 2 Row 0 1 2 3 Row 1 4 5 6 Row 2 7 8 9

42 For Each Loop With Two Dimensions
A For Each Loop will process all elements of an array without requiring nested loops The example below computes the sum of all elements Total has the value 45 when loop is complete Dim numbers(,) As Integer = {{1, 2, 3}, _ {4, 5, 6}, _ {7, 8, 9}} For Each element In numbers total += element Next element

43 Sum Two-Dimensional Array Columns
Outer loop controls column subscript Inner loop controls row subscript ' Process each column in turn For col = 0 To 2 ' Initialize column accumulator total = 0 ' Sum the column values from each row For row = 0 To 4 total += values(row, col) Next row ' Display the sum of the column. MessageBox.Show("Sum of column " & _ col.ToString & " is " & total.ToString) Next col

44 Three-Dimensional Arrays & Beyond
VB allows arrays of up to 32 dimensions Beyond three dimensions, they are difficult to visualize But, all one needs to do is to be consistent in the use of the different indices

45 Section 8.5 Enabled Property, Timer Control, and Splash Screens
You Disable Controls by Setting Their Enabled Property to False The Timer Control Allows Your Application to Execute a Procedure at Regular Time Intervals Splash Screens Are Forms That Appear As an Application Begins Executing

46 Enabled Property Most controls have an Enabled property
If this Boolean property is set to false the control is disabled meaning the control: Cannot receive the focus Cannot respond to user generated events Will appear dimmed, or grayed out Default value for this property is true May be set in code when needed as shown: btnExample.Enabled = False

47 Timer Control A Timer control generates Tick events
Double-click on Timer tool in Toolbox to add Appears in component tray Standard prefix is tmr Can perform a process at regular intervals by coding the process in a Tick event procedure Two important properties Enabled must be true to generate Tick events Interval (milliseconds) decides tick frequency Interval of 1000 causes 1 timer tick per second Tutorial 8-5 demonstrates the Timer control

48 Splash Screens A form, often with an application logo, that is displayed while an application is loading A splash screen usually: Has Topmost property set to True so it is displayed over the forms of other applications Disappears shortly by using a Timer Is modeless so the application continues to load while the splash screen is displayed Tutorial 8-6 demonstrates a splash screen

49 Section 8.6 Anchoring and Docking Controls
Controls Have Two Properties, Anchor and Dock, That Allow You to Determine the Control’s Position on the Form When the Form Is Resized at Run Time

50 Anchor Property Anchor - a property of various form controls
A control anchored to a form edge keeps the same distance to the form edge Controls may be anchored to any, all, or none of the right, left, top, or bottom edges Default is to anchor to top and left edges Can just as easily anchor to bottom right If anchoring to opposing sides, control is resized when form is resized Anchoring to all 4 sides causes control to be resized proportionally to form

51 Dock Property Dock - a property of various form controls A control docked to a form edge is placed directly against the form edge Controls may be docked to Any one form edge but not more than one No edge or not docked (the default) Length or width of docked control changes to match length or width of the form edge

52 Section 8.7 Random Numbers
Visual Basic Provides the Tools to Generate Random Numbers

53 Initial Random Number Generation
Often used for games and simulations A Random class provides methods and properties to work with random numbers May supply a seed number as below causing same sequence of numbers to be generated Leave the argument blank to omit the seed VB then uses its default random number seed Sequence not repeated if seed omitted Randomize [Number]

54 Generating More Random Numbers
To get next random number in sequence Repeatedly use a statement like the above to generate additional random numbers randomNumber = Rnd

55 Random Numbers in a Range
Rnd creates random numbers in the range of 0.0 to 1.0 Can scale these to a selected range of integer numbers needed in your program: Where LowerNumber and UpperNumber are the lowest and highest numbers permitted Tutorial 8-7 shows an interesting use of random numbers randomNumber = Int(LowerNumber + Rnd * _ (UpperNumber - LowerNumber))

56 Section 8.8 Building the Demetris Leadership Center Application
Build an application making use of arrays and a splash screen

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