Presentation on theme: "Defined as development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs’ (Brundtland,"— Presentation transcript:
Defined as development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs’ (Brundtland, 1987) If it works, then living standards are improved, whilst at the same time the environment is used, managed, and conserved on a long term basis.
Problems in our World: One fifth of the world’s population lives in poor conditions ‘Global underclass’ – this group is close to famine, disease, hunger and death. Disparities between some MEDCs and some LEDCs has increased. Ethic minority groups, women and children are most threatened. In an average year, 14 million children in LEDCs die below the age of 5.
The environmental crisis: 20% of the world’s population live in MEDCs and consume 80% of the world’s resources. Deforestation Atmospheric pollution e.g. Global Warming, Acid rain, Eutrophication and other pollutants (e.g. heavy metals in Rivers etc. Political conflict: Political conflict, wars, refugee numbers etc has increased e.g. renewed conflicts in Ethiopia, Sudan, Rwanda, Sri Lanka etc This makes sustainable development more difficult. However, political change in South Africa has helped reduce population pressure.
Managing the Earth’s resources: Sustainability was first used in Stockholm, 1972 at UN Conference on the Human Environment. Marked the division between developed and developing countries. This was followed by the World Conservation Strategy in 1980-with aims to maintain essential ecological processes, preserve genetic diversity and ensure sustainable use of species and ecosystems.
Global proposals-The World Commission on Environment and Development (1986) raised the profile of sustainable development (Also known as Brundtland report) and stated that it has two key aspects: Achieve basic needs for all people The limits to development are technical, cultural and social Previously a Limits to growth idea had stated that limits were due to environmental concerns and resource availability. This shifted away from the environment and focussed on a more economic and political context, but argued that environmental degradation was often the cause of poverty. WHY? Explain this viewpoint?
Viewpoint noted that poverty drives people to overgraize, cut down forests, overcultivate etc and that the way forward was for more co-operation between rich and poor countries. The Commission suggested 7 major proposals for a strategy for sustainable development. Increase economic growth Concentrate on the quality of growth Meet basic needs of food, water employment, energy and sanitation Stabilise population growth Conserve and enhance resources Use technology to manage risks Place environment into economics
5 years later, the UN conference on Environment and Development was held (UNCED) at Rio De Janeiro (1992 Rio Earth Summit) Debates focussed on the following: Cliamate change resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect The depleted ozone layer Polluted and overfished seas Desertification The growing shortage of fresh water The loss of biodiversty.
Outcomes: Convention on biodiversity-conserve biodiversity and ecosystems Framework Convention on climatic change-signed by 153 countries, MEDCs agreed to stabilise their emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels Principals of forest management statement A Rio declaration on Environment and Development Agenda 21-detailed document that was divided into 4 main areas: Social and Economic development (international cooperation, poverty, population, health and settlements Resource Management-atmosphere, land resource planning, deforestation, mountains, fragile ecosystems, biodiversity, biotechnology, waste disposal Strengthening the participation of major groups – NGOs, local, national and international governments Means of implementation-Finance, institutions, technology transfer and education.
Role of agenda 21: As a result of this governments are obliged to formulate national plans or strategies for sustainable development-Agenda 21 statements. You need to know a range of case studies at different scales i.e. Global attitude to sustainability, national level and local level. Case studies – Fiji Local South Africa – National In addition to this you need to make notes on case studies of appropriate technology. Use Waugh 547-549 to make notes on two case studies.
Click the following link and answer the tasks: http://www.earthinstitute.columbia.edu/sus_dev/ 1.Summarise the aims of the Bruntland commission. 2.‘Today, over a billion people live on less than a dollar a day and life expectancy in 9 African countries is less than 40 years’, is an economic and social problem affecting less developed parts of the world. List some environmental and other social and economic problems which are facing our world. Use the links to list some of the examples of these problems. 3. View the link on how much aid the US, gives sub-saharan Africa and work out this % in relation to its spending on defence. 4. Click this link http://www.earth.columbia.edu/mvp and outline what the concept is behind the millennium villages.http://www.earth.columbia.edu/mvp
5. Click on the natural disasters link, listen to the narration and view the images and summarise the main points concerning natural disasters and poverty. 6. Visit this site: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/review.htm - Click on these links and summarise the points Agriculture, Rural development, Land, Drought, Desertification, and Africa.http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/review.htmAgricultureRural developmentLandDrought DesertificationAfrica 7. Read the millenium development goals in your booklet. Be aware of the targets and the process being made. You can also visit this link http://devdata.worldbank.org/atlas-mdg/ to view the interactive Atlas of the Goals and Achievements and the site http://ddp- ext.worldbank.org/ext/GMIS/home.do?siteId=2http://devdata.worldbank.org/atlas-mdg/http://ddp- ext.worldbank.org/ext/GMIS/home.do?siteId=2