3 Combined ElementsThe statue of liberty is green but it is made of copper.Because the surface copper has combined with oxygen and sulfur to become a new element Copper Sulfate
4 CompoundsCompound – a substance formed from two or more elements in which the exact combination and proportion of elements is always the sameH20 – 1 water molecule is a compound that always has 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
5 CompoundsWhen compounds are formed they take on new properties and characteristics different from the elements they were made fromEx. Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas that is poisonous, Sodium is a shiny, soft silvery metal that reacts violently with water. But together these two elements form Sodium Chloride, NaCl (table salt).
6 Chemical FormulaA chemical formula tells what elements a compound contains and the exact number of the atoms of each element in the unit of that compoundSubscript in a chemical formula tells how many atoms of that element are found in that compoundC6H12O6 – has 6 carbons, 12 hydrogens, and 6 OxygensIf no subscript is found after an element symbol then the number of atoms is one (SiO2 – sand)
7 How many atoms of each are found in the following? C12H22O11HClH2SO4N2OCH3COOH
8 How many atoms of each are found in the following? C12H22O11 – Cane Sugar (Sucrose)HCl – Stomach Acid (Hydrochloric Acid)H2SO4 – Battery Acid (Sulfuric Acid)N2O – Laughing Gas (Dinitrogen Oxide)CH3COOH – Vinegar (Acetic Acid)
9 Chemical StabilityAn atom is chemically stable when its outer energy level is complete.Noble gases – outer energy level is full – thus are stableOuter energy levelsThe outer energy levels of hydrogen and helium will be stable with two electrons. The outer energy levels of all the other elements are stable when they contain eight electrons
10 Chemical StabilityWith the exception of Noble Gases most elements are in a state of instability.To obtain stability atoms will lose, gain, or share electrons in its outer energy level.They do this by combining with other atoms that also have partially complete outer energy.Ex. Sodium Chloride
11 Electron Dot DiagramsShow the electrons in the outer energy level of an atomMost atoms need eight electrons to complete their outer energy level.
12 Chemical BondWhen atoms gain, lose, or share electrons, an attraction forms between the atoms, pulling them together to form a compound.A chemical bond is the force that holds atoms together in a compound.
14 Gain or loss of electrons When an atom gains or loses an electron it forms an ion.Ion – is a charged particle because it now has either more or few electrons than protons
15 Ionic BondIf an atom loses an electron it becomes a positive ion (cation) because it now has more protons than electronsIf an atom gains an electron it becomes a negative ion (anion) because it now has more electrons than protons
16 Ionic BondWhen these atoms become charged they now have attractive forces and will form an ionic bond.This will maintain that the compound that has now been formed will be a neutral compound.Examples: NaCl and MgCl2
17 Ionic BondsUsually formed by bonding between metals and nonmetals.
18 Covalent BondsThe attraction that forms between atoms when they share electrons.Some elements do not want to lose or gain their electrons because they have too many to lose or gain.
19 Covalent BondsA Molecule is a neutral particle formed as a result of electrons being shared.Single covalent bond – made up of two shared electrons – one from two different atomsMultiple bonds – more than one electron are shared between two atoms
20 Electron Dot DiagramsHow to write electron dot diagrams for ionic and covalent bonds