Presentation on theme: "Gene Technology. I. Genetic Engineering A.Basic Steps of Genetic Engineering Manipulation 1. Genetic Engineering – Manipulation of DNA for practical purposes."— Presentation transcript:
I. Genetic Engineering A.Basic Steps of Genetic Engineering Manipulation 1. Genetic Engineering – Manipulation of DNA for practical purposes Restrictioncut sticky 2. Restriction enzymes – enzymes that cut DNA into fragments that have short sticky ends. 3. Steps in a Genetic Engineering Experiment Cut a. Cut DNA (using restriction enzymes) Recombinant b. Recombinant DNA is produced copied c. The gene is copied screened d. Cells are selected and screened for gene of interest
4. Cutting DNA and Making Recombinant DNA a. Restriction enzymes are used to generate sticky “sticky”ends. b. Sticky ends allow DNA fragments from different join organisms to join together to form recombinant DNA. 5. Cloning, Selecting and Screening Cells inserted a. Recombinant DNA is inserted into host cells. b. Each time the cells reproduce, the gene of copied interest is copied. screened c. The cells are then screened to indentify cells that have the recombinant DNA.
B. Confirmation of a Cloned Gene Electrophoresiselectric 1. Gel Electrophoresis – uses an electric field within a gel to separate DNA fragments by their size. Southern Blot 2. Specific genes can be indentified with DNA or RNA probes using the Southern Blot technique
C. DNA fingerprinting patternbiological 1. A DNA fingerprint is a restriction fragment electrophoretic pattern made from biological samples. segments separated a. DNA is extracted and cut into segments using restriction enzymes and are separated by electrophoresis. tagged pattern b. The segments are radioactively tagged to produce a visual pattern known as a radiograph or “DNA fingerprint” on X-ray film crimepaternitygenetic 2. DNA fingerprints are used to identify suspects at a crime scene, paternity or genetic disorders. no same 3. It depends on the fact that no two people, except identical twins, have exactly the same DNA sequence.
II. Human Applications of Genetic Engineering A.The Human Genome Project sequence gene 1. An effort to determine the nucleotide sequence and map the contents of every gene on each human chromosome. do not 2. Large amounts of DNA do not encode for proteins 30,00040,000 3. Human cells contain about 30,000 to 40,000 genes B. Genetically Engineered Drugs and Vaccines proteinsdrugs 1. Genetic engineering is used to manufacture human proteins for use as drugs. virus vaccines 2. Genetic engineering is used to manufacture virus components for making safer and more effective vaccines
III. Genetic Engineering in Agriculture A.Improving Crops desirableyields resistance 1. Plants can be genetically engineered to have desirable characteristics; including increased yields and resistance to herbicides and destructive pests nutrition 2. Plants can also be designed to have improved nutrition value; such as rice enriched with iron and vitamin A. B. Risks of Genetically Modified Crops negative allergies 1. There may be unforseen negative effects of using genetically modified crops that are immune to herbicides and there may be a possibility of causing allergies. introduced foreign 2. There may be a possibility of GM genes being introduced into foreign organisms
Genetically modified strawberry A gene was added which causes it to be blue. Pizzamatoes – tomatoes which have been genetically modified to exhibit characteristics of basil, garlic and oregano.
C. Gene Technology in Animal Farming milkweight 1. Genetically engineered growth hormone can increase milk production in dairy cows and weight in cattle and hogs. Transgenicforeign 2. Transgenic animals have foreign DNA introduced to their cells. Human a. Human genes could be introduced into farm animals human which could produce human proteins in their milk spidersgoats b. Genes from spiders have been introduced into goats who produce milk which has spider silk proteins
D. Cloning from Adult Animal cells adult 1997Dolly 1. Cloning of farm animals from adult cells was first accomplished in 1997 when Dolly, a sheep, was born to a surrogate mother. other 2. Various other animals have since been cloned; cats, cattle, dogs, goats, horses, and rhesus monkeys not been imprinting developmental 3. Cloning has not been perfected. There are problems which are due to the fact that genetic imprinting (preparation) occurs in the sperm and egg cells prior to fertilization. Cloned cells do not undergo this process and many cloned animals have developmental problems.
Scotland's Dolly the sheep was the world's first cloned mammal. Left - Cell Donor Middle - Cloned Dog Right - Surrogate Mother Dolly CC Rhesus monkey