Presentation on theme: "Sexually Transmitted Diseases"— Presentation transcript:
1Sexually Transmitted Diseases Presenter Norma Sanchez, CDS II
2STD OverviewSTDs affect men and women of all backgrounds and economic levels.Most prevalent among teens and young adults with nearly 2/3 of all STDs occurring in people under age 25.Contributing factors in the rise of STDs include: young people have become sexually active earlier, divorce is more common and sexually active people are more likely to have multiple sex partners. Important to note that it is the behavior which puts you at risk not who you are.
3Types of STDs Bacterial Viral Chlamydia Gonorrhea Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)SyphilisViralGenital WartsHepatitis B and CHerpesHIV
4Warning! This section contains graphic images of infectious diseases – You have been warned
5Chlamydia Caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis. Can be transmitted during vaginal, oral, and anal sexual contact.If symptoms appear, they will occur 1-3 weeks after exposure.Complications: PID, sterility, premature or still births, blindness.
11Symptoms of Chlamydia Symptoms in Women: Usually asymptomatic Abnormal vaginal dischargePain during sexComplications, if not treated:Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)Symptoms in Men:Usually asymptomaticDischarge from the penis (may be runny, whitish)Burning on urinationComplications, if not treatedSwollen and tender testicles (epididymitis)
12Chlamydia Symptoms in Men Source: Seattle STD/HIV PTC
13Chlamydia Symptoms in Women Mucopurulent Cervicitis Source: St. Louis STD/HIV PTC
14Testing & Treatment for Chlamydia Easily detected by a urine test or a swab; andEasily cured with antibiotics; butAny damage to the body cannot be repaired
15Gonorrhea Caused by Neisseria gonorrhea. Symptoms may occur 2-21 days after exposure.Transmitted during vaginal, anal and oral sex.Can also be transmitted from infected mother to infant during birth.Complications: PID, sterility, blindness, meningitis, kidney and heart damage, skin rash, ectopic pregnancy.
16Symptoms of Gonorrhea For Men For Women Thick yellow or white discharge from vaginaBleeding from vagina between periodsBurning/pain when urinating/during bowel movementCramps and pain in lower abdomenFor MenThick yellow or white drip from the penisBurning or pain when urinatingNeed to urinate more often
25Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) GonorrheaPelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
26GonorrheaGonorrhea in InfantsA mother can pass gonorrhea to her baby during childbirth
27Testing & Treatment for Gonorrhea Easily detected by a urine test or swab; andEasily cured with antibiotics; butAny damage to the body cannot be repaired.
28Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Usually caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea.PID occurs when bacteria travel from the vagina through the cervix and into the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries.Symptoms:Pain in the lower abdomen or lower back.Pain in the abdomen during sex.Fever, chills, or vomiting.Unusual bleeding or discharge from the vagina.Complications: infertility, ectopic pregnancy, scar tissue in the pelvic organs, chronic abdominal pain.
29Syphilis Caused by Treponema pallidum. Transmitted during vaginal, anal and oral sex.Symptoms may occur 10 days to 3 months after exposure.An infected mother can pass the disease to her unborn child.Three stages: Primary, secondary, tertiary or late.
30Symptoms of Syphilis Primary Stage A painless sore called a chancre may be located on the genitals, lips, anus, or other area of direct contactThe chancre will last 1-5 weeks and heal without treatmentThe person can easily pass it on to sex partners
31Primary Syphilis Chancre in a Man Source: CDC/ NCHSTP/ Division of STD Prevention, STD Clinical Slides
32Primary Syphilis Chancre in a Woman Source: CDC/ NCHSTP/ Division of STD Prevention, STD Clinical Slides
33Primary SyphilisThe first symptom is a painless chancre at site of entry of the bacteria i.e. mouth, sex organs, breasts, or fingers which may occur 3-12 weeks after exposure.Sore can last 1-5 weeks but then disappear.Swollen glands.
37Secondary StageIf syphilis is not treated in the first stage the symptom will go away.About 4 months later (early latent stage) secondary symptoms will show up.They may show up 0-10 weeks, average is 4 weeks.Symptoms may last 2-6 weeks, average is 4 weeks.
38Secondary Syphilis Rash anywhere, but primarily on palms and soles. Patchy hair loss.Sore throat.Swollen glands.1 week to 6 months after appearance of primary chancre.This set of symptoms will also eventually disappear.
43Third Stage of Syphilis If a person is not treated during these two stages syphilis still remains in the body.It may take several years but syphilis becomes “latent” which means: to hide.During this stage syphilis can do damage to the body.
44Tertiary or Late Syphilis Approximately 1/3 of untreated cases of secondary syphilis will progress to this stage.This stage may continue years with no obvious symptoms.Can cause lesions on body organs such as the brain and heart.
46Special populationsWomen who are pregnant get tested at the beginning of their pregnancy if seen by a doctor.A woman may become infected during her pregnancy and may transmit syphilis to her child without knowing it.A baby born from a mother who has syphilis may die from complications of syphilis.
47End of bacterial slides There are more bacterial infections but these are the 3 that are reported to the Health Department.QUESTIONS??????
48Viruses Viruses are not curable. The symptoms are treatable and can be manageable.The viruses we will talk about are:HerpesGenital WartsHepatitis B and CHIV
49Genital Herpes Caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus. Lives in CNS. Transmitted through skin to skin contact.Symptoms may occur 1-30 days after exposure.Transmitted during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.Transmission can also occur when blisters are not present.No cure, only treatment available.
50Symptoms of Genital Herpes Transmitted through skin to skin contact.Flu-like symptoms.Painful blisters/sores at the site of infection, i.e. mouth, penis, vagina, anus, cervix, lips, tongue, gums, and eyes.Blisters can last 1-3 weeks.Blisters will heal but may reappear throughout life.Prodrome effect.Complications: May cause brain damage or death in infants.
54HPVHuman PapillomavirusMany types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV), some of which infect the genital areaIncubation period unclearCan infect men, women, and newbornsThe person can easily pass it on to sex partners
55HPVGenital HPV: Two TypesThe types of HPV that infect the genital area are labeled “low-risk” or “high-risk” depending on whether they can cause cancer or not.Low-risk HPV types can cause genital warts.High-risk HPV types can cause serious cervical lesions, cervical cancer, and other genital cancers.
56Symptoms of Genital HPV Infection Usually asymptomatic and brief (6 – 12 months)Genital warts (usually infection with low-risk type of HPV)Warts on the penis, vagina, anus or urethraRarely may have itching, bleeding, burning, or pain along with the wartsMay go away on their own, stay about the same, or get worse
57Symptoms of Genital HPV Infection Cervical lesions (usually infection with high-risk type of HPV)Usually no symptomsDetected by Pap smearMost will go away on their ownSome will persist and need to be followed by health care providerMost women with high-risk HPV types do not get cervical cancer
58HPVHPV Penile WartsSource: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
59Genital Warts in a Woman HPVGenital Warts in a WomanSource: CDC/NCHSTP/Division of STD, STD Clinical Slides
60HPVPerianal WartSource: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
61Testing & Treatment for Genital Warts HPVTesting & Treatment for Genital WartsGenital WartsNo tests for genital wartsSeveral types of treatment are availableWarts may come backCervical lesions and cervical cancerRegular Pap smears are best way to detect serious lesions and prevent cervical cancerPap smear screening is recommended for all sexually active women
62Genital Warts Caused by Human Papilloma Virus. Symptoms may occur 1-8 months after exposure.Transmitted by direct skin to skin contact.Can also be passed although no visible warts are present.No cure, only treatment available for the warts.Complications: may cause cervical, vulvar, or penile cancer.
63Symptoms of Genital Warts Small, bumpy or flat warts on the sex organs and anus.Itching or burning around the sex organs.Some people have no visible warts.
64Symptoms of Genital Herpes Transmitted through skin to skin contact.Flu-like symptoms.Painful blisters/sores at the site of infection, i.e. mouth, penis, vagina, anus, cervix, lips, tongue, gums, and eyes.Blisters can last 1-3 weeks.Blisters will heal but may reappear throughout life.Prodrome effect.Complications: May cause brain damage or death in infants.
70GardisilCurrent vaccine for Gardisil starting for young girls at age 9.If on Medi-Cal they can be up to age 20 to receive a free physical and vaccine.If not on Medi-Cal and is enrolled through CHDP it is up to age 18.3 doses, over a 6 month period
71Hepatitis B and C Hepatitis - Inflammation of the liver. Transmitted during vaginal, anal, and oral sex, sharing razors, toothbrushes, needles.Can also be passed from infected mother to child during birth.HBV can live on environmental surfaces for up to 7 days.Complications: Cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. Can also cause premature birth or spontaneous abortion.
72Symptoms of Hepatitis Nausea, vomiting. Fatigue. Loss of appetite. Jaundice.Dark-colored urine/light-colored stools.Enlarged liver/liver pain.
73Herpes in a Woman Herpes Source: CDC/NCHSTP/Division of STD, STD Clinical SlidesSource: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
74HerpesHerpes in a ManSource: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
75HerpesHerpes ComplicationsHSV-2 causes serious problems when it is passed to newborns during birth.
76Testing & Treatment for Genital Herpes Can be detected by:culturing the lesionblood testHerpes cannot be cured, but symptoms can be treated with medicines called antivirals.You can still spread herpes even if you are taking antiviral medicine!
77Genital Herpes Caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus. Lives in CNS. Transmitted through skin to skin contact.Symptoms may occur 1-30 days after exposure.Transmitted during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.Transmission can also occur when blisters are not present.No cure, only treatment available.
78You can get herpes anywhere . . . Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
81Hepatitis B and C Hepatitis - Inflammation of the liver. Transmitted during vaginal, anal, and oral sex, sharing razors, toothbrushes, needles.Can also be passed from infected mother to child during birth.HBV can live on environmental surfaces for up to 7 days.Complications: Cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. Can also cause premature birth or spontaneous abortion.
82HIVHumanImmunodeficienyVirusHIV is the virus that causes AIDS
83AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome When your body is no longer able to protect you from disease because your immune system has been compromised.
84Which bodily fluid is not HIV infectious? SemenBloodVaginal SecretionsSalivaBreast Milk
86Behaviors/Activities/Events 1) Unprotected Sexual Intercourse-Anal, Vaginal, and Oral2) Sharing Needles-To inject: IV drug use, steroids, medicine- What about piercing: ears, nose, body and tattoos??????3) Vertical Transmission- Mother to baby4) Blood Transfusions/Blood Products5) Accidental Blood to Blood Contact
87Barriers Monogamy - Two people who are lifetime partners Serial Monogamy - Having multiple monogamous relationshipsIf practicing serial monogamy, one should use condomsLATEX 98% EffectivePOLYURETHANE 95%EffectiveMale CondomsDental DamsMale CondomsFemale CondomsWater Based Lubricants are recommended for use with condoms
93Testing The test looks for the presence of HIV antibodies. Anyone who is sexually active should be tested for HIV.Especially: Youth/Adolescents, People of Color, and Women.
94Testing Anonymous Free testing available at the Health Department. ConfidentialAnonymousFree testing available at the Health Department.Results are available in 2 weeks.Test can be done by blood sample.Mobile Unit available at certain locations offer OraQuick® Rapid Testing, preliminary results are ready in minutes.12 and over can test without parent permission.
95Results Non reactive: What does it mean? Reactive: What does it mean? Is it reportable?
96Criteria for AIDS Diagnosis 1. Opportunistic Infection (There are 26). The most common are:PCP - Pneumo Cystis Carinii PneumoniaKS - Kaposi’s Sarcoma (MSM)Esophageal CandidiasisTB - Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium)MAC2. T-cells fall below 200 per cm (Healthy people have between T-cells)
97TESTING Confidential Anonymous Free testing available at the Health Department.Rapid Test results in 30 minsIf you have a preliminary positive, then confirmatory results are available in 2 weeksTest will be done by blood sample/drawMobile Unit available at certain locations offer OraQuick® Rapid Testing, preliminary results are ready in minutes.12 and over can test without parent permission.
98Relatively few cases were diagnosed among Asian, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander females, and females reporting multiple races, although the rates for these groups were higher than the rate for white females.
99Woman are always at higher risk for STD’s and HIV Infection then men TrueFalseI don’t know
100CDC estimates that 1 in five people living with HIV infection in the United States do not know they are infected.Getting tested for HIV is the first step to protecting yourself and others.Knowing your own HIV status and that of your male sexual partners is critical because 85% of newly diagnosed HIV infections in US women and girls result from sex with an infected male partner.Early diagnosis of HIV allows for counseling and prompt treatment. HIV treatment prolongs life and reduces the risk of further HIV transmission.Encouraging your partner to wear a condom every time you engage in sexual activity is another important way to protect yourself
101Questions and Answers Hope we didn’t ruin lunch!