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Chapter 22 An Age of Nationalism and Realism, 1850-1871.

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1 Chapter 22 An Age of Nationalism and Realism, 1850-1871

2 The France of Napoleon III Louis Napoleon: Toward the Second Empire  Universal male suffrage  Coup d’etat  Restoration of the Empire, November 21, 1852 The Second Napoleonic Empire  Authoritarian government  Economic prosperity  Reconstruction of Paris  Broad streets  Limited freedom  Opposition

3 Foreign policy: Crimean War  Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire  Russian religious bonds with Greek Orthodox Christians  Russian-Ottoman War, October 4, 1853  Britain and France declare war on Russia, March 28, 1854  British fear of Russian control of the Dardanelles  France felt Russians had insulted them  Destroys the Concert of Europe  War ends in 1856

4 The Unification of Italy The Unification of Italy, 1859-1870 1. Although the revolts generally failed in 1848, Piedmont retained its liberal constitution achieved under duress in March. To many middle class Italians, Piedmont appeared to be the liberal, progressive state to lead the way to national unification. 2. Prior to 1859, Count Camillo di Cavour, the prime minister of Victor Emmanuel II, sought only to unite the states of northern and central Italy with Piedmont. He had no interest in either the Papal States or the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies since their cultures were different from that of Piedmont. Nevertheless, to expand into Lombardy, Venetia, Parma, Modena, and part of the northern Papal States would require a powerful ally to counter Austria. To this end he sought a French alliance with a promise of Nice and Savoy in return for military support. When Piedmont provoked Austria to war in April 1859, France dutifully joined its ally in invading Lombardy. In July, France suddenly made peace with Austria and withdrew from the war. Apparently it feared the mobilization of Prussian forces in support of Austria. The peace between Austria and Piedmont that followed left Lombardy with Piedmont. Because France had not fulfilled its obligations, Piedmont also kept Nice and Savoy. 3. During the war between Piedmont and Austria, nationalists seized power in Parma, Modena, Tuscany, and parts of the Papal States. Plebiscites were held in 1860 and the states voted to join Piedmont. For permitting the annexations, France received Nice and Savoy. 4. In the south, Giuseppe Garibaldi lent his support to a revolt in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. With his thousand Red Shirts, Garibaldi invaded Sicily May 11, 1860. Palermo soon fell and by September 1860 the entire kingdom had fallen. He pushed on to Naples and prepared to attack Rome that would undoubtedly bring France into the conflict as protector of the papacy. Cavour feared French intervention and thus struck first into the Papal States and moved into the Kingdom of Naples. Rather than seek confrontation and civil war, Garibaldi yielded. A plebiscite was held and both the Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies agree to join Piedmont. The Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed on March 17, 1861, with Victor Emmanuel II (1861-1878) as king. 5. The Austrian territory of Venetia became part of Italy as a result of the prudent association of Italy with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Although the Italians lost on the battlefield, the Prussian peace required Austria to hand over Venetia to Italy. 6. As war between France and Prussia seemed immanent in 1870, France withdrew its protective troops from Rome. Defenseless, the pope permitted Rome to be annexed September 20, 1870, in return for making it the new capital of united Italy. Questions: 1. Why would France be willing to help Piedmont against Austria? 2. For Europe, what was the consequence of the formation of Italy? The Unification of Italy, 1859-1870 1. Although the revolts generally failed in 1848, Piedmont retained its liberal constitution achieved under duress in March. To many middle class Italians, Piedmont appeared to be the liberal, progressive state to lead the way to national unification. 2. Prior to 1859, Count Camillo di Cavour, the prime minister of Victor Emmanuel II, sought only to unite the states of northern and central Italy with Piedmont. He had no interest in either the Papal States or the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies since their cultures were different from that of Piedmont. Nevertheless, to expand into Lombardy, Venetia, Parma, Modena, and part of the northern Papal States would require a powerful ally to counter Austria. To this end he sought a French alliance with a promise of Nice and Savoy in return for military support. When Piedmont provoked Austria to war in April 1859, France dutifully joined its ally in invading Lombardy. In July, France suddenly made peace with Austria and withdrew from the war. Apparently it feared the mobilization of Prussian forces in support of Austria. The peace between Austria and Piedmont that followed left Lombardy with Piedmont. Because France had not fulfilled its obligations, Piedmont also kept Nice and Savoy. 3. During the war between Piedmont and Austria, nationalists seized power in Parma, Modena, Tuscany, and parts of the Papal States. Plebiscites were held in 1860 and the states voted to join Piedmont. For permitting the annexations, France received Nice and Savoy. 4. In the south, Giuseppe Garibaldi lent his support to a revolt in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. With his thousand Red Shirts, Garibaldi invaded Sicily May 11, 1860. Palermo soon fell and by September 1860 the entire kingdom had fallen. He pushed on to Naples and prepared to attack Rome that would undoubtedly bring France into the conflict as protector of the papacy. Cavour feared French intervention and thus struck first into the Papal States and moved into the Kingdom of Naples. Rather than seek confrontation and civil war, Garibaldi yielded. A plebiscite was held and both the Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies agree to join Piedmont. The Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed on March 17, 1861, with Victor Emmanuel II (1861-1878) as king. 5. The Austrian territory of Venetia became part of Italy as a result of the prudent association of Italy with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Although the Italians lost on the battlefield, the Prussian peace required Austria to hand over Venetia to Italy. 6. As war between France and Prussia seemed immanent in 1870, France withdrew its protective troops from Rome. Defenseless, the pope permitted Rome to be annexed September 20, 1870, in return for making it the new capital of united Italy. Questions: 1. Why would France be willing to help Piedmont against Austria? 2. For Europe, what was the consequence of the formation of Italy?

5 National Unification: Italy and Germany Unification of Italy  Kingdom of Savoy  Victor Emmanuel II, 1849-1878  Count Camillo di Cabour (1810-1861)  Napoleon III alliance with Piedmont, 1858  War with Austria, 1859  Plebiscites in northern Italy, 1860  Guiseppi Garibaldi (1807-1882)  Invasion of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 1860  Kingdom of Italy, 1861  Annexation of Venetia, 1866  Annexation of Rome, 1870

6 The Unification of Germany The Unification of Germany, 1866-1871 1. In 1834 the Zollverein was established under the leadership of Prussia to stimulate trade by reducing tariffs and to increase revenues for member states. By 1853 all the German states but Austria had joined the customs union. Thus, a united economic Germany minus Austria was created. 2. Schleswig and Holstein were inhabited by Germans and Danes. Since the settlement of 1815, Holstein had been part of the German Confederation. Both states were under the control of the king of Denmark who in 1864 sought to annex them. To thwart this, Prussia invited Austria to defend the territories against Denmark. The war was brief and Denmark had to renounce all claims. Prussia and Austria jointly were to administer the two territories. In this manner Austria played into Prussia's hands as inevitably the two would quarrel. When this happened it would give Prussia a chance to remove Austria from German affairs and the German Confederation. The predictable war broke out in 1866 and lasted only seven weeks, culminating in the battle at Köneggrätz and a Prussian victory. In the peace, Austria agreed to give up Schleswig and Holstein, surrender Venetia to Prussia's ally Italy, and withdraw from German affairs. 3. Prussia created the North German Confederation by incorporating all German states north of the Main River. The southern German Catholic states that had allied with Austria during the war were forced to agree to military alliances. In addition, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and the free city of Frankfurt were annexed because they had sided with Austria during the conflict. 4. To bring the final states into a German union, Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of the new North German Confederation, sought a confrontation with France. He believed that exploitation of French nationalism would bring the desired result. Thus, he took advantage of the tempest over the Prussian nomination of a Hohenzollern to sit on the vacant Spanish throne. War broke out in July 1870 culminating in the defeat of the French in September at the battle of Sedan. Following the loss, which included the capture of Napoleon III, the French overthrew the monarchy and proclaimed a republic. Nevertheless, the French vowed to fight on with the result that Paris was besieged. After five months, in January, 1871, the city surrendered. In the peace that followed France had to surrender to Prussia the border territories of Alsace and Lorraine. 5. Even before the war ended, the south German states agreed to join the North German Confederation. On January 18, 1871, William I (1871- 1888) was proclaimed the emperor of a united German Empire. Questions: 1. What drove Prussia to create a united Germany? 2. Why was it necessary for Prussia to seek a war with Austria and France in order to create a united German state? The Unification of Germany, 1866-1871 1. In 1834 the Zollverein was established under the leadership of Prussia to stimulate trade by reducing tariffs and to increase revenues for member states. By 1853 all the German states but Austria had joined the customs union. Thus, a united economic Germany minus Austria was created. 2. Schleswig and Holstein were inhabited by Germans and Danes. Since the settlement of 1815, Holstein had been part of the German Confederation. Both states were under the control of the king of Denmark who in 1864 sought to annex them. To thwart this, Prussia invited Austria to defend the territories against Denmark. The war was brief and Denmark had to renounce all claims. Prussia and Austria jointly were to administer the two territories. In this manner Austria played into Prussia's hands as inevitably the two would quarrel. When this happened it would give Prussia a chance to remove Austria from German affairs and the German Confederation. The predictable war broke out in 1866 and lasted only seven weeks, culminating in the battle at Köneggrätz and a Prussian victory. In the peace, Austria agreed to give up Schleswig and Holstein, surrender Venetia to Prussia's ally Italy, and withdraw from German affairs. 3. Prussia created the North German Confederation by incorporating all German states north of the Main River. The southern German Catholic states that had allied with Austria during the war were forced to agree to military alliances. In addition, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and the free city of Frankfurt were annexed because they had sided with Austria during the conflict. 4. To bring the final states into a German union, Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of the new North German Confederation, sought a confrontation with France. He believed that exploitation of French nationalism would bring the desired result. Thus, he took advantage of the tempest over the Prussian nomination of a Hohenzollern to sit on the vacant Spanish throne. War broke out in July 1870 culminating in the defeat of the French in September at the battle of Sedan. Following the loss, which included the capture of Napoleon III, the French overthrew the monarchy and proclaimed a republic. Nevertheless, the French vowed to fight on with the result that Paris was besieged. After five months, in January, 1871, the city surrendered. In the peace that followed France had to surrender to Prussia the border territories of Alsace and Lorraine. 5. Even before the war ended, the south German states agreed to join the North German Confederation. On January 18, 1871, William I (1871- 1888) was proclaimed the emperor of a united German Empire. Questions: 1. What drove Prussia to create a united Germany? 2. Why was it necessary for Prussia to seek a war with Austria and France in order to create a united German state?

7 Unification of Germany  Zollverein  William I, 1861-1888  Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)  Realpolitik  Reorganization of the army  Danish War, 1864  Schleswig and Holstein  Joint administration with Austria  Austro-Prussian War, 1866  Austrian defeat at Königgratz, July 3, 1866  North German Confederation  Military agreements with Prussia

8  Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871  Throne of Spain  French declaration of war, July 15, 1870  Battle of Sedan, September 2, 1870  Siege of Paris, capitulates January 28, 1871  Peace treaty: indemnity of 5 billion francs (about 1 billion dollars); surrender of Alsace and Lorraine  William I proclaimed kaiser, January 8, 1871, of the Second German Empire

9 Ethnic Groups in the Dual Monarchy Ethnic Groups in Austria-Hungary 1. One of the great weaknesses of the Austrian Empire was its ethnic diversity (see Acetate 71, Map 22.3). It was a land of minorities who, in the age of nationalism, resented their treatment at the hands of majorities. 2. The Germans were a dominant element in Austria but made up only about a quarter of the population. A second major ethnic group were the Czechs found in Bohemia and Moravia. A third predominant people were the Magyars who dominated Hungary but were not even a majority. The kingdom also contained minorities of Croats, Serbs, Romanians, and Slovaks as well as pockets of Germans. Other large ethnic groups in Austria included the Poles and Ruthenians (Little Russians) in the north and the Slovenes in the south. 3. As a result of the Ausgleich, or Compromise, of 1867 the empire was divided between Austria and Hungary with each having its own constitution, legislature, and capital (Vienna for Austria and Budapest for Hungary). Holding this union together was a single monarch who was the emperor of Austria and the king of Hungary, a Dual Monarchy. Questions: 1. How did Austria become such an ethnically diverse empire? 2. What was the impact upon Austria-Hungary for having an ethnically diverse population? 3. What would be the consequences of this diverse population in the south throughout the twentieth century? Ethnic Groups in Austria-Hungary 1. One of the great weaknesses of the Austrian Empire was its ethnic diversity (see Acetate 71, Map 22.3). It was a land of minorities who, in the age of nationalism, resented their treatment at the hands of majorities. 2. The Germans were a dominant element in Austria but made up only about a quarter of the population. A second major ethnic group were the Czechs found in Bohemia and Moravia. A third predominant people were the Magyars who dominated Hungary but were not even a majority. The kingdom also contained minorities of Croats, Serbs, Romanians, and Slovaks as well as pockets of Germans. Other large ethnic groups in Austria included the Poles and Ruthenians (Little Russians) in the north and the Slovenes in the south. 3. As a result of the Ausgleich, or Compromise, of 1867 the empire was divided between Austria and Hungary with each having its own constitution, legislature, and capital (Vienna for Austria and Budapest for Hungary). Holding this union together was a single monarch who was the emperor of Austria and the king of Hungary, a Dual Monarchy. Questions: 1. How did Austria become such an ethnically diverse empire? 2. What was the impact upon Austria-Hungary for having an ethnically diverse population? 3. What would be the consequences of this diverse population in the south throughout the twentieth century?

10 Nation Building and Reform: The National State in Mid-Century Austrian Empire: Toward a Dual Monarchy  Francis Joseph, 1848-1916  Ausgleich, Compromise, 1867  Dual monarchy  German and Magyars dominate minorities Imperial Russia  Alexander II, 1855-1881  Emancipation of serfs, March 3, 1861  Zemstvos (local assemblies)  Alexander Herzen (1812-1870), populism

11 Europe in 1871 1. By 1871 the map of Europe had changed dramatically from the beginning of the century (see Acetate 64, Map 21.1). Three new countries now existed: Belgium (1830), Italy (1870), and Germany (1871). Although France was forced to surrender Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia in the settlement of the Franco-Prussian War (1871) it had gained earlier Nice and Savoy from Piedmont as part of French recognition of Piedmont's annexation of northern Italian territories (1860). Six years later, Italy was rewarded with Venetia by Austria for allying with victorious Prussia during the Austro-Prussian War (1866). The loss by Austria removed it from influence among the German states. The ruler of Austria, however, did continue to wear the dual crown of emperor of Austria and king of Hungary. 2. Poland was reconstituted during this period but disappeared under the control of Russia. 3. Initiated in 1821, a revolt against the Ottomans by the Greeks resulted in independence in 1830. 4. In 1830 France ventured across the Mediterranean to North Africa where it began conquering Algeria which was integrated into the nation of France. 5. Since the eighteenth century the Ottoman Empire had been crumbling. Russia tried to take advantage of this by extending itself into Moldavia and Wallachia and in 1830 a Russian protectorate status was established over these states. This raised sharp concerns among the British and the French for a number of reasons, not the least of which was fear that the Russians intended to extend their power into the eastern Mediterranean. Thus, both Britain and France became involved in the Crimean War (1854-1856) when Russia physically occupied both Moldavia and Wallachia in 1853. the Russian pretext was the need to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire. It was a poorly planned and fought war. After a long siege, the Russian fortress at Sebastopol fell in September 1855. An unfavorable peace required the Russians to surrender Bessarabia at the mouth of the Danube and accept neutrality of the Black Sea. 6. Before the peace ending the Crimean War was signed, Austria forced the Russians out of both Moldavia and Wallachia. These states became protectorates of the great powers. Questions: 1. How did the new look of Europe provide signs of potential difficulties? 2. Why were Britain and France so concerned about Russian expansion into the Balkans? Europe in 1871 1. By 1871 the map of Europe had changed dramatically from the beginning of the century (see Acetate 64, Map 21.1). Three new countries now existed: Belgium (1830), Italy (1870), and Germany (1871). Although France was forced to surrender Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia in the settlement of the Franco-Prussian War (1871) it had gained earlier Nice and Savoy from Piedmont as part of French recognition of Piedmont's annexation of northern Italian territories (1860). Six years later, Italy was rewarded with Venetia by Austria for allying with victorious Prussia during the Austro-Prussian War (1866). The loss by Austria removed it from influence among the German states. The ruler of Austria, however, did continue to wear the dual crown of emperor of Austria and king of Hungary. 2. Poland was reconstituted during this period but disappeared under the control of Russia. 3. Initiated in 1821, a revolt against the Ottomans by the Greeks resulted in independence in 1830. 4. In 1830 France ventured across the Mediterranean to North Africa where it began conquering Algeria which was integrated into the nation of France. 5. Since the eighteenth century the Ottoman Empire had been crumbling. Russia tried to take advantage of this by extending itself into Moldavia and Wallachia and in 1830 a Russian protectorate status was established over these states. This raised sharp concerns among the British and the French for a number of reasons, not the least of which was fear that the Russians intended to extend their power into the eastern Mediterranean. Thus, both Britain and France became involved in the Crimean War (1854-1856) when Russia physically occupied both Moldavia and Wallachia in 1853. the Russian pretext was the need to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire. It was a poorly planned and fought war. After a long siege, the Russian fortress at Sebastopol fell in September 1855. An unfavorable peace required the Russians to surrender Bessarabia at the mouth of the Danube and accept neutrality of the Black Sea. 6. Before the peace ending the Crimean War was signed, Austria forced the Russians out of both Moldavia and Wallachia. These states became protectorates of the great powers. Questions: 1. How did the new look of Europe provide signs of potential difficulties? 2. Why were Britain and France so concerned about Russian expansion into the Balkans?

12 Great Britain: The Victorian Age  Queen Victoria, 1837-1901  Lord Palmerston (1784-1865)  Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)  Reform Act, 1867  William Gladstone (1809-1898)  Reforms The United States: Civil War and Reunion  Missouri Compromise, 1820  Mexican-American War, 1846-1848  Compromise of 1850  Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

13 The United States: The West and Civil War The United States: The West and the Civil War 1. The cotton economy was the key to the maintenance of slavery. In 1810, the South produced a cotton crop of 178,000 bales worth $10 million. By 1860 the South was generating 4.5 million bales of cotton, valued at $249 million. 2. The problem of slavery had its origins in 1619 when a Dutch trading vessel brought to Jamestown a cargo of seventeen blacks for trade. By 1860 the black slave population stood at four million compared to one million in 1800. 3. As the United States grew, slavery became an important political issue. Especially divisive was the question of the expansion of slavery into newly acquired territories since that would ultimately affect the political balance between slave and free states in Congress. The first such resolution of the problem came with the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which limited slavery for newly admitted states to those below the latitude of thirty-six degrees, thirty minutes (Missouri's southern boundary). With this, Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state. 4. The Missouri Compromise worked until the United States gained new territories in the southwest as a result of its victory in the Mexican- American War (1846-1848). The Compromise of 1850 addressed the new acquisitions by admitting California as a free state and permitting the people of the two newly created territories of New Mexico and Utah to decide if they wanted to permit slavery. Thus, slavery would not be prohibited. 5. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 in essence annulled the Missouri Compromise by permitting the people of Kansas-Nebraska (above the Missouri Compromise line) to determine if slavery was to be allowed. A bloody conflict followed in Kansas between the forces for and against slavery. The anti-slave group triumphed. 6. In the election of 1860 the Republican Abraham Lincoln won the presidential election by a plurality. South Carolina responded to Lincoln's election by seceding in December. This was soon followed by Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. 7. On April 12, 1861, Confederate troops opened fire on Fort Sumpter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. The following day the federal troops surrendered. When President Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to suppress the rebellion, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina seceded. 8. Slave states remaining in the Union were Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri. In addition, the western part of Virginia was occupied by Federal troops and in 1863 was admitted to the Union. 9. The struggle ended April 9, 1865, when General Robert E. Lee of the Confederacy surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. The war left 360,000 soldiers dead and one president for the Union side and 258,000 dead for the Confederacy. Question: 1. Why was slavery an important issue in American politics? The United States: The West and the Civil War 1. The cotton economy was the key to the maintenance of slavery. In 1810, the South produced a cotton crop of 178,000 bales worth $10 million. By 1860 the South was generating 4.5 million bales of cotton, valued at $249 million. 2. The problem of slavery had its origins in 1619 when a Dutch trading vessel brought to Jamestown a cargo of seventeen blacks for trade. By 1860 the black slave population stood at four million compared to one million in 1800. 3. As the United States grew, slavery became an important political issue. Especially divisive was the question of the expansion of slavery into newly acquired territories since that would ultimately affect the political balance between slave and free states in Congress. The first such resolution of the problem came with the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which limited slavery for newly admitted states to those below the latitude of thirty-six degrees, thirty minutes (Missouri's southern boundary). With this, Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state. 4. The Missouri Compromise worked until the United States gained new territories in the southwest as a result of its victory in the Mexican- American War (1846-1848). The Compromise of 1850 addressed the new acquisitions by admitting California as a free state and permitting the people of the two newly created territories of New Mexico and Utah to decide if they wanted to permit slavery. Thus, slavery would not be prohibited. 5. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 in essence annulled the Missouri Compromise by permitting the people of Kansas-Nebraska (above the Missouri Compromise line) to determine if slavery was to be allowed. A bloody conflict followed in Kansas between the forces for and against slavery. The anti-slave group triumphed. 6. In the election of 1860 the Republican Abraham Lincoln won the presidential election by a plurality. South Carolina responded to Lincoln's election by seceding in December. This was soon followed by Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. 7. On April 12, 1861, Confederate troops opened fire on Fort Sumpter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. The following day the federal troops surrendered. When President Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to suppress the rebellion, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina seceded. 8. Slave states remaining in the Union were Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri. In addition, the western part of Virginia was occupied by Federal troops and in 1863 was admitted to the Union. 9. The struggle ended April 9, 1865, when General Robert E. Lee of the Confederacy surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. The war left 360,000 soldiers dead and one president for the Union side and 258,000 dead for the Confederacy. Question: 1. Why was slavery an important issue in American politics?

14  Election of Abraham Lincoln, secession of South Carolina, 1860  Civil War, 1861-1865 Emergence of the Canadian Nation Industrialization and the Marxist Response Industrialization on the Continent  Mechanization of cotton and textile industry  Iron industry modernized  Elimination of barriers to international trade  Joint-stock investment banks  Weak trade unions

15 Marx and Marxism  Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), Communist Manifesto, 1848  “Wage slavery”  Engels, The Conditions of the Working Class in England, 1844  Bourgeoisie and proletariat  Classless society  Marx, Das Kapital

16 Science and Culture in an Age of Realism A New Age of Science  Louis Pasteur – germ theory of disease  Dmitri Mendeleyev – atomic weights  Michael Faraday – generator  Charles Darwin and the Theory of Organic Evolution  Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, evolution, 1809  Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  H.M.S. Beagle  On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection  The Descent of Man, 1871

17 Revolution in Health Care  Louis Pasteur, bacteriology  Joseph Lister (1827-1912), antiseptics  Training of doctors  Medical associations  Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910)  Female Medical College of Pennsylvania Science and the Study of Society  Auguste Comte (1787-1857), System of Positive Philosophy  Positive knowledge  Math foundation on which the physical sciences built  Sociology

18 Realism in Literature and Art  The Realistic Novel  Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), Madame Bovary, 1857  William Thackeray (1811-1863), Vanity Fair, 1848  Charles Darwin (1812-1870)  Realism in Art  Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)  Portrayal of everyday life  Jean-Francois Millet (1814-1875)  Scenes from rural life

19  Music: The Twilight of Romanticism  New German School – emotional  Franz Liszt (1811-1886) – piano  Richard Wagner (1813-1883) – national opera  Gesamtkunstwerk (total art work)


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