2 Chapter 8 ObjectivesRelate Kepler's laws of planetary motion to Newton's law of universal gravitation.Calculate the periods and speeds of orbiting objectsDescribe the method Cavendish used to measure G and the results of knowing G
3 Chapter 8 Objectives Solve problems involving orbital speed and period Relate weightlessness to objects in free fallDescribe gravitational fields
4 Chapter 8 ObjectivesDistinguish between inertial mass and gravitational massContrast Newton's and Einstein's views about gravitation
6 Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 1. The paths of the planets are ellipses2. Imaginary line from sun to planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.3. Square of the ratio of the periods is equal to the cube of the ratio of average distances
10 Kepler’s 3rd LawAn asteroid revolves around the sun with a mean (average) orbital radius twice that of Earth’s. Predict the period of the asteroid in earth years.Take note that mass doesn’t matter for orbital periodPeriod = 1 complete revolution
11 Kepler’s 3rd LawThe moon has a period of 27.3 days and has a mean distance of 3.90x105 km from the center of the earth. Predict the mean distance from Earth’s center that an artificial satellite that has a period of 1.00 day would have.Satellites that are in geostationary orbit have this period (TV, Weather)Military uses satellites not in geostationary orbits
13 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation All objects which have mass exert a gravitational pull and are pulled in turn by others of mass. The force is equal toWhere m is mass (kg) and d is distance (m) and where G = 6.67 E-11 N*m2/kg2
14 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Force is then proportional to the inverse square of distanceDistance Force1m 1 N2m ¼ N0.5 m 4 NAlso note: Distance is between Center of Masses
15 Newton’s Law of Gravitation If dealing with gravitational field strength (acceleration of object) isLarge Mass = Large gSmall Radius = Large gBecause g is gravitational field (N/kg)All objects accelerate at same rateBigger mass, more force
16 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation If earth began to shrink, buts its mass remained the same, what would happen to the value of g on Earth’s surface?If earth began to lose mass, but radius stayed the same, what would happen to the value of g on Earth’s surface?
18 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Funny Shirt
19 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation An astronaut is on the moon.a) Can the astronaut pick up a rock with less effort on the moon?b) How will the weaker gravitational force on the moon’s surface affect the path of the rock if the astronaut throws the rock?C) If the astronaut drops the rock, and it lands on their toe, will it hurt more or less than on earth? Explain
20 Satellites and their Speed Satellites are constantly falling towards the planet they orbit (just as Earth is constantly falling towards the Sun)Inertia (horizontal velocity) + Falling (centripetal acceleration) leads to orbit
21 Satellites and their Speed To slow, Ac to large = fall to EarthTo fast, Inertia to large = Leaves orbit
22 Satellites and their Speed Where v is speed in orbit, r is radius away from center, G is constant and m is mass of said planet.How does the mass of the planet and your radius influence the speed of V necessary to orbit?
23 Satellites and their Speed Calculate the speed that a satellite shot from a cannon must have in order to orbit Earth 150 km above the Earth’s surface.Radius of Earth = 6.38 x106 meters
24 Satellites and their Speed Find the speed of Mercury and Saturn around the sun. Does it make sense that Mercury is named after a speedy messenger of the gods and Saturn is named after the father of Jupiter? Mercury is 5.79 E10 meters from the sun, Saturn 1.43 E12 meters, the mass of the sun is 1.99 E30 kg.
25 Satellites and their Speed The sun is considered to be a satellite of our galaxy, the Milky Way. The sun revolves around the center of the galaxy with a radius of 2.2 E20 meters. The period of one revolution is 2.5 E8 years.a) Find the mass of the galaxyb) Assuming that the average star has the same mass as the sun, find the number of stars.c) Find the speed with which the sun moves around the center of the galaxy.
26 Gravity in the PlanetsExplain the trend in of gravity field strength seen in the interior of planets
27 Mass revisited again Two types of mass Inertial Mass : The inertial mass of an object is measured by applying a force to the object and measuring its accelerationExample: Put a block of ice in the back of a truck. When you accelerate forward, the ice will slide to the back of the truck as a result of its inertial mass (resistance to acceleration)
28 Mass revisited againGravitational Mass: A measurement of the attractive force between objects of mass (a scale can measure this)Example: Drive up a hill with that ice at a constant rate (no acceleration), yet the block slides, due to gravitational mass.Both masses are always in agreement and are a central point in Einstein’s general theory of relativity
29 Mass revisited againList three examples of examples of the effects of gravitational mass and inertial mass.
30 Mass revisited againEinstein said that gravity is not a force, but an effect on space itself. A mass changes the space around it. It causes space to be curved, and other bodies are accelerated by following the curve of space.
31 Mass revisited againBlack holes: So massive, that even light can’t escape the curve
32 QuestionThe Earth has a radius of million km on average from the sun. Find the followinga) Period of the revolution of the earth around the sunb) Tangential speed of the earth around the sunc) Period of the rotation of the earthd) Tangential speed of the rotation of the earth (at the equator). The radius of the earth is 6.38 E6 m.