Presentation on theme: "John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar"— Presentation transcript:
1John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Gaia EngineeringGlobal Sustainability AllianceMembers as at Feb 07:Greensols Pty. Ltd. (Prof. Chris Cuff)TecEco Pty. Ltd. (John Harrison)The name Gaia Engineering is a tribute to James Lovelock who got us all thinking that “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them." (Einstein)
2Gaia Engineering is that solution Even if the annual flow of emissions was frozen today, the level of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere would still reach double its pre-industrial levels by In fact, emissions are increasing rapidly and the level of 550ppm could be reached as early as 2035.Stern review Executive Summary Page 3 para 6Our view is that this is a crisis and it is time we stopped stuffing around and went for the solution that can solve the problem quickly, economically and without huge suffering and losses.Gaia Engineering is that solution
3Gaia Engineering Presentation Roadmap The Global Sustainability AllianceBackgroundMaterials through the Techno-ProcessThe supply and waste chains and in useEconomicsBiomimicry/GeomimicryGaia EngineeringIntroductionComponents of Gaia EngineeringOutcomes of Gaia Engineering
4Global Sustainability Alliance Our mission is to develop Gaia Engineering that substantially reverses damaging molecular flows that are a consequence of materials flows on the planetAs the built environment is man made and involves large flows it is the obvious place to permanently fix CO2 and other wastesGaia engineering is potentially profitable as it results in the production of valuable commodities including fresh water and building materials
5Demographic Explosion John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarDemographic Explosion?Undeveloped CountriesA Planet in CrisisDeveloped CountriesDEMOGRAPHICSGlobal population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet is exploding.The graph shows population. I wouldn’t like to see a graph of per capita consumption added. The two together would be frightening.The world population passed 6 billion in At the current rate the world will have 7 billion people soon after the year The overwhelming share of world population growth is taking place in developing countries and has more than doubled in 35 years, growing from 1.89 billion in 1955 to 4.13 billion in 1990.Significant proportions of population increases in the developing countries have been and will be absorbed by urban areas which are growing five times faster than urban areas in developed countries.Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet are exploding.
6Ecological Footprint Exceeds Capacity John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarEcological Footprint Exceeds CapacitySource: WWF State of the Planet, 2005Our footprint is exceeding the capacity of the planet to support it. We are not longer sustainable and the environment is no longer sustainable – we must change our ways to survive
7John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar EnergyPeak Oil Production (Campell 2004)Most models of oil reserves, production and consumption show peak oil around 2010 (Campbell 2005) and serious undersupply and rapidly escalating prices by It follows that there will be economic mayhem unless the we act now to reduce and change the energy base of our economies.
8The Carbon Cycle and Emissions John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarThe Carbon Cycle and EmissionsEmissions from fossil fuels and cement production are a significant cause of the global warming.We need to increase the sedimentary carbon sinkCEMENT EMMISSIONSCement manufacture contributes significantly to global warming as I am sure Vijay Rangan has or will tell you. As members of the industry we are trying to do something about the problem. That is why we are all here today4.5 billion years of geological sequestration have resulted in 7% of the crust being carbonateUnits: GtC GtC/yrAfter: David Schimel and Lisa Dilling, National Centre for Atmospheric Research 2003
9John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Global WarmingRises in the levels of greenhouse gasesATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDEOf particular concern and therefore the most studied is the problem of CO2 in the atmosphere and the global warming that results. The level of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels is rising too rapidly for natural processes to absorb and in the air has risen from 280 parts per million in pre-industrial times to just under 380 parts per million in 2004.Are causing a rapid rise in temperature
10CO2 and TemperatureHansen, J et. al. Climate Change and Trace GasesThe correlation between temperature and CO2 in the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is very goodShould we continue to live in denial?
11John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Fresh WaterA finite resourcePopulation risingPer capita use risingWater-stress1/3 world's populationBy 2025, 2/3 due to global warming.1 person in 5 do not have access to safe drinking waterYet water is the most common substance on the planet.
12Tec and Eco-Cements use waste. Waste & PollutionIll health.Contamination of global commons with dangerous molecules.Increased traffic, noise, odours, smoke, dust, litter and pests.There are various estimates, but we produce about million tonnes of waste each year.Tec and Eco-Cements use waste.
13One Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected Problems John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarOne Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected ProblemsGlobal Sustainability Alliance Partners are in the BIGGEST Business on the Planet – Economic Solutions to our Energy, Global Warming, Water and Waste Problems.
14John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar The Techno-ProcessUnderlying the techno-process that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks and flows. If out of synch with nature these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects on earth systems.BiosphereGeosphereDetrimental affects on earth systemsWasteTakeMove billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnesMaterialsManipulateMaterialsMake and UseAnthroposphereTHE TECHNO-PROCESSMost of you will have by now come to realise that there is a process often described as the “take use waste process” that I call the techno process. Unfortunately there are affects on global systems that are detrimental.To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems.
15Earth Systems ScienceCourtesy NASAEarth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki)
16The Earth System Atmosphere Biosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops.Small changes caused by man such as CO2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global commonsAtmosphereAnthropo-sphereBiosphereGeosphereHydrosphere
17How Flows in the Techno-Process Effect Earth Systems John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarHow Flows in the Techno-Process Effect Earth SystemsTake → Manipulate → Make → Use → Waste[ ←Materials→ ] [ ← Underlying molecular flow → ]These underlying molecular flows are damaging the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfc’s, c=halogen compounds and CO2MoleconomicsIs the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic or minimally interfere with natural flows.MOLECONOMIC FLOWSUnderlying the flow of materials through the techno process is a moleconomic flow of molecules that is out of tune with the rest of the planet and causing damage to the environment. If you want to know more about the science of moleconomics please go to our web site and look under projects.
18Detrimental Impacts of the Techno-Process Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system flowsTake manipulate and make impactsEnd of lifecycle impactsMaterials are in the Techno-Sphere Utility zoneThere is no such place as “away”Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows.Greater UtilityLess Utility
19Materials – Important for Sustainability John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarMaterials – Important for SustainabilityThe choice of materials controls underlying molecular flows, (the study of moleconomics) Affected are emissions, lifetime and embodied energies, physical properties such as specific heat and conductance, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the biosphere and geosphere
20Changing the Techno-Process John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarChanging the Techno-ProcessTake => manipulate => make => use => wasteDriven by fossil fuel energy with detrimental moleconomic effects.Reduce Re-use RecycleINDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY – CHANGING THE TECHNO-PROCESSI am sure you will have all heard of the three R’s. Reduce, reuse and recycle, to which some add re-make.Industrial ecology, the idea that the waste output of one kind of activity can be resource input for another, is most easily achieved in the construction industry.The materials used determine many properties including weight, embodied energies, fuel related and chemical emissions, lifetime energies, user comfort and health, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere. If you cannot recycle for chemical property recycle on the basis of physical properties the material would contribute to a composite.There is huge scope for sequestration and conversion of waste to resource given the massive size of the materials flows involved in the built environment. With the right materials technology, because of its sheer size, the built environment could reduce the take from the bio-geo-sphere and utilise many different wastes including carbon dioxideMaterialsAtoms and Molecules in the global commons
21Economically Driven Sustainability John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarEconomically Driven SustainabilityNew, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable and usually more efficient moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse our damaging flows.ECONOMICALLY DRIVEN SUSTAINABILITYOur approach must not only be holistic, but also economic if we are to have any hope of success.Working for sustainability market forces will make all the difference.The challenge is to move the supply and demand of resources towards more sustainable outcomes by stimulating and harnessing human behaviours which underlay economic demand phenomena, through cultural change push by governments and other leaders, and real improvement in technical and other properties as I will explain in the next slide.Sustainable processes like the new TecEco technologies are more efficient and therefore more economic.$ - ECONOMICS - $Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right.
22Changing the Technology Paradigm John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarChanging the Technology ParadigmIt is not so much a matter of “dematerialisation” as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms“By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource1”Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990
23Cultural Change Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports STERN Report Lots of TalkfestIPCC ReportBranson PrizeLive Earth (07/07/07)The media have a growing role
24Sustainability is Where Culture and Technology Meet John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarEconomicsSustainability is Where Culture and Technology MeetIncrease in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change.$SupplyEquilibriumShiftGreater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growthECONOMICSWe must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainabilityDemandCULTURAL CHANGE AND PARADIGM SHIFTS IN TECHNOLOGYChanges in the market interaction of demand and supply reducing energy and resource usage and detrimental linkages with the planet can be achieved through cultural change and innovative changes in the technical paradigm.Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation.#A measure of the degree of sustainability of an industrial ecology is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply.
25Learning from Nature (Biomimicry) John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarLearning from Nature (Biomimicry)Nature is the most frugal economist of all.The waste from one plant or animal is the food or home for another.In nature photosynthesis balances respiration and recycling is the normBy studying nature “we learn who we are, what we are and how we are to be.” (Wright, F.L. 1957:269)There is a strong need for similar efficiency and balance in our techno-processBy learning from Nature we can all live togetherBIOMIMICRYThe philosophy and chemistry of TecEco technology is backed by the greatest and longest experiment of all time – that of life on this planet.Little is wasted in nature, the waste from one living thing being the home or food for another.We must, like nature, devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes.
26John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar BiomimicryThe term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine BenyusBiomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration.It involves nature as model, measure and mentor.The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy.Nature is very economical about all Processes. We must also be MUCH more economical
27Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarBiomimicry - Ultimate RecyclersAs peak oil start to bite and the price of transport rises sharplyWe should not just be recycling based on chemical property requiring transport to large centralised sophisticated and expensive facilitiesWe should be including CO2 and wastes based on physical properties as well as chemical composition in composites whereby they become local resources.The Jackdaw recycles all sorts of things it finds nearby based on physical property. The bird is not concerned about chemical composition and the nest it makes could be described as a composite material.TecEco cements are benign binders that can incorporate all sort of wastes without reaction problems. We can do the same as the Jackdaw
28Utilizing Carbon and Wastes John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarUtilizing Carbon and WastesDuring earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals.Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals.CO2CWasteWe all use carbon and wastes to make our homes!In eco-cement blocks and mortars the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably wastes “Biomimicry - Geomimicry”BIOMIMICRYThe philosophy and chemistry of TecEco technology is backed by the greatest and longest experiment of all time – that of life on this planet.Little is wasted in nature, the waste from one living thing being the home or food for another.We must, like nature, devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes.
29John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar GeomimicryThere are grams of magnesium and about .4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater.There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration.To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicryCarbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% of the crust.
30Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarGeomimicry for Planetary Engineers?Large tonnages of carbon were put away during earth’s geological history as limestone, dolomite, magnesite, coal and oil by the activity of plants and animals.Shellfish built shells from it andTrees turned it into wood.These same plants and animals wasted nothingThe waste from one was the food or home for another.Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials.Materials are very important
31Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarGeomimicry for Planetary Engineers?The answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials.Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do.It can only happen economically.We must put an economic value on carbon to solve global warming byinventing new technical paradigms such as offered by the Global Sustainability Alliance in Gaia Engineering.Evolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigmsBy using carbon dioxide and other wastes as a building materials we could economically reduce their concentration in the global commons.Materials are very important
32John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming ProblemHow much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming?12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= billion tonnes magnesiteThe density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3Thus 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite are required to be deposited each year.Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable.If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved!We must build with carbonate and waste
33The Gaia Engineering Process John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarThe Gaia Engineering ProcessGaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable techno-processes outside the tececology.Inputs:Atmospheric or smokestack CO2, brines, waste acid, other wastesOutputs:Potable water, gypsum, sodium bicarbonate, salts, building materials, bottled concentrated CO2 (for algal fuel production and other uses).Carbonate building componentsCO2CO2Solar or solar derived energyCO2TecEco KilnTecEco MgCO2 CycleCO2Eco-CementMgOMgCO3Greensols Process1.29 gm/l MgCoalCarbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compoundsFossil fuelsOil
34Gaia Engineering Introduction Gaia Engineering is a combination of new technologies includingA seawater separation technology from Greensols Pty. Ltd.TecEco’s Tec-Kiln technology and cementsCarbon dioxide scrubbing technologiesTecEco' Eco-Cements
35Gaia Engineering Introduction (2) Gaia engineering profitably geomimics past planetary geological processes and adopted on a large scale will:Sequester significant amounts of atmospheric CO2Add value to the salts recoverable from sea waterConvert large volumes of waste to valuable resourceProduce fresh water.
36Gaia Engineering Introduction (3) Gaia Engineering works like a giant ecological pump.Inputs includeSeawater or suitable brineCO2Waste acidOther wastes of all kindsA small amount of energyOutputs includeGypsum, sodium bicarbonate and various other valuable salts.Magnesium carbonate building components.TecEco Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements.Waste utlisation.Fresh water.
37Gaia EngineeringThe Gaia Engineering tececology could be thought of as an open technical ecology designed to reverse major damaging moleconomic and other system flows outside the tececologyIndustrial Ecologies are generally thought of as closed loop systems with minimal or low impacts outside the ecologyThe Gaia Engineering tececology is not closed and is designed to reverse damaging moleconomic flows outside the ecology - LIKE A GIANT ECOLOGICAL PUMP
38John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Gaia EngineeringGreensols Seawater Carbonation Process.1.354 x 109 km3 Seawater containing tonne Mg or suitable brines from other sourcesWaste AcidGypsum + carbon waste (e.g. sewerage) = fertilizersBicarbonate of Soda (NaHCO3)CO2 from power generation or industryOther salts Na+,K+, Ca2+,Cl-Gypsum (CaSO4)Sewerage compostSimplified TecEco Reactions Tec-Kiln MgCO3 → MgO + CO kJ/mole Reactor Process MgO + CO2 → MgCO kJ/mole (usually more complex hydrates)MgO Production using solar energyCO2 + H2O => Energy rich biomass using blue green algae(MgCO2) CycleCO2 from power generation, industry or out of the airMagnesite (MgCO3)Tec-Reactor Hydroxide / Carbonate slurry processMagnesia (MgO)Solar Process to Produce Magnesium MetalSequestration Table – Mg from SeawaterCO2Tonnes CO2 sequestered per tonne magnesium with various cycles through the TecEco Tec-Kiln process. Assuming no leakage MgO to built environment (i.e. complete cycles).Billion TonnesTonnes CO2 sequestered by 1 billion tonnes of Mg in seawaterTonnes CO2 captured during calcining (same as above)Tonnes CO2 captured by eco-cementTotal tonnes CO2 sequestered or abated per tonne Mg in seawater (Single calcination cycle).Total tonnes CO2 sequestered or abated (Five calcination cycles.)Total tonnes CO2 sequestered or abated (Ten calcination cycles).36.20Eco-Cement Tec-CementOther Wastes
39John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Gaia EngineeringInputs Brines Waste Acid Wastes CO2Gaia Engineering VECTORSThe Gaia Engineering process starts with either magnesium silicates or the Greensols process. In the case of silicates, magnesium carbonates are produced using proven mineral sequestration technology and then transferred to the MgCO3 cycle. The Greensols process on the other hand uses carbon dioxide from power stations and waste acid to extract magnesium carbonate and other salts from seawater or suitable brines and produces potable water as a by-product. The MgCO3 from either process is then calcined in the TecEco kiln which removes and captures carbon dioxide, ready for incorporation for example into cellulose or fuel made by genetically engineered blue green algae, and produces magnesium oxide. This magnesium oxide can either be used to make TecEco cements which in the case of eco-cement absorb more atmospheric CO2 as they harden or alternatively be used to sequester more CO2 in a hydroxide/carbonate slurry capture process.The MgCO3 produced by the hydroxide slurry process can be decarbonated and cycle around that process indefinitely as in this slide.Outputs Gypsum, Sodium bicarbonate, Salts, Building materials, Potable water
40Greensols – Making Carbonate Building Components John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarGreensols – Making Carbonate Building ComponentsGreensols Pty. Ltd is an Australian company with an economic technology to precipitate out carbonates and other valuable compounds from sea water and brines and in the process sequester significant amounts of carbon dioxide and produce valuable by products including fresh water.
41Greensols Carbon Capture Strongly charged ions such as calcium, magnesium and carbonate attract hydration shells of water around them. Magnesium and calcium ions polar bond to oxygen and the negative carbonate ion to hydrogen. These bonds can propagate through several layers of water and are strong enough to prevent the formation of calcium and magnesium carbonates even from supersaturated solutions.
42John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar The Greensols ProcessThe Greensols process uses waste acid to de-polarise a statistical proportion of water molecules by attaching a proton whereby positively charged sodium, calcium or magnesium ions as well as negatively charged ions including carbonate ions are released, can combine and then precipitate.
43Greensols Carbon Capture John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarGreensols Carbon CaptureHydration shelling of water around calcium or magnesium Ions because of the strong charge of especially magnesium to the oxygen end of waterSimilar hydration shelling occurs around the negative carbonate ion through polar bonding to the hydrogen ends of water
44Greensols Carbon Capture John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarGreensols Carbon CaptureThe addition of a proton to water using strong waste acid results in its depolarisation whereby it no longer electronically holds as many ions (sodium, calcium, magnesium or carbonate etc.) statistically releasing them and allowing them to combine and precipitate as carbonates and other more valuable salts leaving behind essentially fresh water
45Greensols Carbon Capture John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarGreensols Carbon Capture+=Mg CO3_ _ => MgCO3The statistical release of both cations and anions results in precipitation of for example magnesium carbonate as shown above.
46Advantages of Greensols John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarAdvantages of GreensolsGREENSOLSREVERSE OSMOSISLow energy costs - Does not work against the electronic forces in water.Relatively high energy costs- Works against the hydrogen bonding of water to separate it from its ionsLow maintenance- The plant consists of low cost replaceable pumpsHigh Maintenance- The membranes need cleaning and changing at regular intervals.No damaging or dangerous outputsHighly saline water is potentially damagingValue adds include fresh water, sequestration, valuable salts and building productsThe only value add is fresh water
47The Tec-Reactor Hydroxide Carbonate Slurry Process John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarThe Tec-Reactor Hydroxide Carbonate Slurry ProcessThe solubility of carbon dioxide gas in seawaterIncreases as the temperature approached zero andIs at a maxima around 4oCThis phenomenon is related to the chemical nature of CO2 and water andCan be utilised in a carbonate – hydroxide slurry process to capture CO2 out of the air and release it to storage or use in a controlled manner
48The MgCO2 Process (Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle) John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarThe MgCO2 Process (Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle)The MgCO2 (magnesium thermodynamic cycle) is very important for sequestration and is used for the formation of valuable building productTOTAL CALCINING ENERGY Relative to MgCO3 Theoretical = 1480 kJ.Kg With inefficiencies = 1948 kJ.Kg-1Tec-KilnCO2 + H2O => Hydrocarbons compounds using algaeCO2MagnesiteDehydrationEco-CementsCalcinationRepresentative of other hydrated mineral carbonatesCalcification MgCO3 => MgO + CO2 ΔH = kJ.mol-1 ΔG = kJ.mol-1MagnesiaNesquehoniteCarbonation Mg(OH)2.nH2O +CO2 +2H2O => MgCO3.3H2O ΔH = kJ.mol ΔG = kJ.molCarbonationHydration MgO + H2O => Mg(OH)2.nH2O ΔH = kJ.mol ΔG = kJ.molBruciteTec, Eco and Enviro-Cements
49John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Tec-Kiln TechnologyRuns at low temperatures minimising the development of lattice energy.Can be powered by various non fossil sources of energy such as solar energy or waste heat.CO2 + H2O => Hydrocarbons compounds using algaeMgO Production using solar energyGrinds and calcines at the same time thereby running 25% to 30% more efficiency.Brings mineral sequestration and geological sequestration together.Captures CO2 for bottling and use for fuel manufacture using algae and other life forms o other purposes.The products – CaO and/or MgO can be used to sequester more CO2 and then be re-calcined. This cycle can then be repeated.Suitable for making reactive reactive MgO.Will result in new markets for ultra reactive low lattice energy MgO (e.g. cement, paper and environment industries)CAPTURE OF CO2The capture of CO2 at source during the manufacturing process is easier for the calcination of magnesium carbonates than any other carbonate mainly because the process occurs at relatively low temperatures.TecEco Pty. Ltd. own intellectual property in relation to a new tec-kiln in which grinding and calcining can occur at the same time in the same vessel for higher efficiencies and easy capture of CO2.Provided sufficient uses can be found for pure CO2 produced during manufacture whereby it is also permanently sequestered, a system for sequestration on a massive scale using carbonates as building materials is very promising. Possibilities for alternative permanent disposal are in materials such as plastics or deep underground where CO2 reacts with country rock forming more carbonate.
50Why Magnesium Carbonates for Sequestration? John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarWhy Magnesium Carbonates for Sequestration?Group123456789101112131415161718Period1 H2 He3 Li4 Be5 B6 C7 N8 O9 F10 Ne11 Na12 Mg13 Al14 Si15 P16 S17 Cl18 Ar19 K20 Ca21 Sc22 Ti23 V24 Cr25 Mn26 Fe27 Co28 Ni29 Cu30 Zn31 Ga32 Ge33 As34 Se35 Br36 Kr37 Rb38 Sr39 Y40 Zr41 Nb42 Mo43 Tc44 Ru45 Rh46 Pd47 Ag48 Cd49 In50 Sn51 Sb52 Te53 I54 Xe55 Cs56 Ba*71 Lu72 Hf73 Ta74 W75 Re76 Os77 Ir78 Pt79 Au80 Hg81 Tl82 Pb83 Bi84 Po85 At86 Rn87 Fr88 Ra**103 Lr104 Rf105 Db106 Sg107 Bh108 Hs109 Mt110 Uun111 Uuu112 Uub113 Uut114 Uuq115 Uup116 Uuh117 Uus118 Uuo*Lanthanoids57 La58 Ce59 Pr60 Nd61 Pm62 Sm63 Eu64 Gd65 Tb66 Dy67 Ho68 Er69 Tm70 Yb**Actinoids89 Ac90 Th91 Pa92 U93 Np94 Pu95 Am96 Cm97 Bk98 Cf99 Es100 Fm101 Md102 NoBecause of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment:More CO2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show.At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant elementSea-water contains 1.29 gm/litreMagnesium minerals are potential low cost. New kiln technology from TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate with CO2 capture for other uses. (e.g. algal production of fuel)Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for waste utilisation.WHY MAGNESIUM?There are a number of good reasons to use magnesium as a means of capturing carbon dioxide (as in the chlorophyll molecule).The main ones being the small mass of the atom and the fact that you can make magnesium oxide or remove the CO2 from the carbonate relatively easily.
51Why Materials for the Built Environment? John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarWhy Materials for the Built Environment?The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth.It comprises buildings and infrastructure.Construction materials comprise70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.)40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.)Over 30 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis.Mostly using virgin natural resourcesCombined in such a manner that they cannot easily be separated.Include many toxic elements.THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALSMaterials are our footprint on the planet and of first consideration in our quest to devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes.Building materials comprise:70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.)40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.)Why not use magnesium carbonates components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from TecEco?
52Huge Potential for More Sustainable Construction Materials John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarHuge Potential for More Sustainable Construction MaterialsReducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process by.including carbon in materials they are potentially carbon sinks.including wastes for physical properties as well as chemical composition they become resources.re engineering materials to reduce the lifetime energy of buildingsA durable low pH binder high bonding system is required for effective waste utilisation such as Tec and Eco-Cements developed by TecEcoMany wastes including CO2 can contribute to physical properties reducing lifetime energiesCO2CWasteUTILISING WASTE IN CITIESTecEco advocate the development of materials that include waste based on physical as well as chemical properties and that reduce the lifetime energy of buildings by introducing new properties.
53Earthship BrightonEarthship Brighton, the first building in the world made with Eco-Cement which sets by absorbing CO2 and wastes
54John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar TecEco CementsTec-cements (Low MgO)contain more Portland cement than reactive magnesia. Reactive magnesia hydrates in the same rate order as Portland cement forming Brucite which uses up water reducing the voids:paste ratio, increasing density and possibly raising the short term pH.Reactions with pozzolans are more affective. After all the Portlandite has been consumed Brucite controls the long term pH which is lower and due to it’s low solubility, mobility and reactivity results in greater durability.Other benefits include improvements in density, strength and rheology, reduced permeability and shrinkage and the use of a wider range of aggregates many of which are potentially wastes without reaction problems.
55John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar TecEco CementsEco-cements (High MgO)contain more reactive magnesia than in tec-cements. Brucite in porous materials carbonates forming stronger fibrous mineral carbonates and therefore presenting huge opportunities for waste utilisation and sequestration. The low pH and high hydrogen bonding make Eco-Cements ideal for binding other materials including most wastes.Enviro-cements (High MgO)contain similar ratios of MgO and OPC to eco-cements but in non porous concretes brucite does not carbonate readily.Higher proportions of magnesia are most suited to toxic and hazardous waste immobilisation and when durability is required. Strength is not developed quickly nor to the same extent.
56Cements Net Emissions/Sequestration Compared (Gaia Engineering Assumed)
57A Sustainable Built Environment John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarA Sustainable Built EnvironmentCO2 + H2O => Hydrocarbons compounds using bacteriaCO2OTHERWASTESCO2CO2PERMANENT SEQUESTRATION & WASTE UTILISATION (Man made carbonate rock incorporating wastes as a building material)Pareto’s principle -80% of the build environment in non structural and could be carbonate from Greensols held together by Eco-CementsGREENSOLSMgOECO-CEMENT CONCRETESMAGNESIUM CARBONATETECECO KILNRECYCLED BUILDING MATERIALS“There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest”. Fred Pearce, New Scientist MagazineTECECO’S DREAMOur dream is to create cities that mimic nature in that have a balance of carbon, other wastes and energy.SUSTAINABLE CITIES
58John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Planetary Engineering - Reduction Global CO2 from Gaia Engineering ProcessesGaia Engineering CAN MAKE A REAL CONTRIBUTIONWe are even more excited about Gaia Engineering now we have modelled the possible contribution it could make to reducing CO2 in the air
59Carbonate Sequestration in Built Environment John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) SeminarCarbonate Sequestration in Built Environment