2 NCC1.1 Construction Law and Management NEBOSH National Certificate in Construction Health and SafetyNCC1.1Construction Lawand ManagementChapter 6
3 Contents Introduction to the UK construction industry Scope, definition and nature of construction activitiesWhy manage health and safety within the construction industry?Construction (Design and Management) RegulationsSources of external construction health and safety information
4 Learning outcomesIdentify the scope, definition and particular issues relating to construction activities.Outline the legal, moral and financial consequences of failing to manage health and safety within the construction industry.Outline the scope and application of the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations.Identify the nature and main sources of external construction health and safety information.
5 Scope and nature of the UK construction industry
6 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionRepresents 8% of the UK’s Gross Domestic Product; roughly worth £17bn.Consists of more than 200,000 companies (19,000 employing less than 7 employees) employing 1.75 million labourers and tradesmen, plus 450,000 professionals & consultants.In 2009/2010 made up 4% of the UK workforce, though 27% of workplace fatalities, 10% of major accidents and 6% of over 3 day injuries are construction related.
7 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionIn 2009/2010 the construction industry accounted for the largest number of fatalities in any work sector (46) compared to an average of 66 over the preceding 5 years.In 2009/2010 there were 46 construction fatalities, 3,120 major injuries, 6,173 Lost Time Accidents, 3,700 cases of self-reported cases of workplace ill health costing the UK economy 3.3M working days.
8 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionBuilding works, both for domestic industrial and commercial clientsRenovation of existing or derelict premisesAlteration to existing structures, premises, etc.Maintenance of existing premises which are either occupied or unoccupiedCivil engineering projectsEngineering construction projectsDemolition of all or part of a structure or premises
9 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionSite clearanceDemolition of all or part of a structure or premises within the construction siteDismantling of all or part of a structureExcavation to identify underground services or structures for clearance, maintenance or connection intoLoading, unloading and storage of debris, building materials, plant and equipment
10 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionSite movements of plant, equipment, materials and personsFabrication of building components, structures, etc. for movement/lifting into placeDecorating of external and internal surfaces, structures, etc.Cleaning of part or all of a premises, structure, grounds etc.Installation, removal and maintenance of services such as water, gas, electricity, etc.Landscaping of the site following construction completion and before handover to the client.
11 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionBy their very nature construction sites are temporary in nature, and throughout the project constantly changing in their appearance, layout and traffic/pedestrian routes.Other issues will be weather related; heavy rain, snow or high winds may cause the following issues:delays due to unsafe conditions, or repairs required to scaffolding, excavations, tower cranes, etc. which can lead to financial penalty clauses being activated by the client.
12 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionTime pressure and financial constraints set by the client can cause issues and problems, with the temptation being to compromise on the arrangements for safeguarding the health safety and welfare of those working on the construction site, visitors and members of the public.What aspects of construction site safety could be affected if compromises are made?
13 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionCompromises can include:Lack or poor provision of welfare facilitiesNon-segregation of tasks taking place at below ground level, ground level and those taking place at heightLifting of materials, fabricated sections, etc. over areas where employees are workingNon-segregation of pedestrian and vehicle routes, protection against accidental contact between vehicles and scaffolding.
14 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionThe level of competency and skills within the workforce may also be an issue:employees new to the construction industry, or migrant employees from outside the UK will require additional training and supervision than more experienced employees used to working in the construction industry.
15 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionOther management issues facing the construction industry is the increasing employment of migrant labourers from outside of the UK.In 2007:Migrant labour accounted for 6% of the UK’s construction workforce – in Greater London this accounted for 26% of those employed in the construction industry5 migrant workers died following an accident at one construction site alone.
16 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionOver the past 3 years migrant worker deaths accounted for 8% of all construction related deaths.So who has responsibility for migrant workers; the gang-master or the construction employer?
17 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionThe answer is boththe gangmaster and construction employer both have a duty of care and should liaise to ensure appropriate risk assessments, personal protective equipment, training and appropriate supervision are in place.Before any migrant worker starts on a construction site what should be determined by the employer?
18 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionDoes the work the migrant worker(s) will be employed for require any special vocational skills, if so can the migrant worker supply copies of qualifications or demonstrate the required skill level?Do the migrant workers have a reasonable command of written and spoken English?What information, instruction, training and supervision will the migrant workers require?
19 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionTo identify the above, employers should conduct a specific risk assessment on the hazards posed to migrant workers when working on their site.What should such an assessment cover?
20 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionTheir command of written and spoken English so that basic communication is possible with them on siteTheir level of literacy and numeracy and previous skills, past work experienceThe compatibility of non-UK vocational qualifications with those available in the UKAny physical and health attributes required for the work(s) they will undertakeThe provision and level of training instruction information and supervision – are supervisors able to effectively communicate with the migrant worker?Any special welfare or emergency arrangements required.
21 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussionAn effective induction will need to cover:Consideration to the needs of migrant workers with a poor command of English – using accredited translators, use of non-verbal visual training aidsTranslation of any critical safety information, such as fire and emergency procedures, risk assessments, method statements, etc.How migrant workers can identify their supervisor, first aiders, etc.An evaluation on the understanding on the information and instruction given out during the induction to ensure an adequate level of understanding.
22 Scope & nature of UK construction IntroductionTypes of construction workConstruction activitiesConstruction industry issuesGroup discussion1 What are some of the pressures on managers of construction projects that could lead to accidents on construction sites?2 A principal contractor needs to employ sub-contractors, some of whom may not have English as their first language.How can the principal contractor ensure that all site operatives fully understand site rules with regards to health and safety?
24 Why manage H&S in construction? Key improvement targetsFinancialLegalMoralGroup discussionIn 2002 the Construction Industry Advisory Committee set the following revitalising targets for the UK construction industry:Reducing the incidence rate for fatalities and major injuries by 40% in 2004/2005 and 60% by 2009/2010Reducing the incidence rate of cases of work-related ill health by 20% by 2004/2005 and by 50% by 2009/2010 Reducing the number of working days lost per 100,000 employees from work-related injury and ill health by 20%.
25 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussionIn reality these figures represented a commitment to a reduction of 3,000 major injuries by 2009/2010 than there were in 1999/2000.So how did the UK construction industry fare in meeting these targets?
26 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussionSince 2000/2001 all the accident incidence rates have fallen by between 34% and 63%, with an overall reduction of 72% in the fatality rate.However, this still means that 700 construction workers have been killed in the last 10 years, and 2,765 since 1981.
27 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussion2009/2010 Construction Industry Accident StatisticsFatalitiesMajor injuriesOver 3 daysTotal463,1206,173Employees30 (65%)2,5855,651Self-employed12 (26%)535522Members of the public4 (9%)N/A
28 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussionPercentage of fatalities by construction activities from 1999 to 2010Activity1999 – 2007(687)2008 – 2009(52)2009 – 20010(42)Domestic – repair, refurbishment, etc.272634Non-domestic – repair, refurbishment, etc.22New build – housing111012New build – commercial135New build – industrial422.5Roadworks96Civil engineering714Demolition3
29 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussion2009/2010 Construction Industry Accident StatisticsThe fatalities were caused by:Falling through roof lights and fragile roofs, from ladders, scaffolds and other workplacesBeing struck by excavators, lift trucks or dumpersBeing struck by falling loads and equipmentBeing crushed by collapsing structures.
30 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussion2009/2010 Construction Industry Accident StatisticsAnalysis of major injuries reveals that 35% of all construction industry accidents were the result of falls from heights:62% were painters or decorators38% were bricklayers and masons36% were scaffolders, stagers and steeplejacks36% were electrical fitters.
31 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussion2009/2010 Construction Industry Ill-health Statistics3.3 million days were lost in the construction industry due to work-related ill health and workplace injuries.In the construction industry this equates to 1.5 days per worker as opposed to 1.3 days per worker in all other industries.
32 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussionIn 2009 the HSE undertook an inspection programme covering 1,759 construction sites, and encompassing 2,145 contractors operating on these sites.Of these sites 348 were identified as having serious health and safety risks, resulting in over 500 enforcement notices being issued.
33 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussionA comparison of the number of enforcement notices issued between 2007 and 2010 to the construction industry and all other industries shows:ConstructionAll industriesImprovement NoticeProhibition Notice2007/20084,5283,2336691,8702008/20094,8253,2546171,8112009/20105,8113,9239052,449
34 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussionA comparison of prosecutions, convictions and average level of fines for 2007 to 2010 shows:ConstructionAll industriesProsecutionsConvictionsAverage Fine (£)2007/0844331611,0641,06085313,1252008/0941930811,1741,09983714,6732009/1038426110,6221,02673515,817
35 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussionIn 1999 the HSE undertook a cost comparison between ill-health, injury and damage accidents:Damage accident (involving plant and equipment) costs were 80% of the total costs and between 3 to 11 times the cost of injury accidents.Ill health(£million)InjuryDamageTotalMinMax1001801404201,5706601,890
36 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussionSharing best practiceEnsuring that all construction workers receive induction training before starting on any projectRaise competence levels of all construction workers in the house building sectorEncourage worker participation and involvement through trade union or employee safety representativesTackling the informal economy within the construction industry, together with the use of casual labour.
37 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussionThe HSE has also published its inspection criteria for construction sites, which covers the following:Competence and control of contractors and employeesRisk assessmentsCommunication of risk controls to the workforceSelection, use, inspection and maintenance of equipmentWelfare facilities and site cleanliness/tidiness.
38 Why manage H&S in construction? MoralLegalFinancialKey improvement targetsGroup discussion1 What is the HSE’s role in improving the health and safety performance of the construction industry?2 How can construction industry employers prevent workplace fatalities and major injuries from occurring?
40 CDMNotifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionThe CDM Regulations cover all construction activities in the UK, and apply to the whole of a construction project from the initial design, the construction phase and finally the hand-over of the completed structure to the client.The CDM Regulations came into effect on 6 April 2007, replacing the original CDM Regulations from 1994 and the Construction (Welfare, Health & Safety) Regulations 1996.
41 CDM The CDM Regulations are split into several main parts: Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionThe CDM Regulations are split into several main parts:Part 1 DefinitionsPart 2 Covers construction projects & management dutiesPart 3 Sets out additional duties for notifiable projectsPart 4 Sets out the duties relating to health, safety and welfare on construction sites.
42 CDM Main requirements & changes from CDM 1994 Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionMain requirements & changes from CDM 1994The Construction (Health Safety & Welfare) Regulations 1996 have been repealed and included within Part 4 and Schedule 2Work for domestic clients is no longer notifiableA group of clients involved in a project can elect one or more of its members to act as the clientThe role of the CDM co-ordinator is to support the client and co-ordinate design and planning – the planning supervisor role does not exist
43 CDM Main requirements & changes from CDM 1994 Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionMain requirements & changes from CDM 1994The CDM co-ordinator, principle contractor and written health & safety plan are only required for notificable projectsDuty holders must be competent to carry out their roles, likewise anyone instructed to carry out or manage the design or construction work must be competent tooThe ACOP L144 Managing Health & Safety in Consultation sets out the requirements for individual and corporate competence
44 CDM Main requirements & changes from CDM 1994 Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionMain requirements & changes from CDM 1994All parties involved in the project have a duty for effective co-operation and co-ordinationClients are required to take reasonable steps to ensure management arrangements will allow the construction work to be undertaken without risk to health safety and welfare, and that such arrangements are reviewed throughout the projectClients must inform designers and contractors of the time they have before work commences on site for planning and preparing construction work.
45 CDMNotifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionClientAnyone involved in a trade, business or other undertaking (for profit or not) and who commissions the construction work to be carried out.Can be an individual client or a consortium.Domestic clients do not have duties under the CDM Regulations.
46 CDMNotifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionDesignerOrganizations or individuals who carry out the design stage of the project, and can include: ArchitectsStructural engineersQuantity surveyorsBuilding service engineersInterior designers, shop fitters, etc.
47 CDMNotifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionCDM co-ordinatorAppointed under for notifiable projects only, and provides clients with a key project advisor in respect of construction health and safety management risks, in particular:Giving advice and assistance to the client in order for them to appoint competent designers and principal contractorGiving advice and guidance to the client to allow them to meet their duty to ensure adequate management and welfare arrangements are in place
48 CDMNotifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionCDM co-ordinatorDevelop the pre-construction phase information for issuing to prospective designers and contractorsNotify the HSE of the construction projectAdvise the client on the suitability of the construction phase health and safety plan developed with the principal contractorEnsure designers comply with their dutiesPrepare, update and issue the health and safety file to the client on completion of the project.
49 CDM Principal contractor Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionPrincipal contractorAppointed by the client for notifiable projects, and can be an individual, an organization or management contractor.The principal contractor’s main duties are to co-ordinate and manage the construction phase, including the health, safety and welfare arrangements and practices for the site, and anyone who could be affected by the work.
50 CDM Pre-construction health and safety information Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionPre-construction health and safety informationThe client must provide designers and contractors, and for notifiable projects the CDM co-ordinator, with specific health and safety information to allow the identification of hazards and risks associated with the design and construction work.What information should be included?
51 CDM Pre-construction health and safety information Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionPre-construction health and safety informationWhat information should be included?Project descriptionClient’s considerations and management requirementsEnvironmental considerationsSignificant design and construction hazards.
52 CDM Construction phase health and safety plan Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionConstruction phase health and safety planSets out the principal contractor’s organization and arrangements to manage construction risks, site welfare and co-ordinate the construction activities.Only contains information relevant to the project, and reflects how the project was organized and managed to provide a safe working environment.
53 CDMNotifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionThere is no requirement to appoint a CDM co-ordinator, principal contractor or prepare a construction phase health and safety plan for non-notifiable projects.The architect or lead designer will normally lead the co-ordination of the design work, while the main contractor or builder will co-ordinate the construction work in line with Part 4 and Schedule 2.
54 CDM Clients are expected to manage or plan projects themselves. Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionClients are expected to manage or plan projects themselves.The client is responsible for ensuring designers, contractors and others are competent, or work under the supervision of competent persons, who are adequately resourced and appointed early enough to fulfil their responsibilities.
55 CDM HSE notifiable construction projects Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionHSE notifiable construction projectsCommercial or industrial clientDomestic clientWill the construction phase last more than 30 days?YESNONotify the HSE on form F10Will the construction phase involve more than 500 person days of construction activity?YESNOHSE notification not applicable
56 CDM Clients – responsible for Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionClients – responsible forThe impact they have on health and safetyMaking sure things are done, not do them themselvesAppointing a CDM co-ordinator to advise and co-ordinate activities on notifiable projectsEnsuring enough time and resources are provided to allow the project to be delivered safelyFocusing on establishing a competent project team early on which fosters a culture of co-operation and integrationNot allow work to commence until the principal contractor has prepared the construction phase plan
57 CDM Designers – responsible for Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionDesigners – responsible forEnsure clients are aware of their dutiesMake sure they (the designer) are competent for the work they doCo-ordinate & co-operate their work with the CDM co-ordinator and others as necessary to manage riskProvide information to the CDM co-ordinator for the health and safety file.
58 CDM Designers – in relation to their design Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionDesigners – in relation to their designEliminate hazards from the construction, cleaning, maintenance and proposed use & demolition of a structureReduce risks from any remaining hazardsGive collective risk reduction measures priority over individual measures.
59 CDM CDM co-ordinator – responsibilities Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionCDM co-ordinator – responsibilitiesBe appointed before the designer and principle contractor and have the relevant competence for the construction projectGive suitable and sufficient advice to clients co-ordinate the arrangements for health and safety for planning and design workPrepare a health and safety file.
60 CDM Principal contractor – responsibilities Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionPrincipal contractor – responsibilitiesBe appointed for notifiable projects and as soon as is practicableEnsure the client is aware of duties, a CDM co-ordinator has been appointed and HSE notifiedAppoint competent contractorsProperly plan, manage, monitor and resource the construction phaseInform contractors of the minimum time allowed for planning and preparation
61 CDM Principal contractor – responsibilities Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionPrincipal contractor – responsibilitiesEnsure safe working, co-ordination and co-operation between contractorsArrange for suitable welfare arrangement and facilities from the start, together with arrangements for securing the site outside of working hoursPromptly provide the CDM co-ordinator with information for the fileLiaise with CDM co-ordinator in relation to design and design changes.
62 CDM Principal contractor – responsibilities Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionPrincipal contractor – responsibilitiesEnsure the construction phase health and safety plan is prepared and implemented prior to work commencing covering:The organization and arrangements for managing risk and co-ordinating workPlan should be tailored to the particular project and risks involvedPrepare and enforce site rules as requiredGive reasonable direction to contractors including client appointed contractors
63 CDM Principal contractor – responsibilities Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionPrincipal contractor – responsibilitiesProvide the plan to those who need itEnsure all workers have been provided with suitable health and safety induction, information and trainingEnsure the workforce is consulted about health and safety mattersDisplay key project information to workers.
64 CDM Principal contractor The principal contractor does not have to: Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionPrincipal contractorThe principal contractor does not have to:Provide training to workers they do not employUndertake detailed supervision of contractors’ workFill the construction phase plan with irrelevant information or endless generic paperwork.
65 CDM Contractors and the self-employed Contractor should: Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionContractors and the self-employedContractor should:Check that a CDM Co-ordinator has been appointed and the HSE notified before they start workCo-operate with the principal contractor, CDM Co-ordinator and others working on the project or at adjacent sitesInform the principal contractor about risks arising from their workProvide the principal contractor of any contractor who they are using as a sub-contractor
66 CDM Contractors and the self-employed Contractor should: Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionContractors and the self-employedContractor should:Comply with reasonable directions from the principal contractor, and with any relevant rules as set out in the Construction Phase Health and Safety PlanInform the principal contractor of any problems with the plan or risks identified during their work which have significant implications for the management of the projectInform the principal contractor about accidents and dangerous occurrencesProvide information for the Health and Safety File.
67 CDM Pre-construction information Description of the project Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionPre-construction informationDescription of the projectClient’s considerations and management requirementsEnvironmental restrictions and existing on-site risks, including safety and health hazardsSignificant design and construction hazards.
68 CDM Construction phase plan Description of the project Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionConstruction phase planDescription of the projectManagement of riskArrangements for controlling significant site risks – safety and health hazards.
69 CDM Health and safety file Description of the work carried out Notifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM ScopeGroup discussionHealth and safety fileDescription of the work carried outResidual hazards and how they are being controlledKey structural principlesHazardous materials usedInformation regarding the removal or dismantling of installed plant and equipmentHealth and safety information relevant to the cleaning and maintenance of the building/structureTypes and marking of services supplying the building or structureInformation and ‘as-built’ drawings of the structure, plant and equipment.
70 CDMNotifiable projectsDefinitionsNon-notifiable projectsCDM 2007 ScopeGroup discussion1 What are the main duties of designers under the CDM Regulations 2007?2 What are the main duties of clients under the CDM Regulations 2007?3 What role does the CDM co-ordinator play in relation to notifiable construction activities?4 What are the main duties of the principal contractor under the CDM Regulations 2007?5 When is a construction project notifiable to the HSE under the CDM Regulations 2007?6 What information should be included within the construction phase plan under the CDM Regulations 2007?
71 Sources of external construction health and safety information
72 External information sources External construction H&S information sourcesGroup discussionGeneral sources of informationUK Construction legislation – CDM Regulations, Construction (Head Protection) RegulationsHSE construction publicationsReports published by organization such as Construction Skills, Construction Industry Researching Board, Civil Engineering Contractors Association, Major Contractors GroupChartered Institute of BuildingConstruction Skills Certification SchemeEuropean Committee for StandardisationBritish Standards InstituteInternet.
73 External information sources External construction H&S information sourcesGroup discussionConstruction health and safety forumsConstruction Industry Research and Information AssociationCivil Engineering Contractors AssociationMajor Contractors Group.
74 External information sources External constructionH&S information sourcesGroup discussion1. What are the main sources of published information that may be consulted when dealing with a health and safety issue on a construction site.