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Events of the French Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "Events of the French Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Events of the French Revolution

2 Quick Review of the Declaration of the Rights of Man
Intro: Explains purpose of the National Assembly and why the document is important Main idea of document: Men are entitled to certain rights in society, society should be governed by law

3 Articles 1 & 2 Idea of Locke (natural rights)
Social distinctions based on general good Reaction to the inequalities under 3 estates Government protect rights (liberty, property, security) Locke & Rousseau

4 Article 6 Law is the expression of the general will
Power belongs with the people- laws should represent what they want Rousseau Every citizen has a right to participate Response to life under Estates General where the 3rd estate did not have much say

5 Articles 7-9 Express the rights of accused people Ideas of Beccaria
Reaction to the torture used under Louis XVI and other absolute monarchs in France Bastille- den of torture

6 Articles 10 & 11 Freedom of Religion Freedom of Speech Voltaire

7 Articles 13 & 14 These deal with taxes
Should be distributed evenly among all citizens People have a right to vote on taxes and know what their taxes are used for

8 Article 16 Separation of powers is important! Montesquieu

9 Comparison Similarities Differences Power comes from the people
Lays out specific rights for people Speech, religion, for those accused of crimes Dec. has 17 articles listed, Bill of Rights has 10 amendments Dec. more generalizations, Bill of Rights more specific Each based on problems their country faced Dec.- taxes, social inequalities Bill- quartering troops, bear arms

10 Where We Left Off… Spontaneous protest by the French people
Destroy this symbol of horror Tore it down brick by brick Storming of the Bastille Now a national holiday (July 14)

11 Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
“Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite”

12 Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
What about us women?! Writes the Declaration of the Rights of Women Olympe de Gouges

13 Women’s Bread Riots Almost killed the queen
Force the royal family to move to Paris` Spontaneous act by over 6,000 women Marched on the Palace of Versailles to protest the price of bread

14 Jacobins = Radicals Important People Jean Paul Marat
Maximilien Robespierre Ran newspaper: "L'ami du peuple" ("Friend of the people") Attacked enemies of the Revolution Member of the 3rd estate in the Estates General Helped write Dec. of Man Took control of the Revolution Jacobins = Radicals

15 Constitution of 1791 Democratic features Undemocratic features
France became a limited monarchy King became merely the head of state All laws were created by the Legislative Assembly Feudalism was abolished Ended all privileges for estates Abolished slavery Undemocratic features Voting was limited to taxpayers (men 25+) Offices were reserved for property owners This new government became known as the Legislative Assembly

16 The Guillotine Created based on Enlightenment principles
Everyone dies the same More humane Quick & painless

17 War with Europe Monarchs and nobles in other European countries became worried Revolutionaries were afraid they would help Louis XVI regain power So they declared war on Austria… then Prussia & Britain joined in

18 Sans Culottes “those without knee breeches”
Represented the “average man” Stormed the palace and took royal family prisoner Led the September Massacres Killed over 1,000 prisoners

19 Legislative Assembly Becomes National Convention
Unable to control the mobs in the streets, the Legislative Assembly sets aside the Constitution Creates a new governing body called the National Convention Abolishes the monarchy and declares France a Republic government in which the people elect representatives who will create laws and rule on their behalf

20 Death of King and Queen Radicals believe as long as the king lived there was a chance he would return to power To save the revolution, the king must be executed Louis XVI put on trial and then killed Marie Antoinette killed 9 months later

21 Death of Marat

22 The Reign of Terror Robespierre seeks to create a “republic of virtue”
Establishes the Committee of Public Safety to protect the revolution from its enemies “virtue without terror is murderous, terror without which virtue is powerless”

23 Video Suspend Dec. of the Rights of Man, police spies created, quick trials followed by executions 12 person committee who ruled France as a dictatorship (Robespierre in charge) Originally strong opponent of death penalty, then oversees this time of great bloodshed Renamed streets, destroyed icons, stripped churches of wealth, redid the calendar

24 Downfall of Robespierre
Former radicals start speaking about the need to end the Terror- say it accomplished it’s goals Robespierre sentences them to death In July 1794, about a year after the Reign of Terror began, Robespierre tells the National Convention he has a list of new traitors for the guillotine. The next day, they turn on him and demand his arrest and execution.

25 A Third Government The radical phase of the revolution ends
The National Convention drafts a new plan of government- the third one since the revolution began in 1789. It becomes known as the Directory.

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