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Gaia Engineering for Planetary Engineers

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1 Gaia Engineering for Planetary Engineers
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Gaia Engineering for Planetary Engineers ? Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet are exploding. A Planet in Crisis ? Undeveloped Countries Demographic Explosion => Developed Countries DEMOGRAPHICS Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet is exploding. The graph shows population. I wouldn’t like to see a graph of per capita consumption added. The two together would be frightening. The world population passed 6 billion in At the current rate the world will have 7 billion people soon after the year The overwhelming share of world population growth is taking place in developing countries and has more than doubled in 35 years, growing from 1.89 billion in 1955 to 4.13 billion in 1990. Significant proportions of population increases in the developing countries have been and will be absorbed by urban areas which are growing five times faster than urban areas in developed countries. This presentation describes a recyclable world made of composites of carbon and other wastes. A world in which and our entourage of rats mice and cockroaches can live, make money and thrive. John Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA. FAICD Managing director of TecEco and Chair of AASMIC

2 Our Ecological Footprint Exceeds Capacity
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Our Ecological Footprint Exceeds Capacity Source: WWF State of the Planet, 2005 Our footprint is exceeding the capacity of the planet to support it. We are not longer sustainable and the environment is no longer sustainable – we must change our ways to survive. View further to discover how

3 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
Energy Peak Oil Production (Campell 2004) Most models of oil reserves, production and consumption show peak oil around 2010 (Campbell 2005) and serious undersupply and rapidly escalating prices by It follows that there will be economic mayhem unless the we act now to reduce and change the energy base of our economies.

4 The Carbon Cycle and Emissions
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference The Carbon Cycle and Emissions Emissions from fossil fuels and cement production are a significant cause of global warming. We need to increase the sedimentary carbon sink CEMENT EMMISSIONS Cement manufacture contributes significantly to global warming as I am sure Vijay Rangan has or will tell you. As members of the industry we are trying to do something about the problem. That is why we are all here today 4.5 billion years of geological sequestration have resulted in 7% of the crust being carbonate Units: GtC GtC/yr After: David Schimel and Lisa Dilling, National Centre for Atmospheric Research 2003

5 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
Global Warming Rises in the levels of greenhouse gases ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE Of particular concern and therefore the most studied is the problem of CO2 in the atmosphere and the global warming that results. The level of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels is rising too rapidly for natural processes to absorb and in the air has risen from 280 parts per million in pre-industrial times to just under 380 parts per million in 2004. Are causing a rapid rise in temperature

6 CO2 and Temperature Source of graphic: Hansen, J et. al. Climate Change and Trace Gases The correlation between temperature and CO2 in the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is very good Even if voluntary emissions reductions were to succeed we must still get the CO2 out of the air. Carbon rationing is a frightening adjunct and alternative. Who will be the global police? The best plan is a holistic one that reduces emissions and profitably balances the inevitable releases from our activities with massive sequestration.

7 Water “1/3 of the world’s population are presently living in water stressed countries. Depending on the emission scenarios, climate scenarios and population change, it is estimated that up to 2/3 of the world’s population will be living in water stressed countries by 2050 as a result of climate change” Source of Graphic: Lean, Geoffrey, and Don Hinrichsen, Atlas of the Environment, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc. Source: Defra (2004). Scientific and Technical Aspects of Climate Change, including Impacts, Adaptation and Associated Costs. UK, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

8 Tec and Eco-Cements use waste.
Waste & Pollution Ill health. Contamination of global commons with dangerous molecules. Increased traffic, noise, odours, smoke, dust, litter and pests. There are various estimates. The consensus is that we produce about billion tonnes of waste each year. Tec and Eco-Cements use waste.

9 One Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected Problems
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference One Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected Problems TecEco are in the BIGGEST Business on the Planet – Economic Solutions to our Energy, Global Warming, Water and Waste Problems.

10 Urgent Fixes are Needed
Water 1/3 of world population stressed for water By /3 due to global warming Waste Around 600 million tonnes. The underlying moleconomic flow is poisoning our world CO2 Causing global temperature rises Energy Peak oil has passed and fossil fuel energy costs set to rise. All these problems are interconnected To solve these problems we need to change the way we do things and what we do them with!

11 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
The Techno-Process Biosphere Underlying the techno-process that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks and flows. If out of synch with earth systems these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects. Geosphere Detrimental affects on earth systems Waste Take Move billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnes Materials Manipulate Materials Make and Use Anthroposphere THE TECHNO-PROCESS Most of you will have by now come to realise that there is a process often described as the “take use waste process” that I call the techno process. Unfortunately there are affects on global systems that are detrimental. To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems.

12 Atmosphere Biosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere
The Earth System The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops. Small changes caused by man such as CO2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global commons. Atmosphere Anthropo-sphere Biosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere

13 Earth Systems Science Earth Systems
Atmospheric composition, climate, land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal zones, freshwater salinity etc. Source graphic: NASA Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki). These systems are ideally homeostatic.

14 Detrimental Impacts of the Techno-Process
Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system flows Take manipulate and make impacts End of lifecycle impacts Use impacts. Materials are in the Techno-Sphere Utility zone There is no such place as “away” Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows. Greater Utility Less Utility

15 Under Materials Flows in the Techno-Processes are Molecular Flows
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Under Materials Flows in the Techno-Processes are Molecular Flows Take → Manipulate → Make → Use → Waste [ ←Materials flow→ ] [ ← Underlying molecular flow → ] If the underlying molecular flows are “out of tune” with nature there is damage to the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfc’s, c=halogen compounds and CO2 Moleconomics is the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic, balance or minimally interfere with natural flows. MOLECONOMIC FLOWS Underlying the flow of materials through the techno process is a moleconomic flow of molecules that is out of tune with the rest of the planet and causing damage to the environment. If you want to know more about the science of moleconomics please go to our web site and look under projects. To fix the molecular flows that are impacting our planet we must first fix the materials flows in a bottom up approach

16 Innovative New Materials - the Key to Sustainability
Materials are what builders use The choice of materials controls emissions, lifetime and embodied energies, user comfort, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere. By changing how we make “things” and what we make them with we can fix the underlying molecular flows that are destroying the natural homeostasis of our planet

17 Economically Driven Sustainability
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Economically Driven Sustainability New, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable and usually more efficient moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse our damaging flows. ECONOMICALLY DRIVEN SUSTAINABILITY Our approach must not only be holistic, but also economic if we are to have any hope of success. Working for sustainability market forces will make all the difference. The challenge is to move the supply and demand of resources towards more sustainable outcomes by stimulating and harnessing human behaviours which underlay economic demand phenomena, through cultural change push by governments and other leaders, and real improvement in technical and other properties as I will explain in the next slide. Sustainable processes like the new TecEco technologies are more efficient and therefore more economic. $ - ECONOMICS - $ Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right.

18 Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology Meet
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change. $ Supply Equilibrium Shift Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growth ECONOMICS We must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainability Demand Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation. # CULTURAL CHANGE AND PARADIGM SHIFTS IN TECHNOLOGY Changes in the market interaction of demand and supply reducing energy and resource usage and detrimental linkages with the planet can be achieved through cultural change and innovative changes in the technical paradigm. A measure of the degree of sustainability is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply.

19 Changing the Technology Paradigm
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Changing the Technology Paradigm It is not so much a matter of “dematerialisation” as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms “By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource1” Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990 Or more simply – the technical paradigm determines what is or is not a resource!

20 Cultural Change is Happening!
Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports STERN Report Lots of Talkfest IPCC Report Political change Branson Prize Live Earth (07/07/07) The media have an important growing role

21 Changing the Techno-Process
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Changing the Techno-Process Take => manipulate => make => use => waste Driven by fossil fuel energy with detrimental environmental effects. By changing the technology paradigms we can change the materials flows and thus the underlying molecular flows. Reduce Re-use Recycle This is biomimicry! INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY – CHANGING THE TECHNO-PROCESS I am sure you will have all heard of the three R’s. Reduce, reuse and recycle, to which some add re-make. Industrial ecology, the idea that the waste output of one kind of activity can be resource input for another, is most easily achieved in the construction industry. The materials used determine many properties including weight, embodied energies, fuel related and chemical emissions, lifetime energies, user comfort and health, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere. If you cannot recycle for chemical property recycle on the basis of physical properties the material would contribute to a composite. There is huge scope for sequestration and conversion of waste to resource given the massive size of the materials flows involved in the built environment. With the right materials technology, because of its sheer size, the built environment could reduce the take from the bio-geo-sphere and utilise many different wastes including carbon dioxide <= Materials => Atoms and Molecules in the global commons Moleconomics

22 Learning from Nature (Biomimicry)
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Learning from Nature (Biomimicry) Nature is the most frugal economist of all. The waste from one plant or animal is the food or home for another. In nature photosynthesis balances respiration and recycling is the norm By studying nature “we learn who we are, what we are and how we are to be.” (Wright, F.L. 1957:269) There is a strong need for similar efficiency and balance in our techno-process By learning from Nature we can all live together BIOMIMICRY The philosophy and chemistry of TecEco technology is backed by the greatest and longest experiment of all time – that of life on this planet. Little is wasted in nature, the waste from one living thing being the home or food for another. We must, like nature, devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes.

23 Biomimicry - Geomimicry
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Biomimicry - Geomimicry The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration. It involves nature as model, measure and mentor. Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models geological rather than biological processes. The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy. Geomicry is a natural extension of biomimicry and applies to geological rather than living processes All natural processes are very economical. We must also be MUCH more economical

24 Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers As peak oil starts to cut in and the price of transport rises sharply We should not just be recycling based on chemical property requiring transport to large centralised sophisticated and expensive facilities We should be including CO2 and wastes based on physical properties as well as chemical composition in composites whereby they become local resources. Jackdaws and bower bird recycle all sorts of things they find nearby based on physical property. The birds are not concerned about chemical composition and the nests they make could be described as a composite materials. TecEco cements are benign binders that can incorporate all sort of wastes without reaction problems. We can do the same as the Jackdaw or bower bird

25 Localized Low Transport Embodied Energy Materials
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Localized Low Transport Embodied Energy Materials No longer an option? As the price of fuel rises, the use of on site low embodied energy materials rather than transported aggregates will have to be considered. We will have to mimic the jackdaw or bower bird. Gaia engineering can be implemented everywhere.

26 Utilizing Carbon and Wastes
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Utilizing Carbon and Wastes During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. CO2 In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and wastes. This is “geomimicry” CO2 BIOMIMICRY The philosophy and chemistry of TecEco technology is backed by the greatest and longest experiment of all time – that of life on this planet. Little is wasted in nature, the waste from one living thing being the home or food for another. We must, like nature, devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes. CO2 C CO2 Waste Pervious pavement

27 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
Geomimicry There are grams of magnesium and about .4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater. There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration. To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicry Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% of the crust.

28 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers?
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Large tonnages of carbon (7% of the crust) were put away during earth’s geological history as limestone, dolomite and magnesite, mostly by the activity of plants and animals. Much more than in coal or petroleum! Shellfish built shells from carbon and trees turn it into wood. These same plants and animals wasted nothing The waste from one is the food or home for another. Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both.

29 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers?
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do. It can only happen economically. We must put an economic value on carbon and wastes inventing new technical paradigms such as offered by TecEco and the Global Sustainability Alliance in Gaia Engineering. Evolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigms By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as building materials we can economically reduce their concentration in the global commons. Materials are very important!

30 Why Magnesium Carbonates?
Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment: More CO2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show. At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant element Sea-water contains 1.29 g/l compared to calcium at .412 g/l Magnesium materials from Gaia Engineering are potential low cost. New kiln technology from TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate to make binders with CO2 recycling to produce more carbonate building material to be used with these binders. Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for the utilisation of other wastes.

31 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem How much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming? The annual flux of CO2 is around 12 billion tonnes ~= billion tonnes magnesite The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite would have to be deposited each year. Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable. If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved! We must build with carbonate and waste

32 Why Materials for the Built Environment?
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Why Materials for the Built Environment? The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth. It comprises buildings and infrastructure. Construction materials comprise 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Around 25 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis. Mostly using virgin natural resources Combined in such a manner that they cannot easily be separated. Include many toxic elements. THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALS Materials are our footprint on the planet and of first consideration in our quest to devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes. Building materials comprise: 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Why not use magnesium carbonate building components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from TecEco to bind them together?

33 The Built Environment and Global Sustainability
The built environment is our footprint, the major proportion of the techno-sphere and our lasting legacy on the planet. It comprises buildings and infrastructure Source of graphics: Nic Svenningson UNEP SMB2007

34 Building is Going Balistic!
Source of graphic: Rick Fedrizzi SMB 2007 The relative impact of the built environment is rising as the East catches up with the West!

35 Huge Potential for More Sustainable Construction Materials
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Huge Potential for More Sustainable Construction Materials Reducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process by. including carbon in materials they are potentially carbon sinks. including wastes for physical properties as well as chemical composition they become resources. re engineering materials to reduce the lifetime energy of buildings A durable low pH high bonding binder system is required for effective waste utilisation such as TecEco Tec and Eco-Cements Many wastes including CO2 can contribute to physical properties reducing lifetime energies CO2 CO2 UTILISING WASTE IN CITIES TecEco advocate the development of materials that include waste based on physical as well as chemical properties and that reduce the lifetime energy of buildings by introducing new properties. CO2 C CO2 Waste Pervious pavement

36 Gaia Engineering Flowchart
Portland Cement Manufacture CaO TecEco Tec-Kiln Industrial CO2 MgO Clays Fresh Water TecEco Cement Manufacture MgCO3 and CaCO3 “Stone” Brine or Sea water Greensols Eco-Cements Tec-Cements Waste Acid CaSO4 Building components & aggregates Other Valuable Commodity Salts NaHCO3 Other waste Built Environment Building waste

37 The Gaia Engineering Tececology
The Gaia Engineering tececology could be thought of as an open technical ecology designed to reverse major damaging moleconomic and other system flows outside the tececology Industrial Ecologies are generally thought of as closed loop systems with minimal or low impacts outside the ecology The Gaia Engineering tececology is not closed and is designed to reverse damaging moleconomic flows outside the ecology - LIKE A GIANT ECOLOGICAL PUMP

38 The Gaia Engineering Process
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference The Gaia Engineering Process Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable techno-processes outside the tececology. Inputs: Atmospheric or industrial CO2, brines, waste acid, other wastes Outputs: Carbonate building materials, potable water, gypsum, sodium bicarbonate and other valuable commodity salts. Carbonate building components CO2 CO2 Solar or solar derived energy CO2 TecEco Kiln TecEco MgCO2 Cycle CO2 Eco-Cement MgO MgCO3 Greensols Process 1.29 gm/l Mg .412 gm/l Ca Coal Fossil fuels Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds Oil

39 Gaia Engineering Introduction
Gaia engineering is a combination of new technologies including The Greensols process TecEco’s Tec-Kiln technology and cements Carbon dioxide scrubbing technologies TecEco' Eco-Cements Gaia engineering profitably geomimics past planetary geological processes and adopted on a large scale will: Sequester significant amounts of atmospheric CO2 Add value to the salts recoverable from sea water Convert large volumes of waste to valuable resource Produce fresh water.

40 Gaia Engineering Summary
Inputs include Seawater or suitable brine CO2 Waste acid Other wastes of all kinds A small amount of energy Outputs include Gypsum, sodium bicarbonate and various other valuable salts. Magnesium carbonate building components. TecEco Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements. Waste utlisation. Fresh water.

41 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
Gaia Engineering Greensols Seawater Carbonation Process. 1.354 x 109 km3 Seawater containing tonne Mg or suitable brines from other sources Waste Acid Gypsum + carbon waste (e.g. sewerage) = fertilizers Bicarbonate of Soda (NaHCO3) CO2 from power generation or industry Other salts Na+,K+, Ca2+,Cl- Gypsum (CaSO4) Sewerage compost Simplified TecEco Reactions Tec-Kiln MgCO3 → MgO + CO kJ/mole Reactor Process MgO + CO2 → MgCO kJ/mole (usually more complex hydrates) MgO Production using solar energy CO2 + H2O => Energy rich biomass using blue green algae (MgCO2) Cycle CO2 from power generation, industry or out of the air Magnesite (MgCO3) Tec-Reactor Hydroxide / Carbonate slurry process Magnesia (MgO) Solar Process to Produce Magnesium Metal Sequestration Table – Mg from Seawater CO2 Tonnes CO2 sequestered per tonne magnesium with various cycles through the TecEco Tec-Kiln process. Assuming no leakage MgO to built environment (i.e. complete cycles). Billion Tonnes Tonnes CO2 sequestered by 1 billion tonnes of Mg in seawater Tonnes CO2 captured during calcining (same as above) Tonnes CO2 captured by eco-cement Total tonnes CO2 sequestered or abated per tonne Mg in seawater (Single calcination cycle). Total tonnes CO2 sequestered or abated (Five calcination cycles.) Total tonnes CO2 sequestered or abated (Ten calcination cycles). 36.20 Eco-Cement Tec-Cement Other Wastes

42 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
Gaia Engineering Gaia Engineering VECTORS The Gaia Engineering process starts with either magnesium silicates or the Greensols process. In the case of silicates, magnesium carbonates are produced using proven mineral sequestration technology and then transferred to the MgCO3 cycle. The Greensols process on the other hand uses carbon dioxide from power stations and waste acid to extract magnesium carbonate and other salts from seawater or suitable brines and produces potable water as a by-product. The MgCO3 from either process is then calcined in the TecEco kiln which removes and captures carbon dioxide, ready for incorporation for example into cellulose or fuel made by genetically engineered blue green algae, and produces magnesium oxide. This magnesium oxide can either be used to make TecEco cements which in the case of eco-cement absorb more atmospheric CO2 as they harden or alternatively be used to sequester more CO2 in a hydroxide/carbonate slurry capture process. The MgCO3 produced by the hydroxide slurry process can be decarbonated and cycle around that process indefinitely as in this slide. Inputs Brines Waste Acid Wastes CO2 Outputs Gypsum, Sodium bicarbonate, Salts, Building materials, Potable water

43 Seawater Reference Data
g/l H20 Cation radius (pm) Chloride (Cl--) 19 167 Sodium (Na+) 10.5 116 Sulfate (S04--) 2.7 ? Magnesium (Mg++) 1.28 86 Calcium (Ca++) 0.412 114 Potassium (K+) 0.399 152

44 Greensols Carbon Capture
The hydrogen bonding in water keeps oppositely charged ions from combining. Water “dissolves” them. Strongly charged ions such as calcium, magnesium and carbonate attract hydration shells of water around them. For example magnesium and calcium ions polar bond to oxygen and the negative carbonate ion polar bonds to hydrogen. These bonds can propagate through several layers of water and are strong enough to prevent the formation of calcium and magnesium carbonates even from supersaturated solutions. The Greensols process uses waste acid to de-polarise a statistical proportion of water molecules by attaching a proton to them whereby positively charged sodium, calcium or magnesium ions as well as negatively charged ions including carbonate ions are released, can combine and thus precipitate.

45 Greensols Carbon Capture
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Greensols Carbon Capture Hydration shelling of water occurs around calcium or magnesium ions because of the strong charge of especially magnesium to the oxygen end of water Similar hydration shelling occurs around the negative carbonate ion through polar bonding to the hydrogen ends of water

46 Greensols Carbon Capture
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Greensols Carbon Capture The addition of a proton to water using strong waste acid results in its de polarisation whereby it no longer electronically holds as many ions (sodium, calcium, magnesium or carbonate etc.) statistically releasing them and allowing them to combine and precipitate as carbonates and other more valuable salts leaving behind essentially fresh water

47 Greensols Carbon Capture
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Greensols Carbon Capture + = Mg CO3_ _ => MgCO3 The statistical release of both cations and anions results in precipitation of for example magnesium carbonate as shown above.

48 Advantages of Greensols over Reverse Osmosis
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Advantages of Greensols over Reverse Osmosis GREENSOLS REVERSE OSMOSIS DE-SALINATION Low energy costs - Does not work against the electronic forces in water. Relatively high energy costs - Works against the hydrogen bonding of water to separate it from its ions Low maintenance - The plant consists of low cost replaceable pumps High Maintenance - The membranes need cleaning and changing at regular intervals. No damaging or dangerous outputs Highly saline water is potentially damaging Value adds include fresh water, sequestration, valuable salts and building products The only value add is fresh water Tell somebody with influence today!

49 The Tec-Reactor Hydroxide Carbonate Slurry Process
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference The Tec-Reactor Hydroxide Carbonate Slurry Process The solubility of carbon dioxide gas in seawater Increases as the temperature approached zero and Is at a maxima around 4oC This phenomenon is related to the chemical nature of CO2 and water and Can be utilised in a carbonate – hydroxide slurry process to capture CO2 out of the air and release it for storage or use in a controlled manner

50 The MgCO2 Process (Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle)
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference The MgCO2 Process (Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle) The MgCO2 (magnesium thermodynamic cycle) is very important for sequestration and results in the formation of valuable building product TOTAL CALCINING ENERGY Relative to MgCO3 Theoretical = 1480 kJ.Kg With inefficiencies = 1948 kJ.Kg-1 Tec-Kiln CO2 + H2O => Hydrocarbons compounds using algae CO2 Magnesite Dehydration Eco-Cements Calcination Representative of other hydrated mineral carbonates Calcification MgCO3 => MgO + CO2 ΔH = kJ.mol-1 ΔG = kJ.mol-1 Magnesia Nesquehonite Carbonation Mg(OH)2.nH2O +CO2 +2H2O => MgCO3.3H2O ΔH = kJ.mol ΔG = kJ.mol Carbonation Hydration MgO + H2O => Mg(OH)2.nH2O ΔH = kJ.mol ΔG = kJ.mol Brucite Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements

51 The TecEco Tec-Kiln Technology
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference The TecEco Tec-Kiln Technology Runs at low temperatures minimising the development of lattice energy. Can be powered by various non fossil sources of energy such as solar energy or waste heat. CO2 + H2O => Hydrocarbons compounds using algae MgO Production using solar energy Grinds and calcines at the same time thereby operating 25% to 30% more efficiently. Captures CO2 for return to the Greensols process, bottling or use for fuel manufacture using algae and other life forms or other purposes. The products – CaO and/or MgO can be used to sequester more CO2 in the MgCO2 process which can be repeated. Suitable for making the reactive MgO used in TecEco cements. CAPTURE OF CO2 The capture of CO2 at source during the manufacturing process is easier for the calcination of magnesium carbonates than any other carbonate mainly because the process occurs at relatively low temperatures. TecEco Pty. Ltd. own intellectual property in relation to a new tec-kiln in which grinding and calcining can occur at the same time in the same vessel for higher efficiencies and easy capture of CO2. Provided sufficient uses can be found for pure CO2 produced during manufacture whereby it is also permanently sequestered, a system for sequestration on a massive scale using carbonates as building materials is very promising. Possibilities for alternative permanent disposal are in materials such as plastics or deep underground where CO2 reacts with country rock forming more carbonate.

52 Eco-Cement CO2 Release and Capture
Eco-Cement – No Capture during Manufacture Eco-Cement – With Capture during Manufacture CO2 capture (Greensols process etc) CO2 H2O MgCO3.3H2O MgCO3.3H2O H2O H2O H2O CO2 from atmosphere MgO MgO Mg(OH)2 Mg(OH)2 H2O H2O Carbon neutral except for carbon from process emissions Net sequestration less carbon from process emissions Use of non fossil fuels => Low or no process emissions

53 Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle
CO2 in the air and water Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration burning and decay Decay by fungi and bacteria Photosynthesis by plants and algae Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco-Cements) Limestone coal and oil burning Organic compounds made by heterotrophs Organic compounds made by autotrophs Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals)

54 Outcomes from Gaia Engineering
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Outcomes from Gaia Engineering As the proportion of man made carbonate used in the built environment increases. Critical 450 ppm, level => Gaia Engineering CAN MAKE A REAL CONTRIBUTION We are even more excited about Gaia Engineering now we have modelled the possible contribution it could make to reducing CO2 in the air CO2 in the atmosphere will start to fall. These figures are obviously rubbery, but we hope you get the idea!

55 Emissions from Cement Production
Chemical Release The process of calcination involves driving off chemically bound CO2 with heat. CaCO3 →CaO + ↑CO2 Process Energy Most energy is derived from fossil fuels. Fuel oil, coal and natural gas are directly or indirectly burned to produce the energy required releasing CO2. The production of cement for concretes accounts for around 10% of global anthropogenic CO2. Pearce, F., "The Concrete Jungle Overheats", New Scientist, 19 July, No 2097, 1997 (page 14). CO2 CO2 Arguments that we should reduce cement production relative to other building materials are nonsense because concrete is the most sustainable building material there is. The challenge is to make it more sustainable.

56 Embodied Energy of Building Materials
Concrete is relatively environmentally friendly and has a relatively low embodied energy Downloaded from (last accessed 07 March 2000)

57 Average Embodied Energy in Buildings
Most of the embodied energy in the built environment is in concrete. Because so much concrete is used there is a huge opportunity for sustainability by reducing the embodied energy, reducing the carbon debt (net emissions), incorporating waste and improving properties that reduce lifetime energies. Downloaded from (last accessed 07 March 2000)

58 Cement Production ~= Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Exponential growth Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements TecEco can provide a viable much more sustainable alternative. Source data: USGS Minerals Yearbook

59 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
TecEco Binder Systems SUSTAINABILITY PORTLAND POZZOLAN Hydration of the various components of Portland cement for strength. Reaction of alkali with pozzolans (e.g. lime with fly ash.) for sustainability, durability and strength. TECECO CEMENTS DURABILITY STRENGTH TecEco concretes are a system of blending reactive magnesia, Portland cement and usually a pozzolan with other materials and are a key factor for sustainability. TECECO BINDER SYSTEMS I am now going to talk just a little about are binder systems which are basically a blending system between Portland and other hydraulic cement, reactive magnesia and, as required, a pozzolan REACTIVE MAGNESIA Hydration of magnesia => brucite for strength, workability, dimensional stability and durability. In Eco-cements carbonation of brucite => nesquehonite, lansfordite and an amorphous phase for sustainability.

60 Tec & Eco-Cement Theory
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Tec & Eco-Cement Theory Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) is too soluble, mobile and reactive. It carbonates, reacts with Cl- and SO4- and being soluble can act as an electrolyte. TecEco generally (but not always) remove Portlandite using the pozzolanic reaction and TecEco add reactive magnesia which hydrates, consuming significant water and concentrating alkalis forming Brucite which is another alkali, but much less soluble, mobile or reactive than Portlandite. In Eco-Cements brucite carbonates forming hydrated compounds with greater volume

61 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
TecEco Cements Tec-cements (Low MgO) contain more Portland cement than reactive magnesia. Reactive magnesia hydrates in the same rate order as Portland cement forming Brucite which uses up water reducing the voids:paste ratio, increasing density and possibly raising the short term pH. Reactions with pozzolans are more affective. After all the Portlandite has been consumed Brucite controls the long term pH which is lower and due to it’s low solubility, mobility and reactivity results in greater durability. Other benefits include improvements in density, strength and rheology, reduced permeability and shrinkage and the use of a wider range of aggregates many of which are potentially wastes without reaction problems.

62 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
TecEco Cements Eco-cements (High MgO) contain more reactive magnesia than in tec-cements. Brucite in permeable materials carbonates forming stronger fibrous mineral carbonates and therefore presenting huge opportunities for waste utilisation and sequestration. The low pH and high hydrogen bonding make Eco-Cements ideal for binding other materials including most wastes. Enviro-cements (High MgO) contain similar ratios of MgO and OPC to eco-cements but in non permeable concretes brucite does not carbonate readily. Higher proportions of magnesia are most suited to toxic and hazardous waste immobilisation and when durability is required. Strength is not developed quickly nor to the same extent.

63 Strength with Blend & Porosity
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Strength with Blend & Porosity Tec-cement concretes Eco-cement concretes High Porosity Enviro-cement concretes High OPC High Magnesia STRENGTH ON ARBITARY SCALE 1-100

64 Converting Waste to Resource
TecEco cements represent a cost affective option for using localised low impact materials and wastes Reducing transports costs and emissions Magnesium hydroxide in particular and to some extent the carbonates are less reactive and mobile and thus result in much more durable concretes Lower solubility Lower reactivity Bleed less Lower pH The incredible stick as a result of polar bonding also adds to their ability to bind wastes. TecEco Technology - Converting Waste to Resource

65 Carbonation of Eco-Cements
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Carbonation of Eco-Cements Have high proportions of reactive magnesium oxide Carbonate like lime but generally used in a 1:5-1:12 paste basis because much more carbonate “binder” is produced. Consider nesquehonite the main phase: MgO + H2O <=> Mg(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O <=> MgCO3.3H2O liquid <=> gas <=> molar mass (at least!) liquid <=> gas <=> molar volumes (at least!) 668% expansion relative to MgO or 308 % expansion relative to Mg(OH)2 (ex water or gas volume reduction) Total volumetric expansion from magnesium oxide to lansfordite is even more at 811%. MgO + H2O <=> Mg(OH)2 + CO2 + 4H2O <=> MgCO3.5H2O Because magnesium has a low molecular weight, proportionally a much greater amount of CO2 is captured per mole of MgO than lime or any other carbonate. Carbonation adds considerable strength and some steel reinforced structural concrete could be replaced with fibre reinforced porous carbonated concrete. Mostly CO2 and water As Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist Magazine (Pearce, F., 2002), “There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest”.

66 Carbonation is Proportional to Porosity an Time
Carbonation Rate Time Macro Porosity

67 Eco-Cement Strength Development
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Eco-Cement Strength Development Eco-Cements gain early strength from the hydration of PC. Later strength comes from the carbonation of brucite forming an amorphous phase, lansfordite and nesquehonite. Strength gain in Eco-Cements is mainly microstructural because of More ideal particle packing (Brucite particles at 4-5 micron are under half the size of cement grains.) The natural fibrous and acicular shape of magnesium carbonate minerals which tend to lock together. Both the carbonates and hydroxide of magnesium have strong polar bonding.

68 Cements Net Emissions/Sequestration Compared

69 CO2 Abatement in Eco-Cement Blocks
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference CO2 Abatement in Eco-Cement Blocks For 85 wt% Aggregates 15 wt% Cement Portland Cements 15 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate Emissions .32 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. Approximately .299 tonne to the tonne. No Capture 11.25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3.75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions .37 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. approximately .241 tonne to the tonne. Capture CO % mass% reactive magnesia, 3.75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions .25 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. approximately tonne to the tonne. Capture CO2. Fly and Bottom Ash 11.25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3.75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions .126 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. Approximately .113 tonne to the tonne. Eco-cements in porous products absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Brucite carbonates forming lansfordite, nesquehonite and an amorphous phase, completing the thermodynamic cycle. Greater Sustainability CO2 ABATEMENT IN AN ECO-CEMENT BLOCK The above slide shows that for an eco-cement concrete in a block which is 15% eco-cement if the eco-cement contains 75% reactive magnesia and with capture of CO2 during the manufacturing process and the use of a pozzolan after carbonation net emissions are less than a third as much. .299 > .241 >.140 >.113 Bricks, blocks, pavers, mortars and pavement made using eco-cement, fly and bottom ash (with capture of CO2 during manufacture of reactive magnesia) have 2.65 times less emissions than if they were made with Portland cement.

70 TecEco Technology in Practice
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference TecEco Technology in Practice => Earthship Brighton, UK By Taus Larsen, (Architect, Low Carbon Network Ltd.) The Low Carbon Network (www.lowcarbon.co.uk) was established to raise awareness of the links between buildings, the working and living patterns they create, and global warming and aims to initiate change through the application of innovative ideas and approaches to construction. England’s first Earthship is nearly completed in southern England outside Brighton at Stanmer Park and TecEco technologies have been used for the floors and some walling. EARTHSHIP BRIGHTON This slide shows the interior and exterior of Earthship Brighton in the UK which was the first building we were ever involved in. At Brighton we mainly used Eco-Cements Earthships are exemplars of low-carbon design, construction and living and were invented and developed in the USA by Mike Reynolds over 20 years of practical building exploration. They are autonomous earth-sheltered buildings independent from mains electricity, water and waste systems and have little or no utility costs. For information about the Earthship Brighton and other projects please go to the TecEco web site.

71 Earthship Brighton The first building in the world made with Eco-Cement which sets by absorbing CO2 and wastes

72 Tec-Cement Slab Whittlesea, Vic. Australia
=> Tec-Cement Concrete Slabs On 17th March 2005 TecEco poured the first commercial slab in the world using tec-cement concrete with the assistance of one of the larger cement and pre-mix companies. The formulation strategy was to adjust a standard 20 MPa high fly ash (36%) mix from the company as a basis of comparison. Strength development, and in particular early strength development was good. Interestingly some 70 days later the slab is still gaining strength at the rate of about 5 MPa a month. Also noticeable was the fact that the concrete was not as "sticky" as it normally is with a fly ash mix and that it did not bleed quite as much. Shrinkage was low. 7 days micro strains, 14 days micro strains, 28 days micros strains and at 56 days microstrains.

73 TecEco Technology in Practice - Whittlesea, Vic. Australia
=> Eco-Cement Mud Bricks First Eco-cement mud bricks and mortars in Australia Tested up twice as strong as the PC controls Mud brick addition rate 2.5% Addition rate for mortars 1:8 not 1:3 because of molar ratio volume increase with MgO compared to lime.

74 TecEco Technology in Practice – AMC Hire Tilt Up Panels
=> Tec-Cement Tilt Ups Our Tec-Cement concrete tilt ups are free of plastic cracking, obvious bleed marking and other defects.

75 Tec & Eco Cement Foamed Concretes
Foamed TecEco cement concretes can be produced to about 30% weight reduction in concrete trucks using cellflow (or equivalents) or to about 70% weight reduction using a foaming machine with mearlcrete (or equivalents). BUILD LITE CELLULAR CONCRETE 4 Rosebank Ave  Clayton Sth  MELBOURNE  AUSTRALIA 3169 PH      FX 

76 Tec & Eco Cement Foamed Concrete
=> Foamed Concretes Slabs

77 Tec & Eco Cement Foamed Concretes
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference Tec & Eco Cement Foamed Concretes => Foamed Concretes RIGID STEEL FRAMING The panels fit together forming the outside cladding of a building as you put together the frame. Foam infill in steel frames.

78 TecEco Technology in Practice
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference TecEco Technology in Practice => Topping Coats Tec-Cement concretes exhibit little or no shrinkage. At 10% substitution of MgO for PC the shrinkage is less than half normal. At 18% substitution with no added pozzolan there was no measurable shrinkage or expansion. SHRINK AND CRACKPROOF CONCRETE At the new DJ motors in Hobart we poured some very difficult topping coats that were low or zero shrinkage. The above photo shows a tec-cement concrete topping coat (with no flyash) 20mm thick away from the door and 80 mm thick near the door. Note that there has been no tendency to push the tiles or shrink away from the borders as would normally be the case.

79 TecEco Technology in Practice
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference TecEco Technology in Practice => Waterproofing Render The Clifton Surf Life Saving Club was built by first pouring footings, On the footings block walls were erected and then at a later date concrete was laid in between. As the ground underneath the footings was sandy, wet most of the time and full of salts it was a recipe for disaster. Predictably the salty water rose up through the footings and then through the blocks and where the water evaporated there was strong efflorescence, pitting, loss of material and damage. The TecEco solution was to make up a formulation of eco-cement mortar which we doctored with some special chemicals to prevent the rise of any more moisture and salt. The solution worked well and appears to have stopped the problem. CLIFTON SURF CLUB The Clifton Surf Life Saving Club was built by first pouring footings, On the footings block walls were erected and then at a later date concrete was laid in between. As the ground underneath the footings was sandy, wet most of the time and full of salts it was a recipe for disaster. Predictably the salty water rose up through the footings and then through the blocks and where the water evaporated there was strong efflorescence, pitting, loss of material and damage. We are able to remedy the problem with a formulation of eco-cement mortar which we doctored with some special chemicals to prevent the rise of any more moisture and salt. The solution worked well and appears to have stopped the problem.

80 TecEco Technology in Practice
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference TecEco Technology in Practice => Our First Slab Ever! Mike Burdon, Builder and Plumber. Mike works for a council interested in sutainability and has been involved with TecEco since around 2001 in a private capacity helping with large scale testing of TecEco tec-cements at our shack. Mike is interested in the potentially superior strength development and sustainability aspects. To date Mike has poured two slabs, footings, part of a launching ramp and some tilt up panels using formulations and materials supplied by John Harrison of TecEco. Mike believes that research into the new TecEco cements essential as he has found: The rheological performance even without plasticizer was excellent. As testimony to this the contractors on the site commented on how easy the concrete was to place and finish. The formulations are extremely easy to pump and place. Once in position they appeared to “gel up” quickly allowing stepping for a foundation to a brick wall. Strength gain was more rapid than with Portland cement controls from the same premix plant and continued for longer. The surfaces of the concrete appeared to be particularly hard and Mike attributes this to the fact that much less bleeding was observed than would be expected with a Portland cement only formulation MIKE BURDON’S MURDUNNA WORKS Mike is a plumber and a friend of mine. We have built footings, two slabs and some tilt ups at his shack. All were significantly better than controls on the same site.

81 TecEco Technology in Practice
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference TecEco Technology in Practice => Concrete Bricks, Blocks and Pavers TecEco Tec and Eco-Cement bricks, blocks and pavers are now being made commercially in Tasmania and with freight equalization may be viable to ship to the mainland for your “green” project. Otherwise we may be able to get a local manufacturer to make them for you. BLOCK MAKING Island Block and Paver Pty. Ltd. are a shareholder in TecEco and have made both Tec and Eco-Cement blocks successfully for us.

82 TecEco Eco-Cement Permecocrete
Allow many mega litres of good fresh water to become contaminated by the pollutants on our streets and pollute coastal waterways Permecocrete Or Capture and cleanse the water for our use? TecEco have now perfected porous pavements that can be made out of mono-graded recycled aggregates and other wastes and that sequester CO2. It does not get much greener!

83 TecEco Eco-Cement Permecocrete - Mimicking Nature
Permecocrete is made with Eco-Cements that set by absorbing CO2 and can use recycled aggregates. It does not get any greener! Freedom from water restrictions – forever! Pure fresh water from your own block. Filtration through Permecocrete and water feature in garden will keep water pure and fresh. Cooler house and garden (cycle under slab for house cooling/heating option). Lower infrastructure costs for local council. Water feature keeps water clean All rainwater redirected to pavement filter. Permecocrete porous pavement Pump Water storage e.g. under drive

84 TecEco Permecocrete – Biomicking Nature
Pavements are not just for vehicles. They must do much more CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 Cooling Evaporation Sequestration Cleansing microbial activity and oxygenation Moisture retention The substrate must be properly designed Optional groundwater recharge Optional impervious layer, underground drainage and storage. Dual water supply or parks etc. only.

85 Holistic Roads for the Future
In Australia we run many duplicate services down each side of a road. Given the high cost of installing infrastructure it would be smarter to adopt a system whereby services run down the middle of a road down what amount to giant box culverts. Conventional bitumen or concrete footpath pavement Pervious Eco-Cement concrete pavement (Permecocrete) surface using recycled aggregates Pervious gravel under for collection, cleansing and storage of water Services to either side of the road. All in same trench of conduit Service conduit down middle of road Foamed Eco-Cement concrete root redirectors and pavement protectors. Roots will grow away from the foamed concrete because of its general alkalinity. It will also give to some extent preventing surface pavement cracking. Impermeable layer (concrete or plastic liner) angling for main flow towards collection drains Collection drains to transport drain or pipe in service conduit at intervals Possible leakage to street trees and underground aquifers Its time for a road re think!

86 So Far - Has Anything Really Changed?
Building materials and methods have not really changed much in spite of all the pretense about sustainability. So far mostly green wash. Big improvements in our understanding of the importance of design but No real paradigm shifts in technology with perhaps a few exceptions Neon light globes Solar panels etc. To solve sustainability problems of the magnitude we have we must change the paradigm from the bottom up. We have to do things very differently!! TecEco’s answer is to convert waste and CO2 to resource by building with them. There is enormous scope for change in the built environment

87 Challenge in the Construction Business
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference The challenge now facing people in the construction business is to: Implement sustainable materials in more sustainable ways. As builders of cities we have dense concentrations of people the juxtaposition of many industries concentrations of materials Real opportunities to reduce energy and material through-put! THE ROLE OF PROFESSIONALS IN THE CONSTRUCTION BUSINESS The challenge now facing professionals in the construction business is to: understand materials Implement them in more sustainable ways. The ability to design materials as products will change the relationship between scientists, architects and engineers. I am glad to see so many of you attending today.

88 What is Stopping Us? We are holding ourselves down!
A lack of awareness The conservative nature of players in the industry Prescription standards, regulation etc. Lack of government leadership Politics Legacy subsidies for non sustainable materials and practices Failure by leaders in the market to buy sustainability Economies of scale Short term rather than long term A disconnect between builders and users A chronic lack of skills in the industry to take up new more sustainable technologies We are holding ourselves down! We must change from the bottom up!

89 A Sustainable Built Environment
John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference A Sustainable Built Environment CO2 + H2O => Hydrocarbons compounds using bacteria CO2 OTHERWASTES CO2 CO2 PERMANENT SEQUESTRATION & WASTE UTILISATION (Man made carbonate rock incorporating wastes as a building material) Pareto’s principle -80% of the build environment in non structural and could be carbonate from Greensols held together by Eco-Cements GREENSOLS MgO ECO-CEMENT CONCRETES MAGNESIUM CARBONATE TECECO KILN RECYCLED BUILDING MATERIALS “There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest”. Fred Pearce, New Scientist Magazine TECECO’S DREAM Our dream is to create cities that mimic nature in that have a balance of carbon, other wastes and energy. SUSTAINABLE CITIES Made with manufactured carbonate and waste!

90 John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference
A Post – Carbon Age ECO-CEMENTS The main magnesium carbonate that form in eco-cement is nesquehonite which is 83 mass % water and CO2 – cheap binder? Lansfordite, another mineral that forms has even more water in it! Magnesium carbonates are generally fibrous and acicular and therefore add microstructural strength. The long term pH is much lower than Portland cement concretes. Combined with the fact that magnesium minerals seem to stick well to other materials the result is that a high proportion of wastes can be included. As mentioned earlier TecEco cements are generally also much more durable. Materials that last longer are much more sustainable As Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist Magazine (Pearce, F., 2002), “There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest”.


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