Presentation on theme: "Review: Energy Changes, Rates of Reaction and Nuclear Energy."— Presentation transcript:
Review: Energy Changes, Rates of Reaction and Nuclear Energy
Questions a) exothermic b) endothermic c) exothermic d) exothermic e) exothermic (in the forward direction) 2.q = cm T = J/g C x 500 g x 0.4 C = J = kJ # mol = 10 g x (1 mol / 16 g) = kJ/mol = kJ/0.625 mol= 1.3 kJ/mol 3.2 Na(s) + C(s) O 2 (g) Na 2 CO 3 (s) H f = kJ/mol
Questions N 2 + 6O 2 + 2H 2 4HNO HNO 3 2N 2 O 5 + 2H 2 O H 2 O 2H 2 + O N 2 + 5O 2 2N 2 O kJ 5.ΔH˚ = [ΔH˚ of Na 2 CO 3 + ΔH˚ f of H 2 O + ΔH˚ f of CO 2 ] – [ΔH˚ f of NaHCO 3 ] = [1 mol (-1131kJ/mol) + 1 mol ( kJ/mol) + 1 mol ( kJ/mol)] – [ 2 mol (-947.7kJ/mol] = ( kJ) – ( kJ) = kJ
Question N 2 O O 2 H = kJ H = 71.9 kJ N 2 O 4 H = 9.67 kJ N 2 + 2O 2 6. N 2 O 4 (g) H = 9.67 kJ N 2 (g) + 2O 2 (g)
Question M-B and Ek are the same (fraction or percent of molecules versus kinetic energy). Ep is potential energy versus path of reaction (similar to time over which the reaction occurs) Ea Fraction of molecules Kinetic energy 9.
Reaction Progress Ep (Potential Energy) a) Activated Complex forms here Ea F Ea R ΔHΔH Question 10 c) with a catalyst added d) The fastest molecules are found here. This is the lowest Ep point on the graph. Since Ep + Ek = constant, when Ep decreases, Ek increases.
11.Chemicals in solution are spread out. Also, mixed aqueous solutions are homogeneous. Thus, reaction rates increase because the reactants have a better chance of meeting. 12.1) Nature of reactants: different reactants will require different minimum kinetic energies. 2) The ability of reactants to meet: means more collisions per second. 3) Concentration of reactants: means a higher rate of collisions. 4) Temperature: high temperatures mean more collisions per unit time and more kinetic energy (more successful collisions). 5) Catalysts: these lower the energy required for a successful collision (by lowering Ea).
13.Fusion: atomic nuclei or nucleons join. Fission: a nucleus splits into smaller nuclei. Radiation: the emission of EM energy or nuclear particles (similar to fission, except that smaller units are given off) Th 4 2 He Ra Pb e Tl Ba 0 -1 e La 18 9 F 0 1 e O Question For more lessons, visit