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How big? Significant Digits and Isotopic Abundance How small? How accurate?

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Reminder: bring a calculator to class

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Scientific notation Read Scientific Notation on page 621 Complete the chart below 9.07 x 10 – 2 0.0907 5.06 x 10 – 4 0.000506 2.3 x 10 12 2 300 000 000 000 1.27 x 10 2 127 Scientific notationDecimal notation

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What time is it? Someone might say 1:30 or 1:28 or 1:27:55 Each is appropriate for a different situation In science we describe a value as having a certain number of significant digits The # of significant digits in a value includes all digits that are certain and one that is uncertain 1:30 likely has 2, 1:28 has 3, 1:27:55 has 5 There are rules that dictate the # of significant digits in a value (read handout up to A. Try A.)

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Answers to question A) 1. 2.83 2. 36.77 3. 14.0 4. 0.0033 5. 0.02 6. 0.2410 7. 2.350 x 10 – 2 8. 1.00009 9. 3 10. 0.0056040 3 4 3 2 1 4 4 6 infinite 5

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Significant Digits It is better to represent 100 as 1.00 x 10 2 Alternatively you can underline the position of the last significant digit. E.g. 100. This is especially useful when doing a long calculation or for recording experimental results Dont round your answer until the last step in a calculation. Note that a line overtop of a number indicates that it repeats indefinitely. E.g. 9.6 = 9.6666… Similarly, 6.54 = 6.545454…

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Adding with Significant Digits How far is it from Toronto to room 229? To 225? Adding a value that is much smaller than the last sig. digit of another value is irrelevant When adding or subtracting, the # of sig. digits is determined by the sig. digit furthest to the left when #s are aligned according to their decimal.

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Adding with Significant Digits How far is it from Toronto to room 229? To 225? Adding a value that is much smaller than the last sig. digit of another value is irrelevant When adding or subtracting, the # of sig. digits is determined by the sig. digit furthest to the left when #s are aligned according to their decimal. E.g. a) 13.64 + 0.075 + 67 b) 267.8 – 9.36 13.64 0.075 67. 80.71581 267.8 9.36 258.44 Try question B on the handout – + +

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B) Answers 4.0283.14 i) 83.25 0.1075 – 4.02 0.001+ ii) 1.82 0.2983 1.52+ iii)

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Multiplication and Division Determining sig. digits for questions involving multiplication and division is slightly different For these problems, your answer will have the same number of significant digits as the value with the fewest number of significant digits. E.g. a) 608.3 x 3.45 b) 4.8 392 a) 3.45 has 3 sig. digits, so the answer will as well 608.3 x 3.45 = 2098.635 = 2.10 x 10 3 b) 4.8 has 2 sig. digits, so the answer will as well 4.8 392 = 0.012245 = 0.012 or 1.2 x 10 – 2 Try question C and D on the handout (recall: for long questions, dont round until the end)

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C), D) Answers i) 7.255 81.334 = 0.08920 ii) 1.142 x 0.002 = 0.002 iii) 31.22 x 9.8 = 3.1 x 10 2 (or 310 or 305.956) i) 6.12 x 3.734 + 16.1 2.3 22.85208 + 7.0 = 29.9 ii) 0.0030 + 0.02 = 0.02 135700 =1.36 x10 5 1700 134000+ iii) iv) 33.4 112.7+ 0.032+ 146.132 6.487 = 22.5268 = 22.53 Note: 146.1 6.487 = 22.522 = 22.52

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Unit conversions Sometimes it is more convenient to express a value in different units. When units change, basically the number of significant digits does not. E.g. 1.23 m = 123 cm = 1230 mm = 0.00123 km Notice that these all have 3 significant digits This should make sense mathematically since you are multiplying or dividing by a term that has an infinite number of significant digits E.g. 123 cm x 10 mm / cm = 1230 mm Try question E on the handout

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E) Answers i) 1.0 cm = 0.010 m ii) 0.0390 kg = 39.0 g iii) 1.7 m = 1700 mm or 1.7 x 10 3 mm

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Isotopic abundance Read 163 – 165 Lets consider the following question: if 12 C makes up 98.89% of C, and 13 C is 1.11%, calculate the average atomic mass of C: Mass from 12 C atoms 12 x 0.9889 To quickly check your work, ensure that the final mass fits between the masses of the 2 isotopes Do the sample problem (page 165) as above and try questions 10 and 11 (page 166) Mass from 13 C atoms+ 13 x 0.0111 + 11.86680.1443+ = 12.01

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Isotopic abundance Mass from 35 ClMass from 37 Cl+ 35 x 0.755337 x 0.2447 + 26.43559.0539+ = 35.49 Mass from 39 KMass from 41 K+ 39 x 0.931041 x 0.0690 + 36.3092.829+= 39.14 = 39.99 Mass from 40 ArMass from 36 Ar+ Mass from 38 Ar+ 40 x 0.996036 x 0.0034 + 38 x 0.0006 +39.840.1224+ 0.0228+

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More practice Answer questions 1 – 3 on page 179. Your answers should have the correct number of significant digits. For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com www.chalkbored.com

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