4 Toulmin Model Introduction (Claim) Body Paragraphs Conclusion Background InformationThesis StatementBody ParagraphsTopic Sentence (Claim)Support/ Evidence (Data) ( Shoot for 3 per Point)Commentary or Analysis (Warrant and Backing)A warrant is the assurance that the evidence brought in to support the claim is completely reliable and that it rests on sound principles or values.Backing is the assurance that the warrant is sound.Conclusion
9 AP English Language and Composition: Multiple-Choice Section In the multiple-choice section of the AP English and Composition exam, you'll firstread a passage, followed by the questions to answer. Many who take the AP examdon't achieve their best scores because they spend too much time dwelling on hardquestions, leaving insufficient time to answer the easy questions they can get right.Don't let this happen to you.Use the following system to mark your answer sheet.For each passage and its set of questions:Answer easy questions immediately.On more difficult questions, take advantage of being able to mark in your test booklet. As you eliminate an incorrect answer choice from consideration, mark it out in your question booklet.You could even mark some choices with question marks, signifying that they may be possible answers. This technique will help you avoid reconsidering those choices you've already eliminated and will help you narrow the possible answers. If you've managed to eliminate two or more answers from consideration but still are not sure of the answer, mark a guess answer at this point. If you wish to reconsider these guess answers before you go on to the next set, you'll be able to identify them from the marks you've made eliminating wrong answers.
10 AP English Language and Composition: Multiple-Choice Section (continued) On questions you find very difficult — those on which you cannot eliminate wrong answers, leave the answer blank (but be careful to mark your next answer in the right place on the answer sheet), put a checkmark in the margin next to the question, and go on. Sometimes, consideration of other questions in the set suddenly sheds light on the questions you left blank, and you can then quickly return to it and choose an answer.Note: You don't have to erase the marks you make in your test booklet. However, don't make extraneous marks on your answer sheet because in machine scoring, such marks can be counted as wrong answers.Here are some more suggestions for forming a plan of attack on each passage and set of questions:
11 AP English Language and Composition: Multiple-Choice Section (continued) First, skim the questions which follow the passage (do not read the choices at this time).Begin reading the passage as quickly as possible without losing comprehension. Read quickly but actively, marking the few important key points in each paragraph (don't over mark).Answer the questions which follow the passage without spending too much time on any difficult questions. Take guesses when you can eliminate two or more wrong answers.Mark extremely difficult, "no-guess" questions with a check so that you can quickly return to them.Repeat this process with each passage.
12 Study Skills: WritingWriting is central to the AP English course and exam.Key guidelines to remember in writing a critical analysis essay:Take time to organize your ideas.Make pertinent use of the text given to you to analyze.Quote judiciously from the text to support your observations.Be logical in your exposition of ideas.
13 AP English: Pacing Your Exam Essays The free-response section of the AP English Language and Composition exam requires you to write three essays :A synthesis essay that requires reading several passages,An argument essay that presents a single passageA rhetorical purpose analysis that calls for exploring an author's ideas in greater depth.Students are given 2 hours and 15 minutes to complete the essays. (This includes an extra 15 minutes exclusively for reading the passages for the synthesis essay.)The suggested time for writing each essay is 40 minutes. You must complete all three essays within the 2-hour writing time limit.You must write an essay on each of the three essay topics; you will have no alternative choices.
14 continued…Each of the three essays is equally weighted at one-third of the total essay score, and the total for the essay portion equals 55% of the entire AP test score.You will be given an essay-writing booklet in which to write your essays; the actual test booklet includes some blank space to plan your essays.
15 Divide your time as follows: Spend about 10 minutes reading the topic and the passage carefully and planning your essay.This organizational time is crucial to producing a high-scoring essay. In the first 10 minutes, you need to follow these steps. Do it efficiently, and you'll know what you want to write and the order in which you'll present your ideas.Read the topic's question carefully so that you know exactly what you're being asked to do.Read the passage carefully, noting what ideas, evidence, and rhetorical devices are relevant to the specific essay prompt.Conceive your thesis statement, which will go in your introductory paragraph.
16 Divide your time as follows: (continued) Organize your body paragraphs, deciding what evidence from the passage you'll include (using multiple passages in the synthesis essay) or what appropriate examples you'll use from your knowledge of the world. Know what relevant remarks you'll make about the evidence.Understand your body paragraph divisions — when you'll begin a new paragraph and what idea unifies each paragraph.The importance of this planning phase cannot be overemphasized. When your essay has been planned well, your writing flows faster, your essay stays on topic and is well organized, and the paragraphs are well developed.
17 Divide your time as follows: (continued) Take about 25 minutes to write the essay.If you've planned well, your writing should be fluent and continuous; avoid stopping to reread what you've written. Twenty-five minutes is sufficient time to produce all of the writing needed for a good score. In general, most high-scoring essays are at least two full pages of writing.
18 Divide your time as follows: (continued) Save about 5 minutes to proofread your essay.Reserving a few minutes to proofread allows you time to catch the "honest mistakes" that can be corrected easily, such as a misspelled word or punctuation error. In addition, this time lets you set the essay to rest, knowing what you've written, so that you can go on to the next topic and give it your full attention.