Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies www.gaiaengineering.com1 Members as at Feb 07: Greensols Pty. Ltd. (Prof. Chris Cuff) www.greensols.com.au.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies www.gaiaengineering.com1 Members as at Feb 07: Greensols Pty. Ltd. (Prof. Chris Cuff) www.greensols.com.au."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies Members as at Feb 07: Greensols Pty. Ltd. (Prof. Chris Cuff) TecEco Pty. Ltd. (John Harrison) The name Gaia Engineering is a tribute to James Lovelock who got us all thinking that We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them." (Einstein)

2 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 2 Even if the annual flow of emissions was frozen today, the level of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere would still reach double its pre- industrial levels by In fact, emissions are increasing rapidly and the level of 550ppm could be reached as early as Stern review Executive Summary Page 3 para 6 Our view is that this is a crisis and it is time we stopped stuffing around and went for the solution that can solve the problem quickly, economically and without huge suffering and losses. Gaia Engineering is that solution

3 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 3 Gaia Engineering Presentation Roadmap The Global Sustainability Alliance The Global Sustainability Alliance Background Background Materials through the Techno-Process Materials through the Techno-Process The supply and waste chains and in useThe supply and waste chains and in use Economics Economics Biomimicry/Geomimicry Biomimicry/Geomimicry Gaia Engineering Gaia Engineering IntroductionIntroduction Components of Gaia EngineeringComponents of Gaia Engineering Outcomes of Gaia EngineeringOutcomes of Gaia Engineering

4 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 4 Global Sustainability Alliance Our mission is to develop Gaia Engineering that substantially reverses damaging molecular flows that are a consequence of materials flows on the planet Our mission is to develop Gaia Engineering that substantially reverses damaging molecular flows that are a consequence of materials flows on the planet As the built environment is man made and involves large flows it is the obvious place to permanently fix CO 2 and other wastes As the built environment is man made and involves large flows it is the obvious place to permanently fix CO 2 and other wastes Gaia engineering is potentially profitable as it results in the production of valuable commodities including fresh water and building materials Gaia engineering is potentially profitable as it results in the production of valuable commodities including fresh water and building materials

5 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 5 Demographic Explosion Developed Countries Undeveloped Countries Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet are exploding. ? ? A Planet in Crisis

6 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 6 Ecological Footprint Exceeds Capacity Our footprint is exceeding the capacity of the planet to support it. We are not longer sustainable and the environment is no longer sustainable – we must change our ways to survive Source: WWF State of the Planet, 2005

7 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 7Energy Peak Oil Production (Campell 2004) Most models of oil reserves, production and consumption show peak oil around 2010 (Campbell 2005) and serious undersupply and rapidly escalating prices by It follows that there will be economic mayhem unless the we act now to reduce and change the energy base of our economies.

8 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 8 The Carbon Cycle and Emissions After: David Schimel and Lisa Dilling, National Centre for Atmospheric Research 2003 Emissions from fossil fuels and cement production are a significant cause of the global warming. Units: GtC GtC/yr 4.5 billion years of geological sequestration have resulted in 7% of the crust being carbonate We need to increase the sedimentary carbon sink

9 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 9 Global Warming Rises in the levels of greenhouse gases Are causing a rapid rise in temperature

10 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 10 CO 2 and Temperature The correlation between temperature and CO 2 in the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is very good The correlation between temperature and CO 2 in the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is very good Should we continue to live in denial? Hansen, J et. al. Climate Change and Trace Gases

11 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 11 Fresh Water A finite resource A finite resource Population risingPopulation rising Per capita use risingPer capita use rising Water-stress Water-stress 1/3 world's population1/3 world's population By 2025, 2/3 due to global warming.By 2025, 2/3 due to global warming. 1 person in 5 do not have access to safe drinking water1 person in 5 do not have access to safe drinking water Yet water is the most common substance on the planet. Yet water is the most common substance on the planet.

12 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 12 Waste & Pollution Ill health. Contamination of global commons with dangerous molecules. Increased traffic, noise, odours, smoke, dust, litter and pests. There are various estimates, but we produce about million tonnes of waste each year. Tec and Eco-Cements use waste.

13 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 13 Global Sustainability Alliance Partners are in the BIGGEST Business on the Planet – Economic Solutions to our Energy, Global Warming, Water and Waste Problems. One Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected Problems

14 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 14 The Techno-Process Underlying the techno-process that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks and flows. If out of synch with nature these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects on earth systems. To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems. Detrimental affects on earth systems Move billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnes Take Waste Materials

15 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 15 Earth Systems Science Courtesy NASA Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki)

16 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 16 The Earth System Anthropo- sphere The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops. Small changes caused by man such as CO 2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global commons

17 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 17 How Flows in the Techno-Process Effect Earth Systems Take Manipulate Make Use Waste [ Materials ] [ Underlying molecular flow ] [ Materials ] [ Underlying molecular flow ] T hese underlying molecular flows are damaging the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfcs, c=halogen compounds and CO 2 T hese underlying molecular flows are damaging the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfcs, c=halogen compounds and CO 2 Moleconomics Is the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic or minimally interfere with natural flows.

18 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 18 Detrimental Impacts of the Techno-Process Takemanipulateand makeimpacts End of lifecycle impacts Greater Utility Less Utility Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows. There is no such place as away Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system flows Materials are in the Techno- Sphere Utility zone

19 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 19 Materials – Important for Sustainability The choice of materials controls underlying molecular flows, (the study of moleconomics) Affected are emissions, lifetime and embodied energies, physical properties such as specific heat and conductance, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the biosphere and geosphere

20 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 20 Changing the Techno-Process Reduce Re-use Recycle Materials Take => manipulate => make => use => waste Atoms and Molecules in the global commons Driven by fossil fuel energy with detrimental moleconomic effects.

21 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 21 Economically Driven Sustainability New, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable and usually more efficient moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse our damaging flows. $ - ECONOMICS - $ Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right.

22 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 22 Changing the Technology Paradigm By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource 1 1.Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990 It is not so much a matter of dematerialisation as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms

23 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 23 Cultural Change Al Gore (SOS) Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports CSIRO reports STERN Report STERN Report Lots of Talkfest Lots of Talkfest IPCC Report IPCC Report Branson Prize Branson Prize Live Earth (07/07/07) Live Earth (07/07/07) The media have a growing role

24 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 24 Sustainability is Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change. # $ Demand Supply Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation. Equilibrium Shift ECONOMICS Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growth A measure of the degree of sustainability of an industrial ecology is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply. We must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainability Economics

25 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 25 Learning from Nature (Biomimicry) Nature is the most frugal economist of all. Nature is the most frugal economist of all. The waste from one plant or animal is the food or home for another.The waste from one plant or animal is the food or home for another. In nature photosynthesis balances respiration and recycling is the normIn nature photosynthesis balances respiration and recycling is the norm By studying nature we learn who we are, what we are and how we are to be. (Wright, F.L. 1957:269) By studying nature we learn who we are, what we are and how we are to be. (Wright, F.L. 1957:269) There is a strong need for similar efficiency and balance in our techno-process There is a strong need for similar efficiency and balance in our techno-process By learning from Nature we can all live together

26 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 26Biomimicry The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration. Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration. It involves nature as model, measure and mentor. It involves nature as model, measure and mentor. The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy. Nature is very economical about all Processes. We must also be MUCH more economical

27 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 27 Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers As peak oil start to bite and the price of transport rises sharply As peak oil start to bite and the price of transport rises sharply We should not just be recycling based on chemical property requiring transport to large centralised sophisticated and expensive facilitiesWe should not just be recycling based on chemical property requiring transport to large centralised sophisticated and expensive facilities We should be including CO 2 and wastes based on physical properties as well as chemical composition in composites whereby they become local resources.We should be including CO 2 and wastes based on physical properties as well as chemical composition in composites whereby they become local resources. The Jackdaw recycles all sorts of things it finds nearby based on physical property. The bird is not concerned about chemical composition and the nest it makes could be described as a composite material. TecEco cements are benign binders that can incorporate all sort of wastes without reaction problems. We can do the same as the Jackdaw

28 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 28 Utilizing Carbon and Wastes During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. We all use carbon and wastes to make our homes! In eco-cement blocks and mortars the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably wastes Biomimicry - Geomimicry CO 2 C Waste CO 2

29 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 29Geomimicry There are grams of magnesium and about.4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater. There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration. To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO 2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicry Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% of the crust.

30 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 30 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Large tonnages of carbon were put away during earths geological history as limestone, dolomite, magnesite, coal and oil by the activity of plants and animals. Large tonnages of carbon were put away during earths geological history as limestone, dolomite, magnesite, coal and oil by the activity of plants and animals. Shellfish built shells from it andShellfish built shells from it and Trees turned it into wood.Trees turned it into wood. These same plants and animals wasted nothing These same plants and animals wasted nothing The waste from one was the food or home for another.The waste from one was the food or home for another. Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials. Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials. Materials are very important

31 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 31 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? The answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials. The answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials. Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do.Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do. It can only happen economically.It can only happen economically. We must put an economic value on carbon to solve global warming by We must put an economic value on carbon to solve global warming by inventing new technical paradigms such as offered by the Global Sustainability Alliance in Gaia Engineering.inventing new technical paradigms such as offered by the Global Sustainability Alliance in Gaia Engineering. Evolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigmsEvolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigms By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as a building materials we could economically reduce their concentration in the global commons.By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as a building materials we could economically reduce their concentration in the global commons. Materials are very important

32 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 32 Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem How much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming? How much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming? 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= billion tonnes magnesite12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= billion tonnes magnesite The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 Thus 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite are required to be deposited each year. Thus 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite are required to be deposited each year. Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable. Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable. If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved! If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved! We must build with carbonate and waste

33 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 33 The Gaia Engineering Process Greensols Process Fossil fuels Solar or solar derived energy Oil MgO CO 2 Coal CO 2 MgCO 3 CO 2 Inputs: Atmospheric or smokestack CO 2, brines, waste acid, other wastes Outputs: Potable water, gypsum, sodium bicarbonate, salts, building materials, bottled concentrated CO 2 (for algal fuel production and other uses). Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds 1.29 gm/l Mg Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable techno- processes outside the tececology. TecEco MgCO 2 Cycle TecEco Kiln Carbonate building components Eco-Cement

34 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 34 Gaia Engineering Introduction Gaia Engineering is a combination of new technologies including Gaia Engineering is a combination of new technologies including A seawater separation technology from Greensols Pty. Ltd.A seawater separation technology from Greensols Pty. Ltd. TecEcos Tec-Kiln technology and cementsTecEcos Tec-Kiln technology and cements Carbon dioxide scrubbing technologiesCarbon dioxide scrubbing technologies TecEco' Eco-CementsTecEco' Eco-Cements

35 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 35 Gaia Engineering Introduction (2) Gaia engineering profitably geomimics past planetary geological processes and adopted on a large scale will: Gaia engineering profitably geomimics past planetary geological processes and adopted on a large scale will: Sequester significant amounts of atmospheric CO2Sequester significant amounts of atmospheric CO2 Add value to the salts recoverable from sea waterAdd value to the salts recoverable from sea water Convert large volumes of waste to valuable resourceConvert large volumes of waste to valuable resource Produce fresh water.Produce fresh water.

36 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 36 Gaia Engineering Introduction (3) Gaia Engineering works like a giant ecological pump. Gaia Engineering works like a giant ecological pump. Inputs include Inputs include Seawater or suitable brineSeawater or suitable brine CO 2CO 2 Waste acidWaste acid Other wastes of all kindsOther wastes of all kinds A small amount of energyA small amount of energy Outputs include Outputs include Gypsum, sodium bicarbonate and various other valuable salts.Gypsum, sodium bicarbonate and various other valuable salts. Magnesium carbonate building components.Magnesium carbonate building components. TecEco Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements.TecEco Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements. Waste utlisation.Waste utlisation. Fresh water.Fresh water.

37 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 37 Gaia Engineering Industrial Ecologies are generally thought of as closed loop systems with minimal or low impacts outside the ecology The Gaia Engineering tececology could be thought of as an open technical ecology designed to reverse major damaging moleconomic and other system flows outside the tececology The Gaia Engineering tececology is not closed and is designed to reverse damaging moleconomic flows outside the ecology - LIKE A GIANT ECOLOGICAL PUMP

38 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 38 CO 2 from power generation, industry or out of the air Magnesia (MgO) Other Wastes Simplified TecEco Reactions Tec-Kiln MgCO3 MgO + CO kJ/mole Reactor Process MgO + CO 2 MgCO kJ/mole (usually more complex hydrates) (MgCO2) Cycle Waste Acid x 10 9 km3 Seawater containing tonne Mg or suitable brines from other sources Tonnes CO2 sequestered per tonne magnesium with various cycles through the TecEco Tec-Kiln process. Assuming no leakage MgO to built environment (i.e. complete cycles). Billion Tonnes Tonnes CO 2 sequestered by 1 billion tonnes of Mg in seawater Tonnes CO 2 captured during calcining (same as above) Tonnes CO 2 captured by eco-cement Total tonnes CO 2 sequestered or abated per tonne Mg in seawater (Single calcination cycle) Total tonnes CO 2 sequestered or abated (Five calcination cycles.) Total tonnes CO 2 sequestered or abated (Ten calcination cycles) Gypsum (CaSO 4 ) Gypsum + carbon waste (e.g. sewerage) = fertilizers Sewerage compost Magnesite (MgCO 3 ) Solar Process to Produce Magnesium Metal Bicarbonate of Soda (NaHCO 3 ) Eco-Cement Tec-Cement Other salts Na +,K +, Ca 2+,Cl - CO 2 from power generation or industry Sequestration Table – Mg from Seawater CO 2 CO 2 + H 2 O => Energy rich biomass using blue green algae Greensols Seawater Carbonation Process. Tec-Reactor Hydroxide / Carbonate slurry process MgO Production using solar energy Gaia Engineering

39 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 39 Gaia Engineering Inputs Brines Waste Acid Wastes CO2 Outputs Gypsum, Sodium bicarbonate, Salts, Building materials, Potable water

40 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 40 Greensols – Making Carbonate Building Components Greensols Pty. Ltd is an Australian company with an economic technology to precipitate out carbonates and other valuable compounds from sea water and brines and in the process sequester significant amounts of carbon dioxide and produce valuable by products including fresh water. Greensols Pty. Ltd is an Australian company with an economic technology to precipitate out carbonates and other valuable compounds from sea water and brines and in the process sequester significant amounts of carbon dioxide and produce valuable by products including fresh water.

41 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 41 Greensols Carbon Capture Strongly charged ions such as calcium, magnesium and carbonate attract hydration shells of water around them. Magnesium and calcium ions polar bond to oxygen and the negative carbonate ion to hydrogen. These bonds can propagate through several layers of water and are strong enough to prevent the formation of calcium and magnesium carbonates even from supersaturated solutions. Strongly charged ions such as calcium, magnesium and carbonate attract hydration shells of water around them. Magnesium and calcium ions polar bond to oxygen and the negative carbonate ion to hydrogen. These bonds can propagate through several layers of water and are strong enough to prevent the formation of calcium and magnesium carbonates even from supersaturated solutions.

42 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 42 The Greensols Process The Greensols process uses waste acid to de-polarise a statistical proportion of water molecules by attaching a proton whereby positively charged sodium, calcium or magnesium ions as well as negatively charged ions including carbonate ions are released, can combine and then precipitate. The Greensols process uses waste acid to de-polarise a statistical proportion of water molecules by attaching a proton whereby positively charged sodium, calcium or magnesium ions as well as negatively charged ions including carbonate ions are released, can combine and then precipitate.

43 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 43 Greensols Carbon Capture Hydration shelling of water around calcium or magnesium Ions because of the strong charge of especially magnesium to the oxygen end of water Similar hydration shelling occurs around the negative carbonate ion through polar bonding to the hydrogen ends of water

44 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 44 Greensols Carbon Capture The addition of a proton to water using strong waste acid results in its depolarisation whereby it no longer electronically holds as many ions (sodium, calcium, magnesium or carbonate etc.) statistically releasing them and allowing them to combine and precipitate as carbonates and other more valuable salts leaving behind essentially fresh water

45 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 45 Greensols Carbon Capture The statistical release of both cations and anions results in precipitation of for example magnesium carbonate as shown above. + = Mg ++ + CO 3 _ _ => MgCO 3

46 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 46 Advantages of Greensols GREENSOLS REVERSE OSMOSIS Low energy costs - Does not work against the electronic forces in water. Relatively high energy costs - Works against the hydrogen bonding of water to separate it from its ions Low maintenance - The plant consists of low cost replaceable pumps High Maintenance - The membranes need cleaning and changing at regular intervals. No damaging or dangerous outputs Highly saline water is potentially damaging Value adds include fresh water, sequestration, valuable salts and building products The only value add is fresh water

47 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 47 The Tec-Reactor Hydroxide Carbonate Slurry Process The solubility of carbon dioxide gas in seawater The solubility of carbon dioxide gas in seawater Increases as the temperature approached zero andIncreases as the temperature approached zero and Is at a maxima around 4 o CIs at a maxima around 4 o C This phenomenon is related to the chemical nature of CO 2 and water and This phenomenon is related to the chemical nature of CO 2 and water and Can be utilised in a carbonate – hydroxide slurry process to capture CO 2 out of the air and release it to storage or use in a controlled manner Can be utilised in a carbonate – hydroxide slurry process to capture CO 2 out of the air and release it to storage or use in a controlled manner

48 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 48 The MgCO 2 Process (Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle) The MgCO2 (magnesium thermodynamic cycle) is very important for sequestration and is used for the formation of valuable building product Representative of other hydrated mineral carbonates CO 2 Carbonation Mg(OH) 2.nH 2 O +CO 2 +2H 2 O => MgCO 3.3H 2 O ΔH = kJ.mol ΔG = kJ.mol Eco-Cements Nesquehonite Magnesite Dehydration Carbonation Brucite TOTAL CALCINING ENERGY Relative to MgCO3 Theoretical = 1480 kJ.Kg With inefficiencies = 1948 kJ.Kg-1 Magnesia Calcination Tec-Kiln Hydration MgO + H 2 O => Mg(OH) 2.nH 2 O ΔH = kJ.mol ΔG = kJ.mol Calcification MgCO 3 => MgO + CO 2 ΔH = kJ.mol -1 ΔG = kJ.mol -1 Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements CO 2 + H 2 O => Hydrocarbons compounds using algae

49 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 49 Tec-Kiln Technology Runs at low temperatures minimising the development of lattice energy. Runs at low temperatures minimising the development of lattice energy. Can be powered by various non fossil sources of energy such as solar energy or waste heat. Can be powered by various non fossil sources of energy such as solar energy or waste heat. Grinds and calcines at the same time thereby running 25% to 30% more efficiency. Grinds and calcines at the same time thereby running 25% to 30% more efficiency. Brings mineral sequestration and geological sequestration together. Brings mineral sequestration and geological sequestration together. Captures CO2 for bottling and use for fuel manufacture using algae and other life forms o other purposes. Captures CO2 for bottling and use for fuel manufacture using algae and other life forms o other purposes. The products – CaO and/or MgO can be used to sequester more CO2 and then be re-calcined. This cycle can then be repeated. The products – CaO and/or MgO can be used to sequester more CO2 and then be re-calcined. This cycle can then be repeated. Suitable for making reactive reactive MgO.Will result in new markets for ultra reactive low lattice energy MgO (e.g. cement, paper and environment industries) Suitable for making reactive reactive MgO.Will result in new markets for ultra reactive low lattice energy MgO (e.g. cement, paper and environment industries) CO 2 + H 2 O => Hydrocarbons compounds using algae MgO Production using solar energy

50 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 50 Why Magnesium Carbonates for Sequestration? Why Magnesium Carbonates for Sequestration? Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO 2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment: Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO 2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment: More CO 2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show. More CO 2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show. At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant element At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant element Sea-water contains 1.29 gm/litre Sea-water contains 1.29 gm/litre Magnesium minerals are potential low cost. New kiln technology from TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate with CO 2 capture for other uses. (e.g. algal production of fuel) Magnesium minerals are potential low cost. New kiln technology from TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate with CO 2 capture for other uses. (e.g. algal production of fuel) Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for waste utilisation. Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for waste utilisation. Group Period 1 1H1H 2 He He 2 3 Li 4 Be 5B5B 6C6C 7N7N 8O8O 9F9F 10 Ne Ne 3 11 Na 12 Mg 13 Al Al 14 Si Si 15 P P 16 S S 17 Cl Cl 18 Ar Ar 4 19 K 20 Ca 21 Sc Sc 22 Ti Ti 23 V V 24 Cr Cr 25 Mn Mn 26 Fe Fe 27 Co Co 28 Ni Ni 29 Cu Cu 30 Zn Zn 31 Ga Ga 32 Ge Ge 33 As As 34 Se Se 35 Br Br 36 Kr Kr 5 37 Rb 38 Sr 39 Y Y 40 Zr Zr 41 Nb Nb 42 Mo Mo 43 Tc Tc 44 Ru Ru 45 Rh Rh 46 Pd Pd 47 Ag Ag 48 Cd Cd 49 In In 50 Sn Sn 51 Sb Sb 52 Te Te 53 I I 54 Xe Xe 6 55 Cs 56 Ba * 71 Lu Lu 72 Hf Hf 73 Ta Ta 74 W W 75 Re Re 76 Os Os 77 Ir Ir 78 Pt Pt 79 Au Au 80 Hg Hg 81 Tl Tl 82 Pb Pb 83 Bi Bi 84 Po Po 85 At At 86 Rn Rn 7 87 Fr 88 Ra* 103 Lr Lr 10 4 Rf Rf 105 Db Db 106 Sg Sg 107 Bh Bh 108 Hs Hs 109 Mt Mt 110 Uun Uun 111 Uuu Uuu 112 Uub Uub 113 Uut 114 Uuq Uuq 115 Uup 116 Uuh Uuh 117 Uus 118 Uuo Uuo *Lanthanoids* 57 La La 58 Ce Ce 59 Pr Pr 60 Nd Nd 61 Pm Pm 62 Sm Sm 63 Eu Eu 64 Gd Gd 65 Tb Tb 66 Dy Dy 67 Ho Ho 68 Er Er 69 Tm Tm 70 Yb Yb **Actinoids* 89 Ac Ac 90 Th Th 91 Pa Pa 92 U U 93 Np Np 94 Pu Pu 95 Am Am 96 Cm Cm 97 Bk Bk 98 Cf Cf 99 Es Es 100 Fm Fm 101 Md Md 102 No No

51 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 51 Why Materials for the Built Environment? The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth. The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth. It comprises buildings and infrastructure.It comprises buildings and infrastructure. Construction materials comprise Construction materials comprise 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.)70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.)40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Over 30 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis. Over 30 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis. Mostly using virgin natural resourcesMostly using virgin natural resources Combined in such a manner that they cannot easily be separated.Combined in such a manner that they cannot easily be separated. Include many toxic elements.Include many toxic elements. Why not use magnesium carbonates components from Greensols and Eco- Cements from TecEco?

52 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 52 Huge Potential for More Sustainable Construction Materials Reducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process by. Reducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process by. including carbon in materials they are potentially carbon sinks.including carbon in materials they are potentially carbon sinks. including wastes for physical properties as well as chemical composition they become resources.including wastes for physical properties as well as chemical composition they become resources. re engineering materials to reduce the lifetime energy of buildingsre engineering materials to reduce the lifetime energy of buildings A durable low pH binder high bonding system is required for effective waste utilisation such as Tec and Eco-Cements developed by TecEco A durable low pH binder high bonding system is required for effective waste utilisation such as Tec and Eco-Cements developed by TecEco Many wastes including CO 2 can contribute to physical properties reducing lifetime energies CO 2 C Waste CO 2

53 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 53 Earthship Brighton Earthship Brighton, the first building in the world made with Eco-Cement which sets by absorbing CO 2 and wastes

54 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 54 TecEco Cements Tec-cements (Low MgO) Tec-cements (Low MgO) contain more Portland cement than reactive magnesia. Reactive magnesia hydrates in the same rate order as Portland cement forming Brucite which uses up water reducing the voids:paste ratio, increasing density and possibly raising the short term pH.contain more Portland cement than reactive magnesia. Reactive magnesia hydrates in the same rate order as Portland cement forming Brucite which uses up water reducing the voids:paste ratio, increasing density and possibly raising the short term pH. Reactions with pozzolans are more affective. After all the Portlandite has been consumed Brucite controls the long term pH which is lower and due to its low solubility, mobility and reactivity results in greater durability.Reactions with pozzolans are more affective. After all the Portlandite has been consumed Brucite controls the long term pH which is lower and due to its low solubility, mobility and reactivity results in greater durability. Other benefits include improvements in density, strength and rheology, reduced permeability and shrinkage and the use of a wider range of aggregates many of which are potentially wastes without reaction problems.Other benefits include improvements in density, strength and rheology, reduced permeability and shrinkage and the use of a wider range of aggregates many of which are potentially wastes without reaction problems.

55 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 55 TecEco Cements Eco-cements (High MgO) Eco-cements (High MgO) contain more reactive magnesia than in tec-cements. Brucite in porous materials carbonates forming stronger fibrous mineral carbonates and therefore presenting huge opportunities for waste utilisation and sequestration. The low pH and high hydrogen bonding make Eco-Cements ideal for binding other materials including most wastes.contain more reactive magnesia than in tec-cements. Brucite in porous materials carbonates forming stronger fibrous mineral carbonates and therefore presenting huge opportunities for waste utilisation and sequestration. The low pH and high hydrogen bonding make Eco-Cements ideal for binding other materials including most wastes. Enviro-cements (High MgO) Enviro-cements (High MgO) contain similar ratios of MgO and OPC to eco-cements but in non porous concretes brucite does not carbonate readily.contain similar ratios of MgO and OPC to eco-cements but in non porous concretes brucite does not carbonate readily. Higher proportions of magnesia are most suited to toxic and hazardous waste immobilisation and when durability is required. Strength is not developed quickly nor to the same extent.Higher proportions of magnesia are most suited to toxic and hazardous waste immobilisation and when durability is required. Strength is not developed quickly nor to the same extent.

56 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 56 Cements Net Emissions/Sequestration Compared (Gaia Engineering Assumed)

57 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 57 A Sustainable Built Environment MAGNESIUM CARBONATE ECO-CEMENT CONCRETES SUSTAINABLE CITIES CO 2 PERMANENT SEQUESTRATION & WASTE UTILISATION (Man made carbonate rock incorporating wastes as a building material) Paretos principle - 80% of the build environment in non structural and could be carbonate from Greensols held together by Eco- Cements CO 2 MgO TECECO KILN RECYCLED BUILDING MATERIALS OTHER WASTES There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest. Fred Pearce, New Scientist Magazine CO 2 + H 2 O => Hydrocarbons compounds using bacteria GREENSOLS CO 2

58 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 58 Planetary Engineering - Reduction Global CO 2 from Gaia Engineering Processes

59 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies 59 Carbonate Sequestration in Built Environment


Download ppt "Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologies www.gaiaengineering.com1 Members as at Feb 07: Greensols Pty. Ltd. (Prof. Chris Cuff) www.greensols.com.au."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google